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Our primer of English Etymology is meant to serve as 
an introduction to the study of the historical grammar of 
English. However manifold the advantages which the student 
may derive from Professor Skeat's Etymological Dictionary, it 
cannot be denied that it does not commend itself as a 
book for beginners. Though it is a work of deep research, 
brilliant sagacity, and admirable completeness, the linguistic 
laws underlying the various changes of form and meaning 
are not brought out clearly enough to be easily grasped by 
the uninitiated. We therefore propose to furnish the student 
with a small and concise book enabling him to get an insight 
into the main linguistic phenomena. We are greatly indebted 
to Professor Skeat, of whose excellent work we have made 
ample use, drawing from it a great deal of material, which we 
hereby thankfully acknowledge. As our aim has of course not 
been to produce a book in any way comparable to our prede- 
cessor's work in fulness of detail and general completeness, 
we have confined ourselves to merely selecting all words the 
history of which bears on the development of the language at 
large. We have therefore, in the first place, traced back to the 
older periods loanwords of Scandinavian, French and Latin 
origin and such genuine English words as may afford matter 
for linguistic investigation. In this way we hope to have pro- 
vided a basis for every historical grammar of English, e.g. for 
Sweet's History of English Sounds. 

VI Preface. 

If we may be allowed to give a hint as to the use of 
our little book, we should advise the teacher to make it a 
point to always deal with a whole group of words at a time. 
Special interest attaches for instance to words of early Christian 
origin, to the names of festivals and the days of the week; 
besides these the names of the various parts of the house and 
of the materials used in building, the words for cattle and the 
various kinds of meat, for eating and drinking, etc. might be 
made the subject of a suggestive discussion. On treating ety- 
mology in this way, the teacher will have the advantage of 
converting a lesson on the growth of the English language into 
an inquiry into the history of the Anglo-Saxon race, thus lending 
to a naturally dry subject a fresh charm and a deeper meaning. 

In conclusion, our best thanks are due to Professor W. 
Franz of Tubingen University, who has placed many words 
and etymologies at our disposal and assisted us in various 
other ways. 

Freiburg i. B. 



ace. = accusative case 

adj. = adjective 

adv. = adverb 

BRET. = Breton 

CELT. = Celtic 

conj. = conjunction 

CORN. =: Cornish 

cp. =: compare 

Cymr. = Cymric (Welsh) 

Dan. =: Danish 

dat. rr dative case 

der(iv). =: derived, derivative 

dimin. = diminutive 

DU. = Dutch 

E. =: modern English 

f. (fem.) = feminine 

frequent. =: frequentative 

FR. ^= French 

FRIES. =: Friesic 

G. = modern German 

Gael. := Gaelic 

gen. ^ genitive case 

GOTH. = Gothic 

GR. = Greek 

Icel. ■= Icelandic 

inf. = infinitive mood 

infl. r= inflected 

interj. =r interjection 

IR. = Irish 

ITAL. = Italian 

LAT. = Latin 

LG. = Low German 

lit. =: literally 

LITH = Lithuanian 

m. ■=: masculine 

ME. = Middle English 

MHG. ~ Middle High German 

n. (neutr.) = neuter 

nom. =: nominative 

obi. =: oblique case 

ODU. = Old Dutch 

OFR. = Old French 

OHG. = Old High German 

OIR. = Old Irish 

ON. = Old Norse 

ONFR. = Old North French 

orig. =: original, originally 

OSAX. = Old Saxon 

OSLOV. = Old Slovenian 

pi. = plural 

p. p. = past participle 

prob. = probably 

pron. = pronoun 

prop. — properly 

PROV. = Provencal 

prt. = preterite, past tense 

RUSS. = Russian 

sb. =: substantive 

SKR. = Sanskrit 

SPAN. = Spanish 

superl. = superlative 

SWED. = Swedish 

TEUT. = Teutonic 

vb. = verb 

VIII List of Symbols in Teut. Words. 


i (not umlauted) = European and Aryan e. 

e in OE. ME. long closed e. 

f in OE. ME. long open e. 

e in OHG. MHG. OSAX. closed / (umlauted). 

3 a reduced Aiyan und pre-Teut. vowel. 

g in Oe. Me. long closed o. 

Q in OE. ME. words long open o. 

c in OE. words palatalized k. 

g in ME. words as in NE. age bridge. 

5 in Oe. Me. words a spirantic palatalized g. 

p in Teut. words = E. th. 

d in On. Oe. 0.sax. words — E. th. 

hr in Goth, is ^ -j- w. 

-y^ = root. 

* before a word not inferred. 

a', an indef. article me. a an, 
OE. an: ident. with one. 

a- ME. a', ident. with on (cp. 
back, abroaif): 

abase; cp. base. 

abash short for me. abaisshe 
abaischc (abaisse): borrowed from 
OFR. csba/iiss- stem of ofr. csbahir 
(fr. cbahh-) 'astonish'. 

abate me. abate: adapt, of ofr. 
abatre beat down'. 

abbess, abbey see abbot. 

abbot me. abbot; older by-form 
me. oe. abbod. Source lat. ab- 
batevi (abbas), whence it. abbdte, 
FR. abbi, OHG. abbat g.du. abt. — 
Hence abbess me. abbcsse from 
FR. abbesse (but OE. abbiidisse = 
EAT. abbat/'ssa) 'abbess' and abbey 
ME. abbcic from FR. abbaye (ofr. 

abide cp. bide and abode. 

able ME. able', adapt, of ofr. 
'h)ablc = SPAN, /lah'/, it. abi/e; 
source lat. habilis. 

abode me. abgd prop, 'delay, 
abiding'; cp. bide. 

abound me. abounde: adapt, 
of FR. abonder = lat. abundare 

English Etymology. 

about ME. aboute oe. dbutan 
onbtitati', cp. but for oe. butan. 
above me. above earlier abufen 
OE. dbufan', akin to G. oben ohg. 
obana 'from above'; cp. over. 
I abridge me. abrigge abregge: 
adapt, of OFR. abrigier abregier 
(source lat. ar^^r^ewr^ 'shorten'). 
abroad me. a bro'd prop, broad- 
ly, widely'; cp. broad. 
abuse cp. use. 

accord vb. me. acorde late oe. 
(c. I i/\6)dcordian'. borrowed from 
I OFR. acorder fr. accorder (cp. 
\ IT. ac cor dare). 

accuse me. accuse from fr. ac 
cuscr (lat. accusare). 

accrue {ciccreiv) vb. from fr. 

accrue sb. 'growth, increase' (orig. 

part, of fr. accroitre: lat. ad-\- 

cretuni); cp. increase. 

: ace ME. as ace', loanword from 

j FR. as (= SPAN, as, G. ass, DU. 

\aai). Source lat. rt'jr (ace. assevi) 

j 'a unit, pound, foot'. 

ache earlier spelling ake ME. 
I dke; derived from OE. ece me. 
1 eche 'pain' under the influence 
i of the vb. OE. acan ME. ake 'ache, 
^ feel pain'. 




achieve mk. acheve: adapt, of 
FR. achcver 'accomplish'. Akin 
to chief. 

acorn me. acorn oe. cecern] 
ident. with GOTH, ah'an 'crop, 
fruit*, ON. akarn, DU. aker, G. ecker. 
The meaning 'acorn' being a later 
and special one as compared 
with GOlil.akrdn 'fruit', the group 
may be derived from teut. ^^r^:- 
= acre. 

acquaint vb. me. aqueinte a- 
cointe: borrowed fr. ofr. acointer 
'advise' cp. quaint. 

acquire me. aquire aquere : bor- 
rowed from OFR. aquerre (fr. 
acquirir = lat. acquirere). 

acre me. aker oe. ^ecer 'a. field, 
acre' :=: synon. GOTH, akrs, OSAX. 
akkar, ohg. acchar G. acker, DU. 
akker, on. akr : a common Teut. 
and Aryan word : teut. *akra-z, 
pre-TEUT. agro-s = skr. ajra-s, 
GR. dypog, LAT. ager (stem agro-) 
'acre' : Aryan y^ ag in lat. ago, 
GR. ayw, SKR. aj, on. aka. The 
orig. meaning of acre (indo- 
TEUT. agro-s) was 'place where the 
cattle are driven'; cp. G. trift 
from treihen. 

adage from fr. adage = lat. 
adagiiwi proverb'. 

add ME. adde from lat. addere 

adder me. adder older nadder 
oe. iick{d)dre = osAX. nadra, DU. 
adder, ohg. ndt(a)ra mhg. «<?/^;- G. 
natter (otter), icel. nadra f. — - «<7^;' 
m., GOTH, nadrs: cogn. with ir. «tz- 
thair, w. luidr. For the loss of 
initial « cp. anger and apron. 

adjourn vb. me. ajurnc ajorne: 
adapted from VK.aJourner (deri\-. 
of fr. Jour -- journic 'day'). 

ado ME. ado prop, at do: prop, 
infinit. 'to do' with at, orig. in 
Northern English. 

advance vb. for :me. avaunce : 
loanword from fr. avanccr 'go 
before' (deriv. of fr. avant = 
ITAL. avante, lat. ab -f ante). 

advice sb. for me. avis: adopt, 
of FR. avis (= IT. azt'iso, lat. ad- 
visuni). — The vb. advise me. 
avise is fr. aviser (= it. avvisar, 
LAT. *adznsare). 

afford me. aforthc provide' o£. 
le/ordian 'promote': deriv. of 

affray 'frighten' me. afraie: from 
FR. effrayer 'frighten'. — Hence 
the part, afraid 'frightened' me. 

after me. after oe. ceftcr adv. 
prep. = GOTH, aftra 'back, 
again', ohg. osax. aftar 'back', 
DU. achter. 

again me. agein oe. ongeyi 
ongedn; ident. with o.gegen ohg. 
gegin gagan, osAX. geginl, ox. 
gagn. — against me. ageinest 
earlier ageines == oe. tiigeyies. 

age iiE. age: adoption of fr. 
age (ofr. a-age e-age). Source 
a LAT. type *aetaticum (= lai. 
aetas) 'time'. 

aghast part, of me. agaste vb. 
'terrify' OE. gcesian terrify'; akin 
to GOTH, usgaisjan make afraid' 
and peril, to ghost. 



aglet 'spangle, pin* (Shakcsp.) 
tVom FR. aiguillct dimin. of ai- 

uille 'needle'. 

ago ME. ago agon: orig. part, 
'gone by, past' from go. 

agog adapt, of ofr. en gogues 

lusty, lively, in a pleasant humor' 
— FR. gogue 'mirth, glee'. 

agree mk. agrfe: adapt, of fr. 
agricr (= it. aggradare; source 
LAT.^;'^///»/'pIeasing, agreeable') . 

ague ME. agile : source ofr. agu 
'sharp , acute' (= fr. aigii). 
Source lat. acutus. 

aid vb. from fr. aider 'help'. 

ail vb. ME. aile eile oe. e'^lan 
trouble, afflict' = goth. us- 
agljan trouble': deriv. of OE. 
ej^le = GOTH, aglus 'loathsome, 
troublesome'. For \^ ag cp. 

air ' ME. aire older cir : loan- 
word from FR. air (source LAT. 
<7<?r). — air 2 from fr. air 'ex- 
ternal appearance' is considered 
ident. with air^. 

aisel (Shakesp.); cp. eisel. 

ajar me. acher — one her (oe. on 
cerr — on cyrr) 'ajar' cp. char. 

akimbo me. a ketnb&ive — a 
kcnbthi'e (in the phrase />his hand, 
his armes a kembgwe setten«) ; 
for ME. b&iiie cp. bow and elbow. 
Tlie first element represents an 
adapted ox. kengr 'crook the 
shape of a horse-shoe' (cp. on. 
kengboginn 'crooked'). Another 
suggestion proceeds from an oe. 
*cyneboga fc^rmed as oe. cyne- 

alder ^ie. alder oe. dlor = ohg. 
elira irila g. erle, ON. elr elre(r), 
DU. lg. eller (goth. *diliza is 
found in span, alisa , fr. alite 
'wild sorb, wild service-berry). 
Akin to OSLOV. jelicha, lat. alnus 
(for *alsnus) 'alder'. 

ale me. die oe. ealu ealo (infl. 
calod) = OSAX. alo, on. sw. 
DAN. pi; akin to oslov. ol^ 'cider', 
LITH. alus beer'. 

alight 'alight from a horse' cp. 
light vb. 

all{l) — plur. alle oe. al(l) 
eal(l) — plur. ealle = oSAX. OHG. 
DU. i-g. al, G. all, ON. allr, goth. 
alls. A primary form ala- is found 
in compounds and derivatives; 
cp. OSAX. ohg. alung mhg. alene 
'entire, complete', goth. alamans 
'all men', ohg. ala-wdri 'all true , 
ala-niuwi 'all new'. Cogn. w. oiR. 
uile (base olio-). 

allay me. alaie aleie alegge "lay 
aside, give up'; from lay '. Perh. 
mixed with ofr. aleyer (fr. 
aloyer) ? 

allege me. alegge 'give testi- 
mony' : adapted from ofr. alegier 
alegger ? 

alley me. aley. loanword from 
FR. allie 'a going, passage'. 

allow vb. me. alone: adapt, of 
FR. allouer 'grant' (lat. type ad- 

allure me. aliire: from ofr. 
aliirer, deriv. of lure 'bait'. 

almond me. almaunde: from 

OFR. almande {= fr. amandc, 

whence DU. amandel). Source 

lat. amygdala (gr. duvyduXr^ 'an 


alms — angel 

almond*, whence a vulgar lat. 
amendla (it. mandola r= ohg. 
mandala G. tnandef). 

alms ME. almes oe. celmesse 
(infl. almessati) : borrowed from 
oiR. almsan. Akin to the synon. 
OSAX. alamosna, ODU. aeltnoese ael- 
moesene DU. aalmoes, ohg. alamuo- 
san alamo san G. alniosen. Source 
LAT.-GR. eleejuosyna (cp. it. //W6'- 
5/V««) with a vulgar pronunciation 
a Into sua =■ provenz. ahnosna, ofr. 
almosne fr. aumone. 

alone aie. ^?/r/«^ late oe. eall- 
dna prop, 'all singly' = synon. 
G. allcin, DU. alleen. Cp. (?«^. 

along me. along oe. ondlong 
andlong; cp. long. The prefix 
E. (^? for oe. rt;«^ is = to g. ent- 
in entlang 'along' (ofris. ond- 

aloof adapt, of du. te loef 'to 
the windward'; ident. with luff. 

already orig. 'quite ready'; cp. 
ready. — also prop, 'quite so' 
ME. also OE. ealswd 'quite so' = 
G. also. Ident. with a s. — al- 
though :me. although altheigh; 
in OE. we find theah -\- eal (e. g. 
>>{3eah ic eal m3ege« 'although 
I may); cp. though. 

alum ME. alum from ofr. alum 
= FR. alun; source lat. aliimen, 
whence G. alaun, du. aluin. 

alway :me. alway ahvey oe. eal- 
new'ey. orig. ace. sing, (some- 
times contr. to ealnei) prop, 'all 
the way, all the time' ; the com- 
moner form is always me. al- 
waies, being an adv. gen. sing, 
'all the time, alwavs'. 

amaze vb. me. a?ndse oe. d-md- 

amid, amidst; cp. middle. — 
amiss me. on misse; cp. miss. 

among me. among; prop, on- 
mang — on lemang 'in the crowd'; 
OE. lemang 'crowd' see under 
mingle. Ident. with lg. mang 

amount me. amounte: adapt, 
of FR. amonter 'amount to' (fr. 
amont 'uphill' = lat. ad monfcm^ ; 
cp. mount. 

ancestor me. auncestre: loan- 
word from ^^.ancetre older ancestre 
(me. auncessour from ofr. ances- 
sour) ; source lat. antecessor{cm) 

anchor me. anker oe.. ancor gn- 
cor\ cp. ON. akkeri, du. g. atiker 
late OHG. anchar: a loanword 
from LAT. ancora (it. ancora, FR. 

ancient me. anncient older 
auncicn (for the secondary / cp. 
pageant, parchment): adapt, 
of YK.ancien {= it. anziano; lat. 
type antednus). 

and me. oe. and^= osax. endi, 
DU. en, OHG. anti enti inti unti 
MHG. unde G. und. The cogn. 
SKR. dtha 'also, further , and' 
points to XKYK^dnthd 'and, also', 

andiron me. aundlrc : loanword 
from OFR. andier (fr. landier~) 
'fire-dog'. Source unknown, perh. 
fr. a lat. type amitdrius (lat. 
ames^l Cp. med.-lat. andcna 

angel me. aungel: borrowed 
from OFR. angcle (fr. ange^. The 
FR. word supplanted the orig. 

anger — ape 

OE.'SiE. eftge/^= G.DV. enge/ ohg. | anon 'immediately' me. arifffi 
OSAX. eng/7, GOTH, aggilus : early ' earlier atidn OE. on dn 'in one' 
church-loanwords from lax. an- j (moment) ; cp. one. 
gelus = OR. ixyyiXoi angel. another; see other. 

anger ME. (7«^^r 'affliction, sore, ans'wer sb. me. answare oe. 
trouble': Scand. loanword irom a ndswarii; corresp. to the synon. 
ON. atigr V^ief, sorrow' (dan. , osAX. ant-swor , ofris. ondser, 
d;«^^r 'penitence*, sw. anger 're- \ O'^. andsvar? — Thereto the 
gret'); akin to^^r 'bodily deriv. vb. answer me. answerc 
or mental torture'. OY.. andswarian. Source tViexEUT. 

angle' me. angel oe. angol\\/^swar ^= swear; hence anszt'er 
gngul = synon. ohg. angul G. ; was orig. a solemn charge made 
angel, on. pngull. Akin to LAT. { to rebut a charge'; and- means 
uncus 'a hook', gr. oyy.oq a hook', 'against'. 

ayy.ioT()ov 'fish-hook", skr. aiikd ant me, am(e)te oe. (smete 'em- 
'hook', oiR. ^<r^^/ 'hook'. :met': teut. base dmaitjon; cp. 

angle 2 (comer) me. angle from i qhg. ameiyi mhg. ameiie g. ameise, 
FR. angle = lat. angulus 'corner'. \ ^du. emte eempte. Perh. akin to 

anguish me anguisse: from ofr. j g. e„isig^ qhg. m/;-/ cmizzi "in- 
angnisse YK.attgoisse. Source lat. I dustrious'. See ejnmet. 
..//^//.//^'straitness, poverty, per- ^ ^^^^^ ^VE. auntelere: loanword 
^^ ■''^ ^ ' from OFR. antoillier {andoillier = 

ankle me. ankel orig. ankle OE. 
ancleo7C' 'ankle' = DU. anklaauw, 
ohg. anchldo, on. j?^^/*^ (p^op. 
*ankuld2i'?); akin to DU. ^«^^/, 
ohg. anchal {nchil G. ^«^f/ 'ankle'. 
Source and formation of the 
group are doubtful; perh. akin 
to SKR. anguli august ha 'thumb, 
toe', avest. angusta 'toe'? 

announce me. anounce : adapt, 
of FR. annoncer (= lat. annun- 
tiari) ; cp. pr onounce. 

annoy me. anoye anuy{e) 'weari- 
ness': from OFR. enoi anui fr. 

FR. andouiller)', lat. type an- 
tocularis 'tine of a stag's horn 
in front of the eyes'. 

anvil short for me. anroelt an- 
felt OE. anfilt = ohg. ana/alz, 
DU. aanbeeld ODU. anbelt: teut. 
base anafalti- and ana-baltt-\ cp. 
the synon. ohg. ana-boi, cogn. 
w. beat. 

any me. any (Jny pny) oe. 
cemi = OSAX. ^nig enag , du. 
eenig, ohg. einag g. einig 'only, 
sole' : deriv. of teut. aina ^=^ 

ennui (source lat. in odio 'in e. otie 


anoint me. anointe: adapt, of 
OFR. enoint 'anointed' part, of 
enoindre 'anoint' ; c^. ointynent. 

ape ME. dpe oe. apa = DU. 
aap, ON. api, ohg. affo mhg. g. 
affe: a common teut. word, 
whence ORUSS. si.o\. opica, OBO- 

appal (I) — arm' 

HEM. opice 'ape' are borrowed. 
Source of teut. apan- unknown. 

appal(l) vb. ME. appalle : adapt- 
ed from OFR. apallir 'grow pale', 
akin to pale. 

apparel me. aparaile appareile: 
adapted from ofr. aparatller apa- 
reiller 'dress' = fr. appareiller 
(it. apparrechiare). 

appeal me. a{p)p(le'. adapt, from 
FR. appeler (=rLAT. iT.appellare). 

appear vb. me. a(p)pere: adapt, 
from OFR. aperer aparir apareir 
aparoir (= IT. apparire; source 
LAT. apparere). 

appease vb. me. apese earlier 
apaise: loanword from fr. apaiser 
'pacify'; akin to peace. 

apple ME. appel oe. appel = 
L)U. LG. appel, MHG. G. apfel OHG. 
apful: WESTTEUT. base applu-, 
allied to ir. uball, lith. obulas, 
OSLOV. abluko 'apple', russ. ja- 

apply vb. :me. aplie: adapted 
from ofr. aplier (fr. appUquer, it. 
applkare, lat. applicare 'apply'); 
cp. ply vb. 

apprentice me. aprentice apren- 
tis : loanword fr. ofr. aprentis and 
aprentif yvi. app re nti (sour c& lat. 
apprenderc ' 1 e am') . 

approach vb. me. aprgche: 
adapt, from fr. approchcr: lat. 
type adpropiare 'draw near'. 

apricot borrowed from fr. 
abricot; corresp. to DU. abrikoos, 
G. aprikose; akin to span, albari- 
coque, it. albercocco (mod. gr. 
77j)«fxoxx(a) from \.\"i. praecocium 

{tnalum praecoquum}^ lit. 'pre- 

April y[E. dpril{l)e: adapt, ot 
lat. aprilis-^ the earlier me. by- 
form averil points to ofr. avrill. 
Cp. G. nv. April. 

apron orig. napron = me. nd- 
pron ndproun : adapt, of fr. nap- 
peron 'a large cloth', dimin. 
of nappe = lat. tnappa 'table, 
napkin'; cp. napkin. For the 
loss of initial n see adder 
and auger. 

arch me. archive-) oe. arie- 
{ardebiscop): borrowed from fr. 
arch: Cp. the synon. DU. aarts, 
OHG. erzi- G. erz-, goth. ark 
[-aggih(s). Source the lat. = 
Gr. prefix archi- {dg/t-). Perh. 
ofr. arc/i (in archangel) influ- 
enced the E. word. 

archer me. archer: adapt, of 
FR. archer 'bowman' (lat. type 
arcarim, deriv. bf arcus 'bow'). 

are (»we, you, they are«) me. 
are oe. (Northumbr.) aron; plur. 
to the second person sing, art 
me. art OE. eart. An aryan. ar 
'be' is prob. in lith. yra 'is'. 

ark ME. arke oe. earc (infl. 
earce) ^ OHG. arahha archa 'chest' 
MHG. archc 'chest, money-chest' 
G. arche Noah's ark', DU. ark 
'Noah's ark', ON. grk 'chest, co- 
venant, ark, box', goth. arka f. 
'money-box, Noah's ark': a Teut. 
loanword from lat. (also ROM.) 

aim ^ ME. arm oe. carni = 
OSAX. DU. arm, on. ar?nr, goth. 
arms, ohg. ar(a)m G. arm. Akin 

arm* — ass 

to LAT. annus 'the topmost part 
of the upper arm, fore-quarter', 
OSLOV. rame 'shoulder , arm', 
PRUSS. irnio 'arm*, skr. irmd-s 
'fore-quarter, arm', avest. arema 
'arm', armen. armukn 'elbow', 

arm'- 'a weapon' me. armes 
plur. from ofr. armes = I-AT. 
arnia weapons'. 

armor me. armour(e) armilre: 
borrowed from ofr. armure ar- 
»ie-ure (lat. annattirii) 'armor'. 

army me. armie arme\ adop- 
tion of fr. armie (= it. armata; 
base LAT. armare). 

arrange borrowed from fr. 
!rrai!^i'r (deriv. of FR. rang 'rank, 
file' from OHG. hrinc G. ring 'a 
ring or circle of people'; cp. 

arrant ident. with errant. 

arras :me. arras; orig. »cloth 
of Arras« : Arras is the name 
of a town in Artois (France) 
famous for its manufacture. See 
cambric and laivn"^. 

array me. araie : adapt, of ofr. 
arraier areier 'arrange' (= it. 
arredare): of Teut. origin; cp. 
GOTH, garaids under ready. 

arrest ire. a(r)reste: adapt, of 
OFR. arester fr. arreter (= it. 
ar re stare, lat. restare' stay back'). 

arrival me. arivaile prop, 'land- 
ing'; adapt, of OFR. arrivaille 
'landing'. — arrive me. arive 
prop, 'bring to shore, come to 
shore': adapt, of fr. arriver =^ 
IT. arrivare; lat. type adripare 
{ripa 'shore'). 

arrow me. arwe late oe. arwe : 
adapt, of ON. or (plur. prvar). 
The native oe. word was earh 
ident. with on. or (cp. goth. 
arhivazna 'dart' and lat. arcus 

as ME. as(e) a/s(e) also alswp 
oe. ealswd = synon. osax. hg. 
also, DU. als, :mhg. also als dlse. 
The compound means prop, 'en- 
tirely so'; cp. all and so. 

ash^ sb. 'the name of a tree' 
ME. asch OE. a;sc = ohg. asc 
G. esche, DU. esch, on. askr 'ash'. 

ash'- sb. ME. asche oe. cesce (infl. 
ascan axan); mod. E. is com- 
monly used in the plur. ashes 
(jkiE. asches). Cogn. w. on. aska, 
DU. asch, OHG. aska g. asche, goth. 
azgo 'ashes'. 

ask vb. older by-form ax ME. 
aske axe (kent. oxi) oe. dscian 
dcsian : Teut. base aiskojan = 
OSAX. hcon, ohg. eiskon (g. hei- 
schen). Akin to lith. jeskoti, 
OSLOV. iskati, SKR. icch 'seek'. 

aspl *a venomous serpent' from 
LAT. aspis. 

asp2 'a tree' me. aspe oe. cespe 
= synon. on. gsp, ohg. aspa 
mhg. aspe g. espe, du. esp: perh. 
connected with lat. arbor (if 
from "^azhos by rhotacism) 'tree'. 

ass ME. asse OE. assa (infl. sing. 
assan) : loanword from OIR. assan 
'ass'; cp. ON. asne from ofr. asne 
= fr. ane. Source lat. asinus, 
whence also goth. asilus, oe. 
esol, ohg. esil G. esel 'ass', du. ezel 
and further osLOV. ostlil, RUSS. 
oselii 'ass'. 


assail — avenge 

assail vb. me. asaile: adapt, of 
FR. assaillir] see assault. 

assault vb. yiK.a(s)saut: adapt- 
ed from FR. assaui (=IT. assalto, 
MED. LAT. assa/tus). 

assay me. assay assai borrowed 
from OFR. assai assay = fr. essai 
(it. assagio from lat. exagium 

assemble me. a(s)semble a(s)- 
se7nle\ adapt, of fr. assemble?' (it. 
assemblare deriv. of lat. shnul 

assuage :me. asimge a{s)sudge: 
loanword fr. ofr. asoager asuagtr, 
LAT. type ad-suaviare deriv. of 
sumns 'sweet. 

assure vb. :\le. a{s)sure borrowed 
from fr. assurer (=IT. assecurare). 

astonish transformed after vbs. 
in -ish from an earlier astony 
astone me. astonie astune astoune : 
borrowed from ofr. estoner = 
VK. Planner ; i.Ar. type ex+lonare 
'thunder'. But cp. slun. 

at me. ai OE. ^/ = OSAX. af, 
OHG. diy ON. GOTH, all akin w. 
LAT. ad 'to', oir. ad-. 

atone vb. from alone adv. 'at 
one, agreed' = me. al on 'into 
one'; cp. one. 

attach \\).^\.^.attacche (law term) 
'take prisoner, arrest': adapt, of 
fr. attacker (= span, atacar, it. 

attain vb. me. attaine atteine: 
borrowed from fr. atteindre 
(= LAT. attingere touch upon). 

attire vb. me. atire: adapted fr. 
OFR. 'atirer 'adorn'. Source a 
Teut. sb. tir 'ornament, honor' 

= OSAX. OE. tir 'glory, honor 
(g. zierde^. 

attorney me. atourncy older 
aturne atourni 'agent, deputy, 
commissioner'?: adapt, of fr. 
atorni part, of atorncr 'direct, 

auburn orig. 'whitish or flaxen- 
colored , reddish - brown' me. 
auburne awburne 'citron-colored : 
from OFR. auborne albornc (= it. 
alburfio^ = MED. lat. alburnus 
'whitish (albus 'white'). 

auger orig. nauger (like adder 
for nadder, apron for napron with 
loss of an initial n) me. nauger 
older 7idve-ggr OE. nafogdr 'an 
auger' prop, 'borer, piercer of 
naves' (see nave^ and gore-^\ 
cp. the synon. oho. nabuger 
MHG. nabeger G. (dial.) ndber, 
ICEL. nafarr. 

aught a whit, anything' me. 
aught older awight OE. dwiht 
dnwiht 'aught'; OE. an is one 
and for wiht see whit and not. 

August from lat. augustus ; me. 
aust from ofr. aoust = fr. aoufi 
or from late OE. august changed 
to *amvestl 

aunt ME. auntie) : adapt, of ofr. 
ante (fr. tante). Source lat. 
amita 'aunt'. 

avail ME. availe: source fr. 
vaille from valoir 'be worth'. 

avalanche: adoption of the 
synon. fr. avalanche (fr. aval 
'downward' = ofr. a val is LAT. 
ad vallem 'valley ward'). 

avenge me. avenge', adapt, of 
ofr. avengier 'avenge' (source 

avoid — aye* 

LAT. v'mdicare 'vindicate'); cp. 

avoid ME. avoide: adapted from 
FR. avoider 'empty out'; cp. void. 

avouch declare, confess' from 
OFR. avoch{i)er\ cp. vouch. 

avow ME. avo^ve avoue from fr. 
avouer\ cp. vow. 

await iiE. awaite from onfr. 
a7(.iait{i)er; cp. wait. 

aw^ard me. awarde from onfr. 
eswardc{i)r 'examine'. For the 
Teut. source see under guard. 

aware me. (ware of,, y^wara 
jfiwcer = OHG. OSAX. giwar G. 
gewahr ^ DU. gewaar 'watchful, 
wary'; cp. wary. 

away me. away awey OE. omv'ei 
'away' prop, 'on the way'; cp. 
way and alway. 

awe ME. awe older age adapt, 
of ON. agi 'awe , terror'. Akin 
to OE. ey: me. cie 'fear, terror' 
^ GOTH, agis and gr. «/o^ 
'anguish'; cp. goth. agbcs 'mo- 
lesting', OIR. agor 'I fear'. 

aw^kward me. awkward aukward 
beside late me. auke 'contrary, 
wrong*; auk- contr. of avek- = 
ON. gfugr 'turned the wrong 
way'. Cogn. w. osax. abuh^ ohg. 
abuh and skr. apak 'turned away'. 

awl :me. aul awel oe. awel 
eawol 'awl': if traceable to a 
Teut. base awola (for agwola-^, 
akin to lai". acus 'needle' — 
aculeus 'sting*. 

awn ME. aune older awene 
agcnc : Scand. loanword from 
on. ggn which is ident. with oe. 

cegncy OHG. agana mhg. agene 
G. ahne, goth. a/mna chaff'; 
prob. related, to GR. a/vTi a/vgov 
'chaff*, LiTH. aktttas , opruss. 
ackons 'awn'. 

awry me. awry{e) onwry ; cp. 
w ry. 

ax(e) me. ax oe. eax = the 
synon. oe. eax cex, ohg. aAsa 
mhg. a/ise g. ac/ise, du. as and 
with formative -/ the synon. ON. 
pxu//, whence borrowed me. axe/ 
E. axle-{tree). For a pre -teut. 
aksa cp. SKR. dksa, gr. ix^aiV, 
LAT. axis, OSLOV. osi, LITH. aszis 

ax(e) ME. ax{e) OE. ax orig. 
acas *acces ^= synon. osAX. OHG. 
accus jMHG. ackes g. ^xf/), du. 
aaks, ON. ^jv, GOTH, aqizi 'axe'. 
Pre-TEUT. (7^^« rt'^'-2z (aksT) appears 
also in gr. aHvri 'axe'. 

axle ME. axel in axel-tre: bor- 
rowed from ON. gxultri; akin 
to (7a;. 

aye^ 'yes' occurring in the 
1 6'*' cent, as / and not found 
earlier; perh. ident. with / = 
OE. /(•; in OE. we find nic (for 
ne -\- ic) 'no' (in answering). 
The orthography of aye was 
influenced perhaps by aye'^ (cp. 

aye^ me. ay ey. borrowed from 
ON. «' ever ; akin to goth. aiw 
'ever', ohg. osax. io g. je\ cp. 
ever. In the Aryan langs. a sb. 
aiwa- 'age, time' exists in goth. 
aiws, LAT. aevum, GR. uImv. 


babe — bait 


babe :mr. babe fuller form bdbdn: 
from W. GAEL. IR. CORN, biibaii 
'a babe, child. 

baboon me. bdlnvin bdboin : 
loanword from tVie synon. fr. 
babouin. Akin to DU. baviaan, 
G. pavian. Source ofr. babou 

baby me. bdbi: dimin. of babe. 

bachelor me. bachelev. borrow- 
ed from OFR. bacheler = FR. 
bacJulier. Source med.-lat. bac- 

back^ cp. basin. 

back- 'the hinder part of the 
body' me. bak oe. bcec = OSAX. 
DU. (in comp.), icel. sw. bak 
'back'. — back adv. for aback 
me. abak OE. on bcec 'backward' 
prop, 'on the back'. — back- 
board OE. bcecbord =- DU. lg. 
bakboord (whence G. backbord, 
FR. babofuf), ICEL. bakbord 'lar- 

backgammon prop, 'back- 
game', because the men when 
taken are put back. See 

bacon me. bacon bdcoun: bor- 
rowed from OFR. bacon 'flitch of 
bacon'. Source a teut. base 
bakon = MDU. MLG. bake, ohg. 
bahho mhg. bache 'side of bacon, 
ham'; akin to back sb. 

bad ME. bad{de) 'worthless, 
wicked'; prob. ident. with oe. 
</^^rt?<?rt^ 'forced, compelled': orig. 

part, of the vb. d-bddan 'compel, 

badge late me. bagge: of fr. 
origin, cp. OFR. bage, med.-lat. 
bagia 'signum, a ring'. 

badger orig. ident. with an 
obsolete badger 'one who buys 
corn'; cp. FR. blairean 'badger' 
orig. little corn-merchant'. The 
source is a- med.-lat. bladdrhis, 
OFR. Mayer 'corn-merchant' (fr. 
bli 'corn') : E. badger for bladger? 

bag ME. bagge: loanword from 
ON. baggi 'bag, bundle'. — bag- 
gage ME. baggdge according to 
FR. baggage points to ofr. bague 
r= on. baggi. 

bail 'a hoop' me. beil: perh. 
traceable to an oe. *bey;l ^byj^el 
= G. bi'igel, ON. bygill; \^bug 
in bo7i<. 

bail vb. borrowed from ofr. 
bailer 'secure, keep in custody'. 
Akin to bailiff me. bailif baili: 
from OFR. bailif (whence also 
DU. baljimi) later baili bailli = 
MEU.-J.AT. baillit'us ballivus. Source 
LAT.' bajulus 'burdenbearer. 

bairn child' (Sc.) me. bc'rn 
OE. beam 'child = OHG. GOTH. 
barn, ON. barJi (whence also 
ME. barn): deriv. of the teut. 
\fber 'produce', prop, partic. 
with the meaning that which is 

bait vb. me. baite beite 'feed': 
borrowed from on. beita 'cause 
to bite' = MHG. beizen 'bait', OE. 

bake — bark' 

1 1 

bcelan: causative of teut. bitan } 
'bite'; cp. bite. I 

bake me. Inike oe. bacan str. vb. 
::^ ox. baka, OHG. bahhan 'bake'. 
The G. forms partly show teut. 
kk for TEUT. k\ G. backen, DU. 
bakken (oSAX. bakkcri 'baker') ; 
the kk is also shown in batch. 
The TEUT. \fbak from pre-TEUT. 
bhog is peril, connected with 
OR. (fMyftv 'roast'. 

bald MK. balled (oe. *bealledef) ; 
source and histor}' unknown. 

baldrick me. baudrik bauderik; 
akin to ox. baldrekr, mhg. bal- 
derich, fr. baiidroy (ofr. baldrei, 
whence me. baudry) , med.-lat. 
baldringus: related X.o'LK^. balteus 
imder belt. 

bale sb. 'a large bundle of mer- 
chandise ready for transporta- 
tion': loanword from ofr. ba(l)le 
{= ?,vx:s.bala,YV.balla); of Tout, 
origin, ident. with ball. 

bale vb. 'empty water out of 
a ship', also spelled bail: bor- 
rowed from DU. baliefi 'bale out'; 
DU. balie (=- MLG. ballige balge, 
i.G. balje, IT. baglid) 'tub' fr, fr. 
bailie represents a Lat. type bactda 
(cogn. w. basin). 

bale ME. bale oe. bealw, cp. 
osAX. balti, OHG. balti, ox. bpl 
evil, calamity'; goth. *balws 
evil' in comp. and deriv. as 
balweins balwjan 'torment', 

ball' a spherical body' me. 
ball(e) : borrowed from ofr. balle 
■= OHG. balla ballo 'a ball, sphere', 
ox. bgllr 'ball'. 

ball2 a dance' (= DU. G. ball) : 
borrowed from fr. bal 'a dance' 
(= SPAN, baile, IT, balld) 'a 
dance', fr, bailer (it. ballare) 
is traced to gr. ^aXhZstv 'dance'. 

ballast: loanword from sw. 
DAN. ballast orig. baglast for bar- 
lass prop, 'bare last' i. e. 'mere 
load' ^ DU. lg. G. ballast. 

balm 3HE. baum (J)aume bame 
basme) '. adapt, of fr. baume. 
Source lat. balsatnum, whence 
G. balsam, DU. balsem. 

bane 'harm' me. bdne\ ov..bana 
means 'murderer'; cp. on. bafie, 
OHG. bano 'death'. Akin to gr. 
(fovo^ 'murder'. 

bank me. banke oe. banca = 
ON. bakki (orig. *banke) : akin 
to bench. — bank (for money) 
adapt, of FR. banque =^ it. banca: 
ult. source teut. bank(i) in 

bar me. bar re: adapt, of ofr. 

bare me. bare oe. beer = ohg. 
G. bar, ON. berr: teut.-goth. 
base baza- = pre-TEUT. bhaso- 
in OSLOV. bosti 'bare-foot', lith. 

bargain sb. me. bargain : adapt, 
of OFR. bargaine 'traffic'. 

barge me. barge : adapt, of ofr. 
barge. Source a barica, 
whence also bark^. 

bark ^ 'the rind of a tree' me. 
barke: possibly a loanword from 
the equiv. on. bgrkr ; cp. G. lg. 
borke, NORTHFRis. buark, goth. 
* bar his: prob. akin to birch on 
account of skr. bhurja m. 'birch' 




— n, 'birchbark*. Bark orig. 
'birchbark'? cp. birch, 

bark 2 adapt, of fr. barque; 
ident. with barge. 

bark vb. ue. berke oe, beorcan; 
cp. OE. borcian 'bark* and on. 
berkja 'bark' : teut. \^ berk, not 
recorded elsewhere. 

barley me. barll older barlich 
late OE. b(crlic\ how the word 
is connected with the synon. 
OE. bere (cp. bar/i), is uncertain. 
Source a teut. base baraz (bariz 
= ON. barr, cp. GOTH, barizeiiis 
'made of barley'), akin to lat. 
far 'corn' (aryan base bharos-). 

barm 'yeast' me. bertne OE. beorma 
= DU. berm, mlg. berme : Teut. 
base berman- from an Aryan base 
bhermen- in lat. fermentum. 

barn me. berne oe. bern sliort 
for orig. bere-ern 'barley-house'; 
cp. barley. OE. -em (for am 
*r(enti) house' corresponds to 
GOTH, razn liouse', ON. rann. 

barnacle • 'a fish' me. bernake; 
transformed by suffix-exchange 
from OE. byrnete 'lolligo'. 

barnacle- a kind of goose 
ME. bernake; an anglo-lat. ber- 
jiaca of the 1 2 ^^ cent, is the first 
record of the obscure word. 

barnacles^ 'spectacles' orig. 
'irons put on the noses of horses 
to keep them quiet' dimin. to 
2klE. bernac from ofr. bernac 
'camus, a barnacle'. 

baron me. bdrottn: loanword 
from PR. baron, whence also ODU. 
baroen, mhg. bariin G. du. baron. 
Source a military word lat. baro 

'mercenary', which oftentimes is 
found in the Teut. Leges Bar- 
barorum for 'baron'. 

barrel me. bdrcl prop, baril: 
borrowed fr. FR. baril. 

barrien me. barre'm : a fr. loan- 
word, cp. ofr. brahain barhain 
(fr. brihaigne 'sterile'). Source 

barrow 'a wheel -barrow' me. 
bdrwe (oE. *bearwe)\ derived 
from the teut. \'^ ber in bear; 
as for the 7t'-suffix cp. also OE. 
mcox-byrwe , westphal. bierwe 
'a bier, stretcher*. 

barter Engl, deriv. of ofr. 
barate 'deceit, fraud' (ofr. ba- 
rater 'beguile'), whence me. barat 
baret, ODU. baraet fraud', MHG. 

base ^ 'low' from fr. basse f. 
{bas m.). Source vulg. -lat. 
bassiis ? 

base 2 sb. 'foundation' me. base 
(bas) : loanword from fr. base 
(lat. basis). 

bashful see abash. 

basin me. basin: loanword from 
FR. bassin. Source lat. baccinum 
(akin w. lat. bacar and bicariiim ?) 
whence du. bekken, ohg. (osax.) 
be k kin G. bee ken 'basin'; cp. DU. 
LG. bak 'bowl, tub, trough', FR. 
bac\xouQh, basin' =^ lat. baccd). 

bask vb. me. baske: a Scand. 
loanword, from on. badask 'bathe 
oneself. Source see under <^<2M. 

basket :me. b.iskd; commonly 
considered ident. with britann.- 
lat. bascauda 'dish-pan' (= ofr. 
baschoe 'bucket'); an OE.*bascod 

bass — bay ' 

*baxod was supplanted by *l>ascot, 
•ot being an E. dimin. suffix. 
A primit. LAT.-GALL. ^^.yrtf appears 
in FR, bache tilt, vat'. 

bass 'a fish' me. base barse OE. 
beers == DU. baars, G. barsch; cp. 
SWED. abborre, dan. oborre {rr 
from rs). 

bastard im. bastard (== o. 
bastardy DU. bastaard) : borrowed 
from OFR. bastard (fr. batard == 
SPAN. IT. bastardd). Source ofr. 
bast = SPAN. IT. basto 'pack- 
saddle'; cp. OFR. ^/s de bast 'a 
bastard', lit. 'a son of a pack- 
saddle' (not of a bed, cp. G. 
bankert prop, 'son of a bench). 

baste ^ vb. beat with a stick, 
strike': a Scand. loanword from 
ON. beysta 'beat' = sw. bosta 
'thump', DAN. boste strike'. 

baste 2 vb. pour fat over meat'; 
origin unknown. 

baste^ vb. 'sew slightly' me. 
bdste: borrowed from ofr. bastir 
(fr. bdtir = .span, bastear, it. 
imbastare) 'baste'. Source a 
teut. bastjan = OKG.bestan 'patch' 
MHG. bfsten 'bind'. 

bat * 'a short cudgel' me. late OE. 
bat{ti)\ loanword from ir. Gael. 
bat 'staff, cudgel' or more prob. 
fr. FR. batte 'a rammer, wand'. 

bat^ a winged mammal'; the 
Scotch by-form ba{c)k points to 
ME. bakke = DAN. bakke (only in 
comp. aftenbakke 'evening-bat'), 
Perh. connected with back and 
bacon, made prob. by G. (dial.) 
•speckniaus 'bat' prop.'flitch-mouse'. 

! batch ME. bacche oe. *bcecce\ 
deriv. from the teut. \f bakk 
Q.bak'); see bake. 

bath ME. bath oe. bced :=: osax. 
bath, DU. G. OHG. bad, on. bad. 
The dental being suffix, the word 
rests on a teut. \f ba (be) in 
OHG. bden = G. biihen. — bathe 
vb. ME. bathe OE. badian = ohg. 
badon G. baden, on. bada: deriv. 
from the teut. sb. ba/>a- 'bath . 

batten vb. 'grow fat' me. *battie: 
a Scand. loanword from on. batna 
'grow better' (= goth. gabatnan 
'profit'). Akin to better and 

batter vb. 'beat'ME. /^<?/r(f: from 
FR. battre. Source lat. battuere. 
Hence batter 'a compound of 
eggs, flour and milk' :me. batiirc. 
from OFR. bate-7ire 'a beating'. 

battle :me. bdtaile: loanword 
from FR. bataille, whence ODU. 
bataelghe, mhg. bateile 'battle'. 
Source lat. battuere 'beat'. 

bay adj. 'reddish' :me. bay: from 
FR. bai. Source lat. badius 'bay- 

bay' 'inlet of the sea' me. bale : 
borrowed from fr. baie (== span. 
bahta, it. bajci). 

bay- sb. 'a kind of laurel-tree, 
sweet-bay me. bay baie *a berr}-': 
borrowed from ofr. baie bayc 
FR. baie 'a berry. Source lat. 
bacca bdca 'beny^'. 

bay vb. 'bark as a dog' me. 
baye shortened from abaye: loan- 
word from OFR. abaier FR. aboyer. 

bay^ 'berry' (in bay-ru?ti) me. 
bai bei oe. bd-^ = northfris. bei. 



beaver ' 

DITMARSCH beic ^ DU. bci 'berry': 
Teut. base baijiz bajjiz; not ident. 
with OFR. baic = lax. bacca. 

be 'exist* me. be oe. bcon fr. a 
Teut. base *bijan; cp. ohg. Inm = 
OSAX. biu-m 'I am', which an- 
swers to LAX. fo: Aryan base 
bhio {bhijo) traceable to bhwio 
bhuid; cp. \^ bhii in i.X'£./ui 'I was'. 
Cp. booth and build. 

be- prefix me. oe. be-: ident. 
with by. 

beacon me. bcken oe. b{acen 
= ohg. bouhhan, osAX. bokan (du. 
bank, G. bake fr. ofris. bdken)'. 
TEUX. base baukna-. See beck. 

bead me. <^fv/(? 'a bead, a prayer' 
OE. "^ebed prayer'. Deriv. from 
the XEur. \fbed\ cp. bid. 

beadle me. bgdel b(del: loan- 
word from OFR. bedel = fr. 
bideau (ix. biiiello). Source a 
Teut. bidil = ohg. bitil. 

beaker me. biker \ cp. the sy- 
non. DU. bekcr, osAX. bikeri, ohg. 
behhdri G. beclier. Perli. the E. 
word is borrowed from the sy- 
non. ox. bikarr. Source lax. 
biccaritnn (ix. bicduere) with the 
hy-ioxm. piccariuni (see pitcher). 
Further connections under basin. 

beam 'a piece of timber' me. 
bejn OE. b(atn 'a tree' = ohg. 
^fflG. boum G. baurn, lg. du. 
boom, OSAX. bom 'a tree'. The 
corresp. synon. goxh. bagms (ox. 
badmrT) 'tree' seems to point to 
a XEUX. bagwma- with a by-form 
bawma- bauiiiu-. 

bean me. bene ben oe. bean = 
synon. ohg. bona g. bohfie, du. 

^f^/;, ox. baun : XEU r. base baunb- 
'bean'. The early existence of 
the word (goxh. *bauna) is at- 
tested by the name of the 
Fris. island Baunonia (island of 

bear vb. 'carry' me. bcre oe. 
beran = osAX. OHG. beran, ox. 
bcra, DU. bar en, goxh. bairan. 
Akin to LAX. ferre, gr. (ptQUv., 
SKR. \fbhar 'bear, carry': aryax 
y^bhcr. Cp. bier and birth. 

bear sb. 'ursus' ^\s..b{re oe. bera 
= ohg. b'ero mhg. ^^r g. ^^r, du. 
beer. ThexEUX.<^^r<;«- {p^.bjpni) 
is based on an Aryan adj. bhero- 
'brown preserved in LxrH, bcras 

beard me. berd oe. b{ard = 
du. baard, ofris. berd, ohg. g. 
^<zr/: XEUX. base bar da- = aryax 
bhardha- in lax. barba, osLov. 
brada, lixh. barzda, pruss. bor- 
dus 'beard*. 

beast ME. best: loanword from 
OFR. beste (fr. bete), whence also 
lg. du. beest 'bedi^^ . Source lax. 
bestia (in a vulgar form bestd). 

beat vb. me. b{te oe. be'atan 
= OHG. bd-yyjn mhg. bbi^en, icel. 
bauta 'beat. Cp. beetle. 

beaver^ 'an animal* me. be'ver 
OE. beofor = ohg. bibar g. ^//w, 
DU. bez'er, o''orr: xeux. bebrtiz 
(whence are borrowed ix. bevero, 
FR. bievre) points to pre-xeux. 
bhcbhrus = \.k:t. fiber, coK^.befer, 
osLOV. bebrH, lixh. bcbrus, lexx. 
bebris, russ. bobril ' beaver'. In 
SKR. there is an adj. babhriis 
'brown', which is perh. a redupK 




form pointing to lith. beras 
'brown' under bear. 

beaver- 'the lower part of a 
helmet' borrowed from the synon. 
FR. baviere, whence also the sy- 
non. i)L'. bever. 

because me. because bicause by- 
cause (also separately written be-y 
bi-, by- cause) : by the prep. -|- 

beck' 'a stream' me. bek: loan- 
word from ON. bekkr (= s\v. 
back); cp. OSAX. bcki, du. beck, 
OHG. bah(hh) G. bach from a teu r. 

beck- a nod or sign' me. bek 
short for me. b^ke OE. bcacen', 
see beacon. 

bed ME. OE. bed [dd) = goth. 
badi (stem badja-), ohg. beti betti 
MHG. bctte bete G. bett, du. bed. 
The cogn. cymr. bedd 'grave' 
(celt, base bedo-) points to the 
ARYAN \'^bludh b/iodh (in lat. 
fodio 'I dig', LITH. bedu 1 dig'), 
as is evident in G. beet (blumen- 
bect) = E. bed (flowerbed). 

bedrid me. bedred oe. bedrida: 
lit. 'a bed-rider' = mlg. bed- 
dcrede 'bedridden'. Cp. ride 
(and the phrase »ride on an- 
chor*). Akin to ohg. beltiriso, 
mlg. bcdderise 'hedxiddcvL — ban- 
krcsc' a lazy fellow. 

bee ME. be oe. beo contr. of 
bie (infl. bian) = ohg. bia, du. 
bij; with //-suffix g. biene from 
ohg. bint. Akin to pruss. biffe, 

LITH. bi'flS, LETT, bt/fc, IR. bec/l 

bee'; also lat. fiicus 'drone' 
(Aryan base bhoiko-T), 

beech me. b(che oe. bede (orig. 
bdidie = LG. bd:Ae 'beech'): for- 
med with vowel mutation from 
*bdc in OE. bgc-tremu', cp. ohg. 
buohha jiiHG. buoche G. buchc, 
ox. bok. The name of this tree 
(whence book) is a pre-teut. 
bhagos ^ i.Xi.fdgtis 'beech*, OR. 
(pctyoq (prjyoq. The gr. word 
signifies perh. originally 'tree 
with edible fruit, food-tree* {ipn- 
yiTv 'eat). 

beef ME. bef older beef {beof) : 
borrowed from ofr. boef PR. 
boeuf. Source lat. boz'em {bos). 

beer me. ber oe. beor = ohg. 
OSAX. bior G. du. bier. A common 
WESTTEUT. word (base beura-), 
perh. derived fr. oe. osax. b^o, 
OX. bygg barley ; hence beer 
prop, 'barley-juice'? 

beet ME. oe. be/e. Source lat. 
b^/a (= FR. bef/e , it. bieta), 
whence also G. beeie. 

beetle' me. betel oe. bytel betel 
= the synon. lg. bcrtel, ox. bey- 
till 'hammer'. The teut. base 
bautila- belongs to the teut. 
sf^baut in beat. 

beetle- an insect me. bitel oe. 
bitola'j derived from an adj. oe. 
bitol 'inclined to bite'. 

beg vb. :me. begge shortened 
from oe. bedecian, formed from 
bid with intensive k (as in hat k, 
lurk, 70 a Ik). 

begin me. beginne oe. beginnan 
str. vb. = OSAX. ohg. biginnaii, 
DU. G. beginnen, goth. duginncn 
'begin'. The teut. \f gen (the 
initial g of which may be an 


begin — bellows 

Aryan k in the compound) is 
traceable to the Aryan \^ ken 
in OSLOV. po-cinq (infinit. po-d^ti 
'begin', koni 'bejjinning'). 

beguile vb. me. begile (= mdu. 
beghijlen) : loanword from ofr. 
gtiiler. Cp. wile. 

behalf 'interest, benefit' ]me. 
on behalve for on halve or be 
halve OE. on {be) healfe; OE. 
Ileal/ sb. (=:- onG. ha lb(t) means 

behave vb. late me. beMve 
OE. behabban: ident. with have. 
— behavior shows a fr. ending 
in imitation of havior, var. of 
haver for a7>er 'possession'. 

behead vb. me. behcde bihefden 
OE. behcafdiati ; cp. mhg. behoubcien 
behead'. Cp. head. 

behest :me. bchest(e) bihest earlier 
behc'se OE. behds 'command, vow.' 
OE. h(es (base hdsi- haisi-^ points 
to TEUT. GOTH, hoitan = OE. 
hdtan; cp. hight and hest. 

behind :me. behlnde{n) oe. bc- 
hindan 'afterwards, after'. Cp. 
hinder and hindmost. 

behold vb. me. behglde OE. 
behdldan [behcaldan) 'hold, see'. 
Cp. hold. 

behoof ME. behpf oe. behof = 
synon. DU. behoef , mlg. I'chbf, 
MHG. behuof G. behiif, icel. liof 
moderation'. — behoove vb.ME. 
behove OE. behgfian 'be necessary' 
=- DU. behoeven, mlg. behoven. 

belch vb. akin to me. bclke OE. 
bcelcian benlcian and with suffix 
bealcettan 'belch'. 

belfry :me. bcrfray berfrey ber- 
freid berfreit adapt, of ofr. her- 
frci berefreii= YV^.beffroi. Source 
mhg. bcrcvrit from berc pro- 
tection' and frid 'a place of 

belief me. beleve from the vb. me. 
beltve = believe. Phonetically 
not ident. with me. beleve ileve 
OE. lelc'a/a = OSAX. gilobo, DU. 
geloof, ohg. giloubo G. glaubc. 
— believe vb. y\Y.. bileve orig. 
ileve OE. ^elefan j^elyfan 'believe* 
= OSAX. gilobian, DU. gelooven, 
ohg. gilonban G. glaiiben, goth. 

bell ME. OE. belle = du. bel, 
LG. belle: WEST-TEUT. base bclloii. 
Akin to bellow'^ 

bellow vb. ME. bel{o)u<e bclwe 
OE. belgian bylgian 'bellow' : teut. 
base *balligdnl Prob. an extended 
form with vowel mutation and 
intensive formative of oe. b'ella/i 
= ohg. bellan 'bellow', \ibeil- is 
traceable to belz bels, the teut. 
Y^ corresponds to skr. bhas (for 
bhals) 'bellow' = bhas 'speak' and 
LITH. balsas 'voice'. 

bellows :\rE. belwes (also belles') 
'a bellows': prop. plur. of belowe 
belli beli 'a bellows, a bag, belly' 
OE. bccli byli (blcBstbylD 'a bag' 
= ON. belp-, G. DU. balg 'skin'. 
Ident. with belly. A TEUT. y/belg 
'swell' appears in ohg. b'elgan 
'be angry', oe. j^ebolgen 'angry', 
ON. bolgen 'swollen'; cogn. w. 
OIR. bolgaim 'I swell' — bolg bole 
'bag, bellows' — ogall. biilg^jt 
'leather-bag'. Cp. bolster. 

belly — between 


belly ME. belie belt 'belly, womb, 
also a bellows' OE. bel^ byli 'a 
hag, pouch, purse, bag of any 
kind'. Ident. with bellmvs. 

belo\v ME. Hhhve cp. loiv. 

belt ME. OE. belt = ohg. balz, 
ox. belli 'a belt, border'. Source 
LAT. (gall.?) halteus 'belt'. 

bench me. bench oe. benc\ with 
umlaut and palatalization from 
a TEUT. base banki{z) = OSAX. 
DU. G. OHG. bank, OX. bekkr\ fr. 
banc and it. spax. banco are 
TEUT. loanwords. Cp. bank. 

bend sb. 'a band, bond' me. 
OE. bend (= oSAX. bendi, ODU. 
bende, GOiH.bandi'a. band, bond') 
from the \^ bend in bind, whence 
also bend vb. 'bow, curve' me, 
bende oe. bendan 'bind, curve, 

beneath yiR. benc'lhe oe. beneodan 
= DU. benedcn ; from oe. neodan, 
OSAX. nilhana, ohg. nidana mhg. 
mden{e) 'below'. Cp. nether. 

benison me. beneisouti : borrowed 
from OFR. beneifon. Source lat. 
benedictionem (vp. iiE. maleisoun = 
OFR. maleicon, lat. nialedictioneni). 

bent-grass oe. beonot = osax. 
hinut, OHG. binir^ mhg. bin(e)- g. 
binse, DU. bentgras. 

bequeath vb. me. beqticthe oe. 
bec%vcdan declare, affirm'. — be- 
quest ME. biqueste usually biqiiide 
byquide bequide. For the oe. vb. 
cwedan 'speak' cp. quoth. 

bereave vb. me. bircz'e (rcve) 
OE. ber(afian {r(afian) = osAX. 
birobon, DU. berooven, ohg. (bi}rou- 

English Etymology. 

bbn g. berauben, goth. biraubbn 
'rob', ox. raufa 'rob*. 

berry me. oe. berie ; cp. synon. 
OHG. beri G. be ere. The r was 
orig. z ^=^ s; cp. GOTH, basi in 
weinabasi 'wineberr^', grape', DU. 
bes 'berry'. 

beseech vb. me. biseche bisekc 
OE. bisecan: ident. with seek. 

besom 'a broom' me. besom 
besmc 'a broom, rod' OE. besma 
'a rod' = DU. bezem, OHG. besamo 
G. besen 'a broom', GOTH, '^bistna'. 
LAT. ferula may accord with 
the Teut, word in an Aryan 
\f bhes. 

best :me. beste oe. betsta = goth. 
batista, ohg. bc"Jsto mhg. g. /^w/^", 
OSAX. ^/-/j/t?. Cp. better and 

bestow vb. me. bcstgwe; cp. 

betide vb. me. /v//</f ; cp. tide. 

betray vb. :me. betraie (by-form 
betraisse): adapt, of fr. trahir 
(source lat. tradere "deliver"). 
Cp. traitor and treason. 

betroth vb. me. bitreuthie 'be- 
troth'; deriv. from truth. 

better :me. better oe. betera = 
goth. batiza , ohg. be-^yro G. 
besser, osax. betoro , du. beter, 
ox. betre. Cp. the corresp. 
superl. best. No primitive adj. 
exists in the Teut. and Aryan 
langs.; for the root cp. boot''- 
and best. 

between me. bitwene oe. 

bctiveonu7n 'between'; in oe. the 

orig. construction was be sdm 

tweonmn = between the seas', 



beverage — hind 

OE. *tweon earlier twihn 'two' 
answers to goth. tmeihns =^ lat. 
fiinus (Aryan base dweikno-i). — 
betwixt ME. betwix (by-form 
hetwixe) OE. betweox bitwihs (by- 
form betiveoxTi = osax. umiartwisk 
'between', ohg. undar zwiskem 
'between G. zwischen. The Teut. 
base iwiska- 'two' is a deriv. of 
TEUT. twa in tziw. 

beverage me. beverage beverege: 
loanword from ofr. bevrage 
beurage breuvaige = fr. breuvage. 
Source lat. bibere (lat. type 
btberaticum) . 

bevy 'a company' me. bevey 
beve; doubtful if ident. with ofr. 
bevey e fr. bevie 'drink, drinking'? 
then the e. word might prop, 
denote a drinking-party'. 

beyond me. beyondc oe. bej^egn- 
dan. Cp. yon. 

bible ME. bible: loanword from 
fr. bible, whence also du. bijbel, 
G. sw. DAN. bibcl. Source lat. 

bid :me. bidde oe. biddan str. vb. 
= GOTH, bidjan, osax. biddian, 
DU. bidden, ohg. bittan G. bitten, 
ON. bidja 'bid'. The teut. V" 
bed for bid goes back to an 
Aryan v^ bhidh'm. gr. nddixi 'move 
by praying' which with lat. fldo 
'trust' points to connection with 

bide ME. bide oe. bidan str. vb. = 
GOTH, beida?!, osax. buian, OHG. 
bitan, on. bida. The strong verb 
TEUT. bidaii wait' agrees with 
' 'I trust' and GR. ntido^iai 
'I trust, obey' (nfi&(0 'I move by 

entreaty'): pre-TEUT, bhidh. Cp. 
bid 'pray' for the identity of bide 
with TEUT. bidjan. 

bier ime. bere b(re oe. bdr = 
osax. OHG. bara g. bahre , du. 
baar; the modern spelling with 
ie (since 1600) is due to fr. 
biere. Source a teut. herd-, 
derived fr. bea7- (teut. y" bh"), 

bile ME. bile oe. byle = du. 
bail, OHG. bulla *bullia 'blain' 
MHG. biule G. beiile: teut. base 

bilU 'a writing, account' to- 
gether with its dimin. billet 'a 
note' ME. bilk 'a letter' (dimin. 
billette 'a note'): from MED. -lat. 
Ulla bulla 'a bubble, boss, leaden 
seal, a bull'. Cp. bull. 

bill 2 'sword' ME. OE. bill 'sword' 
= OHG. osax. bil{ll) 'a sword'. If 
GOTH. *bilja- goes back to Aryan 
bhilyo- for bhidlyo-, connection 
with LAT. findere is possible. 
Hence bill 'the instrument for 
splitting' and 

bills 'bird's beak' me. bill{e) 
bil{e) OE. bile 'beak'; prob. con- 
nected with /;z7/2. 

billow me. *bilwe prop. * bilge: 
borrowed from ON. bylgja: TEUT. 
\f b'elg 'swell' treated under bag 
and bello7us. 

bin :me. binne oe. /w;« 'manger': 
CELT, loanword from gall, benna 
'kind of vehicle, whence also 
FR. benne 'a basket, hamper' 
(it. /^^wzrt' 'sleigh, cart'). G. bennc 
'basket-wagon' is of fr. origin. 

bind ME. blnde oe. bindan str. vb. 
= OSAX. bindan, ON. binda, du. 

birch — blame 


G. hinden , ohg. binian : teut. j 
sfb'cnd. An Ar}an \/~l>hendh< 
appears in skr. bandh 'bind'; 
SKR. bandhu 'relative' points to 
connection with or. neyi^fong 
'father-in-law', or. neT^ua for 
*Tif}'^ot.ta, LAT. of-fend-imentuvi 
'band, rope'. Cp. band, bend. 

birch ME. birchc oe. birde = 
OHG. bircha G. birke : teut. base 
birkjon-. The synon. oe. beorc, 
DU. berk, ox. hjgrk from an orig. 
base b'erko- are an Aryan bherga 
= SKR. bhtirja , OSLO v. breza, 
Liru. be'rsas 'birch*. Cp. bark'^. 

bird ME. ^/n/ mostly brid'a. bird', 
orig. 'a young bird' oe. brid (plur. 
briddas) 'the young of any bird': 
TEL'T. base bridja- for brcdjo-; 
akin to breed and broodl 

birth ME. birthe older i-birde 
OE. lebyrd ^= OSAX. giburd, DU. 
^eboorte, OHG. giburt G. geburt, 
OX. burdr 'birth', goth. gabaiir^s 
'birth': deriv. from a teut. vb. 
gaberan 'produce' with suffix di-\ 
pi (cp. IR. brith 'birth', SKR. 
bhrti bearing'). 

bishop ME. bishop bisshop OE. 
bisceop = OSAX. biskop, DU. bis- 
scJwp, OHG. biscof g. bischof, ox. 
biskup. west-teut. fe^^ (taken 
as a covd'^ound bi->rskop) is iden- 
tical with GOTH, aipiskaupus = 
GR. Iniay.OTJog, lat. episcopus. The 
initial ^ is also wanting in it. 

cscovo, OFR. PROV. vesque (butFR. 
tvegue from oVR.evesque) = vulgar 
LAT. (e)biscopus. 

bitch ME. ^/V^/zi* OE. /^/VVV; teut. 

base bikjon- also in ox. bikkja 
'bitch'; cp. OFR. biche 'bitch'. 

bite ME. bite oe. bttan str. vb. = 
OSAX. Mtan, OHG. bt'^'z^an G.beissen, 
DU. bijien 'bite', ON. biia. A teut. 
str. vb. bttan 'bite' is developed 
from an Aryan \^bhid 'split' in 
LXT. fi/ido, SKR. M/V/ 'split'. Cp. 
bitter and <^/7/-. 

bitter adj. me. bitter oe, bitter biter 

= OSAX. OHG. ^/A/r MHG. G. 

DU. yiLG. LG. DAX. SAV. bitter, ox. 
<^//r bitter': teut. base bitra- 
(and baitra- in goth. (^<w//.y 
'bitter'), prop, biting': deriv. from 
the TEUT. sfbit in bite. 

bittern me. bitor older butor 
{= DL'. butoor^ : borrowed from 
FR. (^z"^;- (=r IT. bittore'). Source 
LAT. bos taurus a bird's name? 

black me. blak oe. blcec (b/acr) ; 
akin to LG. b/ack 'ink'. 

bladder ^ie. bladdre oe. blddre 
= DU. blaar , LG. bladere, ohg. 
bldttara G. blatter, icel. bladra; 
the TEUT. base *bledron- (with 
//r<?- as suffix) comes from the 
TEUT. yfble in blow"^. 

blade ^iiE. /^/(7</(? oe. /5/<?^/ (plur. 
bladti) == synon. ohg. <^/(7/ G. 
/^/a//, DU. OSAX. M/^/, ox. /^A?//, 
GOTH. *blada-. Their dental 
seems to be formative; bla- 
from pre-TEUT. bhlo- is perh. 
akin to lat. fol-ium, GR. f/^TUXov : 
Aryan \(^bhol bhlo- in b loo ml 

blain me. /^/(f/>/ oe. bleien = 
DU. /J/f/« : TEUT. base blajino- 
from TEUT. >fbUi in bladder") 

blame vb. me. bldme (== mdu. 
blameri) : loanword from fr. 

blank — bless 

bldmer {= ospan. blasntar, it. bia- 
simare'. source lat. blasphcmare). 

blank me. blank oe. blanc blgnc 
^= synon. ohg. mhg. b/anc g. 
blank\ ON. blakkr "gray or white 
horse*: T^\5T.\fblenk in blink. 
The TEUT. adj. blanka- was in- 
troduced into the Roman, langs.; 
cp. IT. bianco, fr. blanc with the 
deriv. fr. blanchet =^ ofr. blanket, 
whence me. e. blanket a coarse 
woolen cover'. 

blare vb.'roar' me. blare vb. = 
DU. Mar en , G. bldrren plarren. 

blast ME. blast oe. blcest = ohg. 
blast, ON. bldstr 'a gust of wind' : 
deriv. of the teut. y/^bles = du. 
blazen, ohg. blasan g. blasen, on. 
bldsa, GOTH, blesan. A shorter 
\fble cp. under blow-. 

blaze sb. 'a flame' me. blase 
'flame, torch' oe. blcese (infl. 
blasan) 'torch' = i,G. :mhg. bias 
'a torch'. Akin to goth. blesan 
= g. blasen 'blow' (cp. G. wind- 
licht 'torch'). 

blaze vb. 'proclaim' me. blase 
'blow as a trumpet': perh. loan- 
word from on. bldsa 'blow' ^= 
DU. blazen 'sound a trumpet', 
OHG. blasan G. blasen 'blow', goth. 
blhan (in uf blesan 'puff up'). — 
blazon* 'proclamation' from fr. 
blasonner blazon', whence du. 
blazoen. — blazon'- me. bldson 
older bldsoun from FR. blason 
'coat of arms' (whence also 
DU. blazoen) ? 

bleach vb. me. bleche oe. blckian 
= ON. bleikja 'whiten': teut. 
base blaikjan from the adj. bleak! 

iffi. bleik late OE. bldcc: borrow- 
ed from ON. bleikr = orig. oe. 
bide ME. blgk, DU. bleek, G. bleich. 
A T'EAJT.yfbltk appears in OE. 
bllcan, ON. blika, o.sax. blikan, 
DU. blijken, ohg. blilihan 'shine'. 

blear-eyed 'having sore eyes' 
MR. blcr-eycd bler-eighed fr. blcre 
'blear' -j- eye ci^^e 'eye'; cp. dan. 
plir-gjet, lg. bler-bgcd 'blear-eyed' 
(akin to \.G. fiirr-oge 'a bleared- 
eye', en Jlirr uft bge hebben 'have 
a bleared eye'). 

bleat vb. ME. blete oe. bketan 
= DU. b la ten b lee ten, lg. bleten, 
ohg. bldzfln mhg. bld-en. 

bleed vb. me. blede oe. bledan 
=: OFRis. bUda, DU. bloeden, LG. 
bl&den, ohg. bluotan, on. blxda 
'bleed': deriv. from teut. bloda- 
in blood. 

blemish vb. me. blemiss(h)e 
'wound, injure, soil': loanword 
from OFR. bleniiss-, stem of some 
forms of FR. blemir 'grow pale' 
(fr. bleme blesme 'pale, wan ). 

blench vb. me. blcnche (also 
blenke) 'shrink back, give way', 
OE. blencan 'deceive': causative 
of blink, teut. base ''blankjan. 

blend' vb. me. blende (pret. 
blende) OE. blandan = OSAX. 
GOTH, blandan, on. blanda, ohg. 
blantan mhg. blanden. 

blend- vb. me. blende oe. blen- 
dan = ohg. bletitan blenten G. 
blenden: causative of blind vb. 

bless vb. ME. blesse older bletsie 
OE. blitsian older bMdsian 'bless' 
from a TEUT. base *blodisbn, not 
found elsewhere in teut. The 




vb. orig. 'sprinkle with blood' 
is appar. a deriv. of teut. bloda- 
in blood. 
blind adj. me. oe. blind = 

OSAX. DU. G. S\V. DAN. blind (OHG. 

MHO. blini), ox. blindr, goth. 
blinds. Akin to on. blumla vb. 
'close one's eyes' and to lith. 
blandyti 'cast down one's eyes' 
— blcsti blisti 'grow dark'. — 
blind vb. make blind' deriv. 
of blind, supplanting me. blende 
(pret. blende) oe. blendan = 
synon. ohg. blentan G. blenden: 
causative of the teut. base 
blinda in blind adj. blindfold 
adj. .me. blindfelle oe. blindfellian 
'strike blind, put out the eyes'; 
the mod. phonology of the 
second element of the word is 
due to confusion with fold'l But 
its origin is obscure; it may be 
akin to oi£..fell, G. fell ohg. fel, 

GOTH. Jill = LAT. pellis. 

blink vb. ME. blinke = G. DU. 
hlinken, sw. blinka, dan. blinke. 

bliss ME. blisse OE. bliss older 
blids blids (= osAX. blidsed) : 
jT-deriv. of blithe. 

blister me. blister oe. *blystre 
= ODU. bluyster. Root unknown. 

blithe ME. blithe oe. blide 'joy- 
ful, glad' (cp. bliss) = oSAX. 
blithi , LG. blide, du. blij(de), 
OHG. bluli, ON. blidr, sw. dan. 
blid, GOTH, bieips. The dental 
is formative, but the teut. \fbli 
unknown elsewhere. 

block ME. block 'a block' (of 
wood). Cp. th3 synon. DU. blok, 
MLG. block, OHG, bloh MHG. bloch 

G. block. Uncertain whether the 
E. word is a native e. word or 
adapt, fr. fr. bloc 'block, log'. 

blond from fr. blotui, whence 
also G. DU. DAN. blond. Source 
a lost TEUT. blunda- {= it. 
biondo, SPAN, blondo). 

blood ME, OE. blgd = osax. 
blod, DU. bloed, lg. blood, ohg. 
MHG. bluot G, blut , ON. blod, 
sw. dan. blod: TEUT. base blbda- 
(and blopa- in goth. blof) from 
a pre-TEUT. bhlbto- bhlato-, not 
found elsewhere. Its relation 
to the \Pbld 'bloom' is doubtful. 
See bleed and bless. 

bloom ME. blp?n(e): borrowed 
from ON. blom blomi = goth. 
blbma, osax. blomo, DU. bloem, 
ohg. bluorna (bluomo) G. blume 
'flower'. For the \^bld cp. LAT. 
Jibs and OIR. bldth 'blossom' and 

blossom ME. /^/cj;«^ o^. bldsim{a) 
bldsma=^r>\:. bloesem (bloeni), mlg. 
blo(s)sem: deriv. of the teut. 
\/^bld in blow.^ 

blow sb. 'a stroke' me. bloive; 
deriv. from me. bletue oe. bleowan 
= OHG. bliuwan mhg. bliuwen 
G. bldiien, du. blouwen, goth. 
bliggwan 'strike*: teut. \^ bleu 

blow ' vb. 'bloom' me. bl&ive 
OE. bl&wan 'blossom' = OSAX. 
blbjan, du. bloeijen, OHG. bluojan 
G. bliihen 'blow, bloom', goth. 
*blbjan. The teut. \fblo appears 
also in bloom and blossom. 

blow'-^ vb. 'puff' ME. blpit'e oe. 
bldwan str. vb. ^= ohg. bldian 'blow' 


blue — bolster 

MHG. bl(zwen blcejen g. bldh^n 
"blow, swell'. The teut. \f^ ble 
bla agrees partly with lax. 
flare (Aryan bhla in blade and 

blue ME. bleiv: not deriv. from 
OE. bUkioen (deriv. of OE. bldiv), 
whence me. "^bl^ve ought to be 
derived, me. blew bleu, is loan- 
word from the synon. fr. bleu 
(= IT. biavd)\ y\s.- bid 'blue' is 
adapt, of ON. bldr. The source 
of the whole group is a teut. 
base bldwa-' blewa- 'blue' = oe. 
bldw, ON. bldr, DU. blaauw, OHO. 
bldo G. blau; ident. w. 'LXT.flavus 

boar :me. bdr oe. bdr = ohg. 
MHG. ber 'a young boar', OSAX. 
b^r(swin), LG. ber, DU. beer : teut. 
base baizu- or bairn-. 

board 'a plank' me. oe. bJrd 
'board, plank, shield, table' = 
OSAX. DU. sw. DAN. bord, LG. boord, 
G. bort, ON. bord, goth. (fotu)- 
baiird 'foot-stool': teut. base 
borda- with the by-form breda- 
in oe. bred = G. brett (du. berd 
ODU. bred). 

boast vb. me. bpste; perh. 
traceable to an oe. *bdsettian : 
deriv. from teut. y^/'rt'«J bus in 
G. base OHG. bbsil 

boat ME. bpt OE. bat = on. 
beit 'boat'. The e. word is the 
source of on. bdtr, DU. G. boot 
and FR. bateau. 

bodice 'stays for women' for- 
merly bodies, being plur. oibody. 
Cp. pence for penniis. 

bodkin me. boidekiti 'a small 
dagger'; of uncertain origin, 
related to w. bidog , IR. bideog 
'a dagger'? The diphthong oi 
in iiE. shows foreign origin of 
^lE.boidekin; but the suffix seems 
to be Anglisized. 

body ME. body bodi oe. bodij^ 
'body'; akin to org. botah mhg. 
botech 'trunk, corpse'. Relation 
to ohg. botahha g. bottich 'a 
large vessel, tub' is uncertain. 

boil 'a small tumor' iiE. bile 
OE. byl{ey. ident. with bile. 

boil vb. 'bubble up' me. boile 
boyle: loanword from ofr. boillir 
FR. bouillir = span, bullir, it. 
bollire 'boil'. Source lat. bullire 

boisterous me. boistrous 'rough, 
coarse' : an extended form of 
ME. boistous 'rough, clumsy'. The 
^/-diphthong points to foreign 
origin; no source yet found. 

bold ME. bgld oe. bald {bcald 
older bcalp) = goth. '^balpa- 
(in balpaba adv.), on. ballr (orig. 
*baipr), OSAX. ohg. bald 'bold' 
(hence G. bald 'soon, quickly'). 

bole :me. bole = :NmG. bole g. 
bohle 'a thick plank' ; akin to 
ON. bolr 'trunk of a tree' and 
perh. related to gr. rpdXay^ 
'stem of a tree'. 

boll ME. bolle oe. bolla bowel, 
a round vessel' = DU. bol m. 
OHG. bolla 'a round vessel', on. 
bolli. Perh. akin to ball and 
LAT. /ollis 'hose*. 

bolster me. oe. bolster = du. 
; :mhg. bolster ohg. bolstar G. 

bolt — booty 


polster, ON. bolstr'. deriv. with 
str- suffix from the teut. \f beig 
'swell'; hence its orig. meaning 
'swelling' (teut. base bolstra- 
frora *bolhstra-'). 

bolt vb. 'sift meal' me. bttlte: 
borrowed from oer. bjilter (fr. 
bluicr') 'sift*. 

bolt 'a stout pin of iron etc., 
an arrow' :me. oe. bolt = synon. 
OHG. bolz, DU. bout, ox. bolte. 
Borrowed from lat. cataptdta ? 

bone ME. bdn oe. ban = g. 
bein, OSAX. bat, DU. bee//, ox. bei/t, 
sw. DAX. ben, goth. *bam (du. g. 
ox. sw. also leg'). Perh. cogn. 
with ox. bem/i 'straight'. 

bonnetME. bonct: loanword from 
OFR. bo/iet orig. fr. chapel de 
bonet; MED.-LAT. bonneta a stuff 
of which caps were made'. 

bonny me. bo/iy: an engl. 
derivative of FR. bo/i 'good'. 

booby not found in me. oe., 
with exgl. ending derived from 
SPAX. bobo 'fool'? 

book ME. bgk OE. bgc = G. 
btich OHG. buoh, osAX. bok, du. 
boek, GOTH, boka f. — bok n. 'a 
letter of the alphabet' shows in 
the plur. the meaning 'writing, 
document, book', and the OHG. 
OSAX. OE. corresponding buoh 
bok occurs in pluralform with the 
meaning 'a single book'. There- 
fore it is evident, that the sing, 
meant orig. (as in goth.) 'a 
single letter of the alphabet'. 
The TEUT. base boka- (cp. 
beecK) was orig. "beech-bark. 

beech-tablet' used to scratch 
runes on. 

boom borrowed from du. boovi 
(= LG. boof/i) 'a tree, beam, 
pole'. Ident. with beafn. 

boon ME. bone 'petition, favor': 
loanword from ox. bon 'a prayer'. 
There was a native oe. ben me. 
bene 'a prayer'. 

boor adapt, of du. boer (= 
G. bauer) peasant'. Akin to 
oe. "^ebtir, cp. neighbor. 

boot' me. bote', loanword from 
OFR. bote (bo/ite) = fr. botte 
(it. bota^ ; akin to G. bossen 
'shoes'. Source unknown. 

boot^ 'advantage' me. bote oe. 
bpt = osAX. goth. bota, ohg. 
buo-^a buoT, G. busse, ox. bot. For 
the TEUT. \f bat cp. batten, 
better and best. 

booth ME. botlu : loanword 
from ODAX. both (dax. bod) = 
^mG. buode G. bude. The oicel. 
bad differs from dax. bod in the 
root- vowels (teut. o \u). The 
dental is suffix. For the teut. 
\fba (ixdo-teut. bhii) 'dwell' 
cp. LITH. b/itas 'house', OIR. both 
(bothdn) 'hut' (base bhii-to). See 
build and be. 

booty in the \^^ cent, spelled 
botye and buti/i ; akin to the 
equiv. fr. butin, du. buit , G. 
beute, ox. byte 'booty ; the fr. 
word represents an osAX. '^Mitin 
'^biiti, which is cogn. w. OIR. 
btiaid victory' and cymr.<^«^/</ 'ad- 
vantage, profit'. Ar>'an \fbhud 
: bhaud. 


border — bough 

border me. border bord{e)ure\ 
adapt, of FR. bordure. Ultimate 
source OHG. borto 'edge'. 

bore vb. me. bore oe. borian 
= OHG. boron o. bo/iren, du. 
boren, on. bo7-a. The teut. base 
boron agrees with lat. forare 
bore'; cp.GR.f^«'(>Oi,^'plough',SKR. 
bhurij 'scissors : Aryan \'~ bher 

borough and -bury in place- 
names ME. borwe (and biry^ 
OE, burh burg (dat. sing, byri) 
'town'. OE. burg = synon. osax. 
bur(u)g, DU. burg, OHG. bur{u)g 
G. burg, ON. borg, goth. hatlrgs 

borrow vb. me. borive oe. bor- 
gian protect, borrow' = OHG. 
borgen G. borgen 'borrow, give 
a pledge'. Prob. akin to ohg. 
b'ergan, GOTH, hairgan 'protect, 
shelter' (osLOV. brigq 1 take 
care of'). 

bosom me. bpsum oe. bdsm ^= 
OSAX. bdsm, du. boezevi, ohg. 
buosam G. busen, goth. *bdsma-. 

botch vb. 'mend a garment' 
ME. hocche 'repair' : deriv. from 
boot 'mending, repair of a thing'? 
perh. ident. with OE. botettian 
'repair ? Cp. G. dial, buetzen 
'mend shoes' = ohg. buoszen 

botch 'a swelling on the skin, 
a boil' ME. bocclu: borrowed 
from OFR. boche 'a sore' (fr. bosse 
'swelling' ^ it. boccia 'ball'). 

both ME. bgthe = osAX. bhiie, 
OFRis. bethe bede, ohg. g. beide, on. 
bddir, sw. bdda, dan. baade. The 

stem of the numeral in its oldest 
forms had no dental: goth. bat 
= OE. beien bd bii 'both'. The 
dental ending is short for the 
article: ME. bpthe = oe. bd da, 
G. beide instead of bei die. In 
the older periods the article 
was combined with the numeral ; 
cp. goth,. ba fo scipa 'both 
ships', oe. be^en da gebrodrti 
both brothers'. 

bottle^ 'a hollow vessel' me. 
botel = DU. hottel, lg. buttel bud- 
del', loanwords from fr. bouteillc 
(= SPAN, botella, it. bottiglia) 
Source med.-lat. buticula f. di- 
min. of butis 'a butt'. 

bottle- 'a bundle of hay' me. 
botel'. loanword from ofr. botel 
dimin. of fr. botte 'a bundle of 
hay. Source a teut. bauta- in 
OHG. bozp 'a bundle of flax*. 

bottom :me. botum oe. botm = 
OSAX. bodom, du. bodetn, ohg. 
bodam g. boden. The teut. bases 
biipnia- (= ohg. bodavi) or butna 
(== on. botri) or with assimi- 
lation butma- (= oe. botni) re- 
present Aryan bases b/iutno- 
bhudiio; c\>. pk-YCHW bbudhnc- 'bot- 
tom' in SKR. budhna\ cp. GR. 
nvd^jHTJy, LAT. fundus (if trace- 
able to bhudhno-s'i). The pho- 
netical relations of the group 
are obscure. 

bough ME. bough bow oe. boh 
bog = DU. boeg 'bow of the ship', 
OHG. buog 'upper joint of the 
arm or leg, shoulder, hip' G. 
bug 'shoulders, withers', on. bogr 
'shoulder, bow of a ship', goth. 

bounce - boy 


I'ogus from pre-teut, bhaghii-s 
arm, fore-arm' corresponds to 
SKR. bahii 'arm', also gr. Tju^vg 
77;;/iv 'fore-arm, elbow'. 

bounce vb. me. bounse 'beat, 
knock' OE. *bii»sian\ frequent, 
of a primit. ^biinan'i Akin to lg. 
buNsen btif/isen (bu/isen?) 'knock*? 

bound sb. me. bounde older 
bouiie: borrowed fr. ofr. bonde 
bonne 'boundary'. — boundary 
points to FR. bonnier , whence 
also Du. bunder odu. bunre. 
Source med.-lat. bodina. 

bound vb. 'leap, spring' bor- 
rowed from FR. bondir 'leap, 
spring' prop, 'resound'. Source 
LAT. bombitare 'hum' ? 

bound adj. 'ready, prepared' 
MK. boiin 'ready, prepared to go': 
loanword from ox. buinn 'pre- 
pared, part, oibiia 'till, prepare'; 
cp. busk. 

bounty me. bounle: loanword 
from FR. bonti; source lat. boni- 
tatein. — bounteous me. bountc- 
vous: derived from ofr. bontive 
'benevolent' by influence of 

bourn 'boundary' adapt, of fr. 
borne \ ident. with bound. 

bo^v vb. 'bend' me. boi^ue earlier 
bmve OE. biigan str. vb. 'bend, 
flee' (only intr.) = uu. buigen, 
Mi.G. bugen, OHG. biogan G. bicgen, 
GOTH, biugan 'bend'. The teut. 
\" bfig is an Aryan bhuk on ac- 
count of OHG. buhil 'hill'. A 
cogn. \f bhag appears in lat. 
fugio, GR. (ffvyio. — bow' sb. 'a 

weapon, a bend' me. bmve OE. 
boga = OHG. OSAX. bogo, du. 
boog, G. bogen, ox. bogi. 

bo'W^ 'the forward part of a 
ship', var. of bough. 

bowel ME. bond bowel', loan- 
word from OFR. bouel (fr. boyau); 
source lat. botelltis 'sausage' (rr. 
budel/o), whence also odu. bode- 
linc DU. beuling 'sausage'. 

bow^er sb. me. bour oe. bur 'a 
dwelling' (see neighbor = OE. 
nihy:biir) ^= oSAX. mlg. biir 'a 
house, cage', ohg. mho. biir 'a 
chamber' G. bauer 'a cage', ox. 
biir 'a chamber, larder'. For the 
TEUT. \rbu 'dwell' cp. build. 

bowl iiE. bolle OE. bolla = ox. 
bolli, DU. bol, OHG. bolla. 

box' 'a chest' me. oe. box: bor- 
rowed from a ^'ULG.-LAT. *buxem 
for buxidem (nom. buxis), whence 
also DU. bus, G. bilchse 'box' ohg. 
buhsa for '^buhsja. vulg.-lat. 
buxis (from gr. nvh^ 'box made 
of the box-tree' cp. box^^ ap- 
pears in FR. bossette, it. bossolo 

box- 'the name of a tree' me. 
box-tre OE. box: borrowed from 
lat.-rom. buxus {= IT. bosso, 
SPAX. box, FR. buis), whence also 
OHG. MHG. buhs(-boum) = G. buchs- 
baum 'box- tree', du. busboofn. 

boy me. bote oe. *bdia; perh. 
dimin. of a lost OE. *'bg 'brother' 
= FLEM. boe 'brother': childish 
abbreviation of E. brother, as G. 
bube OHG. buobo is a reduplication 
of *bd 'brother'? 


boycott — brave 

boycott first heard of in Dec. 

1 880. Captain James Boycott was 
a farmer at Lough Mask, co. 
Mayo, Ireland; the Irish league 
pronounced their edict, in con- 
sequence of which no one wished 
to work or have anything to do 
with him; he was the victim of 
the system of procedure named 
after him. 

brace sb. me. brace: adapt, of 
OFR. brace. Source lat. brac- 

brach me. bracchc. adapt, of 
OFR. brache. Source ohg. bracko 
'hunting dog' = DU. brak ODU. 

brad me. brad usually brod: 
loanword from o^.' broddr 'spike, 
shaft' (= OE. brord 'spike', OHG. 
brort 'edge'). The teut. base 
brozda- answers to OIR. brot 'sting'. 

brag vb. 'boast' me. bra(g)ge; 
akin to ofr. braguer 'flaunt, brave, 
brag*. Source doubtful. 

braid vb. 'weave' me. breide 
OE. brcylati 'move to and fro, 
weave' = OSAX. bregdan , lg. 
breiden, ohg. brcttan mhg. bretten, 
ON. bregda 'draw, pull, weave, 
braid' ; orig. 'move quickly' ; but 
MLG. breiden 'knit'. Cp. bridle. 

brain me. brain oe. brce^en ^= 
DU. brein, lg. bregen 'brain'. The 
teut. base bragena- 'brain', if 
from an Aryan mrog/i-, is com- 
pared with GR. (iQf//ii6c 'fore- 
head' (for *^iQty-). 

brake 'a thicket' me. brake; 
perh. cogn. w. LG. brake 'tree- 
trunk' ? 

bramble me. brembel oe. bremel 
earlier *brcemi/; cogn. w. G. brom- 
beere 'brambleberry' OHG. bravia, 
DU. braam, perh. ident. w. oe. 
brom under broom. 

bran me. bran : adapt, from. ir. 
w. bran. me. bren adapt, from 
OFR. bren points to the same 

branch 'a bough of a tree' 
me. braunche: borrowed from FR. 
branche {== span. it. branca lat. 
type bi-ramical deriv. of lat. 
ramus 'branch'?). 

brand me. oe. brand brond =; 
ODU. MLG. brand, ohg. mhg. brant 
'a burning, a brand', DU. G. brand 
'a burning, fuel', ON. brandr 'a 
firebrand', sw. dan. brand' ?l fire- 
brand, fire'. From teut. brinnan 
= burn. — brandish vb. me. 
branndisshe braundisse: loanword 
from FR. brandiss- in brandir {= 
IT. brandire) 'brandish'. Source 
a teut. brand 'sword' = e. brand 
'sword' OE. brond, on. brandr, 
MHG. brant 'blade of a sword'. 
— brandy short for brandyioine 
= DU. brandewijn, G. bratitewein 
brandy', lit. 'burnt wine'. 

brass me. bras oe. brces. lat. 
ferrum, if ioxferso- aryan bherso-, 
is considered akin to the teut. 
base brasa- in oe. brces. 

brat 'a child' perh. ident. with 
ME. OE. bratt 'a coarse cloak : 
orig. a Celt, word, cp. GAEL. IR. 
brat 'a cloak, mantle' — w. brat 
'a rag, a pinafore'. 

brave borrowed from fr. braz'e, 
whence also du. braaf, G. brav. 


breeze * 


b^a^vn me. braun brawn 'muscle, 
boar's flesh'; orig. *braoun bra- 
hiin: borrowed from OFR. braon 
a piece of flesh, muscle'. Source 
a TEUT. brado ace. bradun = 
OHG. brato MHG. brdte 'a slice 
of bread' and also like G. braten 
'roast meat', oe. brckdan 'roast 
meat', G. bratefi, DU. braden 'roast'; 
in LG. dial, an OSAX. brddo 
'muscle' is preserved (e.g. west- 
PHAL. 7cadbrde) ; cp. :mlg. brdde. 

braze^ vb. 'adorn with brass' 
-ME. brdse oe. brasian 'cover with 
^rass': deriv. of OE. brcES\ cp. 

braze- vb. 'harden': loanword 
from ox. brasa harden by fire'. 

breach me. breche: adapt, of 
FR. breche. Source the teut. vb. 
brekan = break. 

bread me. br{d late oe. bread 
= OHG. brot g. brbd, oSAX. brod^ 
DU. brood, late ox. brand. The 
Teut. base brau-da- is deriv. fr. 
the v^ brti in E. broth and 
brew. The orig. teut. word for 
bread \\2i% loaf (= teut. hlaiba-). 
In OE. we find br^ad 'piece of 
bread' and /w/^rcWhoney-comb'. 

breadth formed after length 
strength with secondary /// from 
ME. brc'de OE. brcedo 'breadth': 
abstract noun formed hombroad 
with umlaut (^goth. braidei, OHG. 
breiti). Cp. westphal. bredde, 
OSAX. ^brcdtha from brid 'broad'. 

break vb. me. brc'ke OE. br'ecan 
str. vb. ^= DU. breken, osax. 
brekan, OHG. brehhan g. brechen, 
GOTH, brikan. With the TEUT. 

\fbrek 'break" (aryan bhre^') 
cp. i^XT./rango (y)ret.fregt) 'break'. 

breakfast me. brckefaste: prop, 
breaking one's fast, the first 
meal of the day by which the 
fast is broken'. 

bream me. bre'm'. loanword 
from FR. breme'y source a teut. 
braxma in OHG. brahsima mhg. 
braesevi G. brassen = osax. 
bressefno, DU. brasem, osw. braxn, 
DAN. brasen. 

breast me. brest short for me. 
brest OE. breost ^= osax. briost, 
OFRis. briast, ox. brjdst; akin to 
GOTH, briists plur. , DU. borst, 
OFRIS. burst (and briast'), G.brust: 
TEUT. bases breiist- : brust-. 

breath me. bre'th oe. breed 
'breath , odor' ; akin to OHG. 
brdda?n :mhg. brddem G. brodem 
broden 'steam, vapor, exhalation'. 

breech buttocks* me. brech oe. 
brec. Orig. ident. with breeches 
(»a pair of breeches«) me. 
br?ch breche; the corresp. oe. 
brei plur. points to a sing. *brGC 
= DU. broek, OFRIS. brok (plur. 
breli), OX. brok (plur. brcekr), OHG. 
mhg. bruoch. The teut. base 
brok- plur. brokiz) is seemingly 
connected with gall.-lat. braca 
'clothing for the legs'. 

breed vb. me. brede oe. bredan 
= DU. broeden, ohg. bruoten 
MHG. briieten G. briiten 'brood, 
hatch', GOTH, "brodjan : deriv. of 
teut. brbda- see brood. 

breeze * 'a - strong wind' = 
synon. G. brise, dan. bris: source 


breeze^ — brim 

FR. brise 'the north wind' = 
SPAN, brisa. 

breeze- 'gadfly' me. brese oe. 
breosa. Connection with G. bremse 
and bretne (ohg. brimisa brand) 
is doubtful. 

brew vb. me. brcive oe. breowan 
str. vb. ^=- DU. bromven, ohg. 
briuwan G. brauen. With the 
TEUT. y^ bra (Aryan bhrtt bhrcii) 
'brew' are related phryg.-thrac. 
^oviov 'beer, cider, which prob. 
stands for gr. *(povr(jv, also lat. 
defrutmn 'must boiled down', OIR. 
bruthe 'broth' — bruth 'live coals, 
heat' — • bruith 'cooking'. Cp. 

bridal, see bride. 

bride me. bride oe. bryd (from 
'^brjdi *brudi) = OSAX. odu. 
LG. brud, DU. bruid, ohg. mhg. 
brut G. braut, on. brudr] goth. 
brills means 'daughter-in-law' 
(but briip-faps 'bridegroom') ; 
oSAX. brud is 'the newly married 
wife' as e. bride. — bridal 
AIE. brid-dle oe. bryd-ealo: lit. 
^bride-ale (me. bride oe. bryd 
and ME. die OE. eald). In gerjm. 
dialects, we find kindelbier 'bap- 
tism'. — bridegroom me. bride- 
gome OE. brydgunia = synon. 
OSAX. brtidigumo, DU. bruidc- 
gomo, OHG. briitigomo MHG. briute- 
gonie G. briiutigam , on. briid- 
gume (goth. briip-faps). The 
second element of these com- 
pounds (oe. goth. guma, ohg. 
gomo 'man' is related to lat. 
homo from indo-teut. ghotnoti). 
The phonetical development of 

me. bridegome into e. bridegroom 
is due to the influence oi groom. 

bridge me. brigge oe. bryc'g = 
OFRis. brigge, DU. brug, ohg. 
briicka G. briicke (goth. '''brugja 
*briigJ'o). Thecorresp. ON.bryggJa 
(also LG. brilgge , northfris. 
bragH) and germ, (dial.) briicke 
signify 'pavement, floor'; and OE. 
brycgian me. brigge and nfris. 
braghin, mlg. briiggen signify 'to 

bridle me. oe. bridel older oe. 
briyiel briyiil = ohg. hrittil for 
'^brictil'. deriv. from the teut. 
vb. br'egdan 'pull' under braid. 
Akin to OSLOV. briizda 'bridle' 
(Aryan \f bhreghdh also in lat. 
frcmmi 'bridle'?). 

brief adj. 'sliort' me. bref: 
borrowed, from FR. bref (span. 
IT. breve = lat. brevis 'short'). 

brief sb. 'a commission, do- 
cument' me. brcf\ cp. DU. g. 
brief ohg. briaf and the cor- 
responding OFR. bref 'an official 
document'. Orig. ident. with 
brief adj. 

brier 'a prickly shrub' me. brere 
OE. brckr brer 'a bramble'. 

bright :me. bright oe. beorht 
'bright, white, clear' = osAX. 
berht, ohg. b'erahf, goth. bairhts 
'bright'. Akin to MLG. brehen 
'shine, glisten' ; cp. SKR. bhargas 

brim me. britH\ pcrh. ident. 
with OE. brirn 'ocean , surf = 
ON. britn surf ; cp. the name of 
the city of Bremen. 




brimstone me. hrimston earlier 
brenston == on. hrennisteinn 'brim- 
stone': deriv. of me. bremie = 

brine me. brine 'salt liquor' = 
DU. brijn MDU. brine. 

bring vb. ME. bringe OE. bringan 
= OHG. OSAX. bringan G. bringen, 
GOTH, briggan', cp. DU. brengen, 
OSAX. brengian, OE. brengan 'bring' : 
TEUT. \'^breng hrang. 

brink ME. brink 'edge'; cp. ox. 
brekka from *brinkd, lg. brink. 

brisk a CELT, loanword ; cp. av. 
brysgy GAEL. bri(o)sg 'quick, livel}''. 

bristle ME. bristle older birstle 
OE. *byrsiel: dimin. of OE. by7-st 
= OHG. burst G. borste, DU. borstc 
bristle'; akin to OHG. bursta G. 
bilrste 'brush'. The TEUT. yfbors 
burs (whence bur in burdocJi) 
is an Ar}'an \f bhrs in skr. /V/r^// 
'point, prong'. Cp. brush. 

brittle ME. britel oE. *brytel: 
formed witli suflfix -il (oE. el cp. 
nimble^ from OE. breotan 'break' 
= ON. brjota 'break'. 

broach vb. me. brgche 'bore, 
spur, spit, tap' (setten on broche 
'set a-broach, tap' = fr. mettrc 
en broche\2i\i a barrel') ; fr. brocher 
broach, pierce' and broche 'a 
broach, spit'. 

broad iiE. brgd oe. brad = 
OSAX. MLG. l?red, du. breed, G. 
breit, ON. breidr, sw. DAN. ^r^</, 
GOTH, braids "broad": prob. from 
a PRE-TEUT. mraito-, akin to an 
Aryan \'~ nirit in skr. mrit 'fall 
to pieces' (therefore broad "^xo"^. 

brock 'a badger' me. brok oe. 
■ brocc (= DAN. broJi) \ a celt. 
loanword; cp. w. corn. bret. 
broch, GAEL. IR. JL\NX broc 'a 
badger (celt, base brokko-, perh. 
ident. w. lat. broccus adj. 'having 
prominent teeth' and ofr. broc 
'spit, point'). 

broil vb. :me. broile] adapt, of 
OFR. bruiller 'broil, roast', ofr. 
bruir 'roast' seems to be ident. 
with G. briihen mhg. briiejen, DU. 
broeijen foment; cp. brood. 

broker me. brocour 'pedlar, 
pawnbroker'; loanword from 
OFR. brocour brokeor 'tapster 
who retails wine from the tap'; 
cp. FR. broche under broach. 

brooch 'broach' me. broche 'a 
pin , peg , brooch' : borrowed 
from FR. broche 'a spit, point'. 

brood me. oe. brod == du. broed, 
OHG. irao. bruot G. brut: appar. 
formed with dental suffix from 
the TEUT. y/~bro in G. bruhen, 
DU. broeien. Cp. breed. 

brook :me. brok oe. broc = 
DU. broek, mlg. brok LG. brook 
'marsh, pool', OHG. bruohQi) mhg. 
bruoch G. bruch 'marsh, bog'; 
possibly connected with the- 
TEUT. -^brek 'break' in break. 

brook vb. 'put up with' me. 
bro(o)kc brouke OE. brtican 'use, 
enjoy' = osax. brukan , du. 
gebruiken, ohg. briihhan AfflG. 
brdchen G. brauchen 'use, need , 
GOTH, briikjan 'use'. The pre- 
TEUT. form of the \f bhrUg 
accords with lat. fruor from 




'^friawr for *frug7-'or and cp. lat. 

broom me. oe. />rpm 'the plant 
of the broom' = ODU. broem 
'broom'; perh. cogn. w. bramble. 

broth ME. broth oe. brod = 
ON. brod, OHG. brod'. deriv. from 
the sfbrti under brew. 

brother me. brother oe. brodor 
= DU. broeder , OSAX. brot/uir, 
OHG. lifflG. bruodcr G. bruder, on. 
brodir , goth. brb^ar 'brother. 
The teut. base broker- (Aryan 
bhrater-^ corresponds to lat. 
f rater , skr. bhratar- , oslov. 
bratru', cp. gr. (fQaxgia. 

bro'w :me. brotoc brikve oe. brii ; 
cp. on. brim 'eyebrow' and skr. 
bhrti , GR. (HpQvc, oslov. bruvi 

brown :me. brotin oe. briin = 

MLG. OHG. MHG. OFRIS. briifl, DU. 

brum, ON. brunn. The teut. 
name of the color passed into 
ROM. (fr. briin = span. it. 
bruno brown') and lith. {hrunas 
'brown'). The proper stem of 
Aryan bhr-uno- appears in lith. 
beras 'brown' (see bear sb.) and 
reduplicated in skr. babhru-s 
•'reddish- brown' (see beaver^. 

bruise vb. ]Me. brilse: loanword 
from OFR. bruser (fr. briser') 
'break', whence oe. brysan 'break'. 

bruit 'a rumor' me. briit: bor- 
rowed from FR. bruit 'noise'. 

brush sb. ME. hrusshe 'a brush', 
orig. 'brush-wood': borrowed 
from OFR. broce fr. brosse 'brusli- 
wood, brush'. 

brute borrowed from fr. brut 
adj. (fern, brute'); source lat. 

buck vb. 'wash linen , steep 
clothes in lye' ME. houke (oE. 
*buciati) = dan. byge, sw. byka^ 
norw. beukja, icel. bauka, MHG. 
btichcn G. hauchen. The teut. 
vb. bukon {biikjati) is based on 
oe. bile (cp. bucket). The 
ROM. FR. biier, IT. bucare 'wash' 
are borrowed from Teut. 

buck sb. ME. biikke oe. bucca\ 
cp. the synon. osAX. buck, fris. 

DU. bok, OHG. MHG. boc{ck) G. bock, 

ON. bukkr bokkr, sw. bock, dan. 
buk 'a he-goat, ram, buck(deer)', 
GOTH. *bukks '^bukka'. ident. w. 

GAEL. boC, OIR. boCC, CYISIR. boch 

'buck' from a celt, base bukko- 
(whence fr. bouc ofr. boc') and 
w. armen. buc 'Iamb', avest. biiza 
'buck' (ARYAN -^/i%?). ThelNDO- 
TEUT. base bhiigo- is perh. con- 
nected with the root oi fugio, 
GR. qtvyu) 'flee' ; hence buck may 
have signified orig. 'fugitive'. 

bucket 'a kind of pail' me. 
boket: deriv. from OE. biic 'a 
pitcher' with the dimin. suffix -et. 

buckle ME. bokel: adapt, of fr. 
boucle , whence also G. buckel. 
Source MED. -lat. buc(c)ula 'a 
beaver, shield'. 

buckler me. hokeler: adapt, of 
OFR. bocler bucler = fr. bouclier 
(whence also DU. beukclaar, MHG. 
buckcler, ON. buklari). Cp. buckle. 

buckram me. bokeram bukeram 
= OFR. bouqueran boucaran (fr. 




bougran, mhg. buckerani). Source 
and history unknown. 

buckwheat = du. boekiveit, 
MLG. bokiveie, G. bjichweizen, dan. 
boghvcde: lit. 'beech-wheat' from 
the resemblance of its seeds to 
the mast of the beech-tree. The 
E. word is of continental origin. 
Cp. beech. 

bud ME. budde; perh. akin to 
FK. bouton, DU. bot 'bud'. History 
and source uncertain. 

bugle 'a buffalo, a horn me. 
bilgle'. borrowed from ofr. bugle 
'a wild ox' (lat. huculiis, dimin. 
of bos 'an ox"). The meaning 
'horn' is short for bugle-horn'. 

build vb. short for me. bllde (pret. 
bilde^ Oe. *bjfldii?i (pret. bylde)\ 
deriv. with vowel mutation from 
oe. bold 'house' which goes back, 
as shown by the older oe. botl 
bodl, by metathesis to a teut:. 
bo-pla- (== ON. bol , DU. boedel, 
OSAX. bodies plur., OFRiS. bodel 
bold. OE. byldan (bytlafi) is a 
teut. bupljan. teut. bopla- ^= 
ARYAN bhu-tlo- belongs to the 
INDO-TEUT. \fbhu 'dwell, reside' 
(cp. be, bower and booth). For 
the ARYAN //- suffix cp. needle. 

bull ME. bule; oe. only in 
dimin. bulluc = me. e. bullock; 
cp. the synon. DU. bul, lg. bulk, 
ON. boli, DAN. boll 'a castrated bull' ; 
LITH. bullus is primit. related. 
Whether the E. bull is orig. a 
SCAND. loanword, is uncertain. 

burden 1 'a load' me. birthen 
OE. byrden ^= osAX. burtMnnia 
'burden ; cp. the equival. ohg. 

burdi G. biirde, on. byrdr, goth. 
baurpei: all deriv. of the teut. 
yf ber in bear', cp. skr. bhrti 
^= OIR. brith 'the carrying' and 
see birth. 

burden- 'the refrain of a song' 
ME. burdoun: loanword from fr. 
bourdon, orig. 'a drone-bee' (= 
SPAN, bordon, it. bordone 'a drone' 
from LAT. burdo 'a drone') ; cp. 
MLG. bardiin 'tenor; a musical 

burgess me. burgeis : loanword 
from OFR. burgeis fr. bourgeois 
(lat. type burgensis from burgus 
'town'). — burgher borrowed 
from DU. burger = mlg. borgere, 
OHG. burgari mhg. burg cere burger 
G. biirger : deriv. of teut. burg- 
cp. borough. 

burial me. buriel biriel prop. 
buriels biriels OE. byrj^els 'tomb' 
(r=r OSAX. burgisli 'tomb') : deriv. 
from the OE. vb. byryin (osAX. 
'^burgiaii); cp. bury. 

burin 'an engraver's tool* : bor- 
rowed from fr. burin; perh. of 
Teut. origin; cp. ohg. bora 'a 
borer' (see under bore). 

burly ME. burli borli oe. *bur- 
lice. Akin to OHG. buro- 'very' 
in burolang boralang ver}' long' 
and perh. to skr. bhuri 'much'? 

bum vb. ME. bertie OE. bcernan 
bcrnan tr. {byrnan intr.). Cp. 
synon. mhg. brinnen intr. and 
its causative brennen; G. bretinen 
intr. and tr., goth. brinnan intr. 
and brannjan tr. Only one n be- 
longs to the TEUT. \f bren, as 
shown by bryne 'conflagration'. 


burnish — butter 

burnish vb. :me. burnisshe bur- 
nisse: loanword from ofr. bur- 
niss-, the stem of certain parts 
of burnir brunir = fr. bru7iir. 

burr ME. burre 'a bur'; cp. sw. 
kardborre 'a l)urdock', dan. borre, 
N.FRis. bor, HELGOL. borrcti 'bur- 
dock'. OE. ^burre, if for teut. 
burzon-y may be deriv, from the 
TEUT. \fbors in G. borste; cp. 
"bri stle. 

burst vb. ME. berste OE. berstan\ 
cp. synon. osax. brestan, lg. du. 
bersten, OHG. brestan iiHG. br'estcn 
G. bersten, on. bresta. Cp. an 
Aryan \f bhrest in oiR. brisshn 
break' {ss for 5/). 

bury vb. me. burie birie oe. 
byriyin J)yryin wk. vb. ; akin to OE. 
byj'ien 'tomb' — l)yr]^els under 
burial, teut. burgjan belongs 
perh. with OE. beorg 'mound, place 
of burial' to the "i^\jX.\f bh-g in 
GOTH, bairgati, du. g. bergen, oe. 
bcorgan 'protect, shelter, secure'. 

bury in place-names see bo- 

bush yv&.busho\A^^ Imsk', ident. 
with OHG. Imsk G. Imsch, DU. 
bosch bos and a ROM. /)osco (= 
FR- bois, IT. bosco'). Uncertain 
whether of Teut. or of Lat. origin. 

bush 'a thicket" me. busch busk 
= OHG. busc G. busch, DU. bosch; 
akin to fr. bois, it. bosco. Orig. 
derived as lat. *buxicum from 
LAT. buxus = boxl 

busk vb. 'get one's self ready' 
me. buske 'prepare one'self: of 
Scand. origin; cp. on. biiask 'pre- 
pare'. Cp. bound adj. 

busk a support for a woman's 
stays' borrowed from fr. busc 
busque orig. 'the whole bodice', 
f)rob. a corruption of bust. 

buss^ 'a herring-boat' :me. basse 
oe. biitse (in butsecarlas) = du. 
bids, OHG. biizo, on. bi'iza. The 
Rom. shows similar words: med.- 
LAT. bussa buscia 'a kind of boat', 
ofr. busse biise buce. Source 

buss'^ 'kiss' = G. dial, busseu 
'kiss'; cp. also span, buz a kiss 
of reverence'; perh. orig. a chil- 
dish onomatopoeia. 

bust from FR. buste (= IT. span. 
bustd), whence also G. bi'iste. 

bustle vb. :\IK. bustele 'wander 
blindly or stupidly'; perh. akin 
to G. (dial.) pusseln 'bustle , icel. 
bustla 'bustle'? 

busy ME. bisy oe. bisi^ = du. 
b,ezig, i.G. b<-sig: rEvr. base* bisigtr-. 

but ME. bute shortened for bi/ten 
OE. hdan conj. 'except' — prep, 
'besides, without' == du. buitcn 
'except'. Contr. from be-utan; 
cp. G. ausser and E. out. 

butcher me. bocher earlier bou- 
cher: borrowed from fr. boucher 
'one who kills he-goats' (deriv. 
of FR. bouc = buck). 

butler ME. buteler bot(e)!er fr. 
OFR. hojiteiller: deriv. of bottle. 

butt borrowed from ofr. boute, 
FR. botte (= span, bota, IT. botte) 
'a butt, cask'. Akin to OE. bytt 
'hose, a leather bottle', OHG. butin 
G. biitte. 

butter ME. Imtere oe. buterc 
butore = G. butter, DU. boter, 

buttock — caitiff 


LG. hotter', source lax. biityrum 
(cp. FR. beurre, it. burro) = gr. 
(iovrvpov. — butterfly yiE.butter- 
flie OE. butor-fieoge = DU. boter- 
vlieg\ cp. G. dial, butter vog el 'a 
butterfly' and the G. dial, syno- 
nyms milchdieb and molkenstehler . 

buttock ME. buttok with dimin. 
suffix (cp. hillock) fr. ofr. bot 
(fr. bout) 'an end'; cp. butt-end. 

button :me. butomi : borrowed 
FR. bouton 'a bud, a button*. 

buttress 'a support' (in archi- 
tecture) me. buteras butres: bor- 
rowed from OFR. bouterets, prop, 
plur. of bouteret 'a buttress'; cp. 
FR. boter bouter 'thrust, prop. 

buxom :me. buxom older ibuh- 

sum from OE. biigan = bow] 
the old meaning was 'obedient, 
obliging'. Akin to DU. buigzaam, 
G. biegsant 'submissive'. 

buy vb. ME. bie earlier bigge 
OE. bydgan 'purchase' =: OSAX. 
buggian, goth. bugjan 'buy'. 

buzzard me. biisard short for 
bi'isard: loanword from fr. busard 
by-form of fr. buse 'buzzard' (== 
LAT. ^«/^f buzzard'), whence also 
DU. buizerd, G. bushart. 

by me. OE. bi (but be- as prefix) 
= OSAX. OHG. MHG. bi G. bei, 
DU. bij\ GOTH, bi means 'round, 
round about' and thus connec- 
tion with GR. a.(.i(fi.^ LAT. ambi- 
becomes possible. 

cabbage earlier cabbache from 
FR. dial, caboche = fr. cabus (du. 
kabuis), IT. capuccio , G. kappes 
OHG. kabtiy. orig. deriv. of LAT. 
caput head'. 

cabin me. caban: borrowed 
from FR. cabane = it. med.-lat. 
capanna 'a cabin'. Source and 
history unknown. 

cable ME. cable (= g. du. sw. 
DAN. kabet) : adapt, of fr. cable. 
Source lat. capulum 'a rope' 
(lat. caper e 'take, hold). 

caboose ident. with du. kabuis, 
G. kahilse, dan. kabys. Earlier 
E. form comboose ident. with DU. 

English Etymology. 

koffibuis, FR. cambuse. Prob. akin 
to E. cabin. 

cackle vb. me. kakle = du. lg. 
kakelen, G. kakeln, sw. kackla, 
DAN. kagle 'cackle'. Onomato- 
poetic formations. 

cage :me. edge: adapt, of fr. 
cage = IT. gabbia gaggia dial. 
cabbia; source lat. cdvea, whence 
also OHG. chevia g. kdpig 'cage'. 

cairn borrowed from Gael. ir. 
w. cam 'a pile, rock'? 

caitiff ME. caitif a captive' : 

loanword from onfr. caitif 'a 

wretch' (whence also du. katijvig 

ODU. catijf caitijf) = fr. chdtif 



cajole — camphor 


'mean, vile' (it. cattivo 
captwus 'captive'). 

cajole vb. = fr. ccijoler 'coax' 
(OFR. cageoler 'chatter like a bird 
in a cage, piate', deriv. of fr. 
cage =^ E. cage). 

cake aiE. cake oe. *caca (in- 
ferred from the dimin. formation 
OE. cedil dicel, teut. base kakila-) 
= ON. s\v. kaka, DAN. kage 'cake'. 
Akin to OSAX. koko, du. koek, sc. 
cooky (also oe. cdcil me. kechel 
from the dimin. goth. *kdkila-), 
OHG. kuocho G. kuchen. The base 
kakan- kokan- is genuine teut. 

ca(u)ldron me. caudrotm: bor- 
rowed from AFR. *caudroim = 
F"R. chaudron (= it. calderone a 
large kettle'). Source lat. ra/- 
^/rtrria 'a kettle for hot water' 
(caldus calidus 'hot). The / of 
modern spelling is inserted in 
imitation ofLAT. (Scotch still cau- 

calfi me. calf oe. cealf^^ osax. 
DU. LG. sw. calf, on. kdlfr, ohg. 
G. kalh; goth. has only a fem. 
kalho 'heifer' (ohg. chalba G. 
kalhe f. 'a calf). Outside of 
teut., there is a series of words 
with the base glbh- in skr. 
garhha 'the womb, an embryo', 
GR. iiBXffvq 'womb' and its deriv. 
af>f:X(f6q 'brother' — deXcpdS, a 
young pig. 

calf2 ]ME. calf] perh. adopt, of 
on. kdlfi = NORW. kalve , sw. 
kalf (ben-J^alf) 'calf of the leg'. 

ca(u)lk vb. ME. cauke 'tread 
as a cock': borrowed from ofr. 

cauquer 'tread' (source lat. cal- 
care 'tread down'). 

call vb. ME. calle oe. (c. 950) 
callian (once misspelled r^f^/Zm;/): 
a SCAND. loanword cp. ON. kal/a 
'say, call, name' (sw. kalla, dan. 
kalde 'call'): ident. with DU. 
kallen, ohg. kalian] c\>. skr. 
\fgir 'call, praise'. 

callous from lat. callosus 'hard- 
skinned (lat. callus 'hard skin'). 

callo\v adj. me. caloive calu oe. 
calu {calm-') = DU. kaal, ohg. 
kalo (infl. kalawh-) G. kahl: an 
early lat. loanword =^ lat. calvus 
(whence fr. chauve, it. span. 
calvo), which is of Aryan origin 
(cp. skr. kulva, avest. kaourva 

calm ME. calme (= du. kalvi) 
from fr. calme (= span. it. 
calma 'calmness, still weather). 
Source med.-lat. cauma'the heat 
of the sun' = gr. y.avf.ia 'great 
heat', / being due to association 
w. LAT. calor. 

cambric borrowed from fr. 
cainbrayy so called from Cambrai 
(flem. du. KamerijU), a town of 
northern France where it was 
first made (hence G. kanimcr- 
tucli). See arras and lawn-. 

camp borrowed from fr. camp 
'field, army' = lat. campus^^€\.6! . 
— campaign from fr. cam- 
pa{i)gne 'an open field, a mili- 
tary campaign'. 

camphor borrowed from fr. 
caniphrc = it. can for a, G. kampfer, 
DU. kamfer. 

can — card 


can vb. me. oe. can = goth. 
kann, os.\x. OHG. kan o. kann. 
The TEUT. vb. kunnan is akin to 
keen: the ARYAN\r^(?« see under 

can sb. ME. OE. canne = du. kan 
'a pot, mug', OHG. kantia o. katine, 
ox. ka/ina, goth. *kannfl. The 
TEUT. word passed into fr. (ofr. 
i-anne fr. dimin. canette 'a jug). 

canary = span, canario 'bird' 
= FR. canari; cp. G. kanarien- 
vogel 'canar)'-bird', dan. canarie- 
fugl, sw. caTiariefogel, DU. kanarie- 
vogel 'canary-bird'; so named 
after the Canary islands. 

candle me. candle candel oe. 
candel: early loanword fr. lat. 
candela, whence also it. candela. 
Cp. chandelier . 

cane :me. r««^: borrowed from 
FR. canne = it. canna 'a reed, 
a cane', lat. canna. 

canker me. cancre late oe. 
cancer fr. onfr. cancre (fr. 
chancre) : source lat. cancer, 
whence also G. du. kanker ohg. 

canon me. canoun: adapt, of 
IR. canon. Source lat. canon 
(gr. YMvoiv) 'a rule, standard of 

canvas :me. can(e)vas (= du. 
kanefas, G. cannezms kanevas, sw. 
kanfass, Tixs. kannevas): borrow- 
ed from onfr. canevas (lat. type 
canabaciiis , deriv. of cannabis 

cap ME. ca/>pe OE. ces/>/>e 'cloak' 
(= OHG. kappa 'cloak' G. kappe, 

du. kap 'cap'). Source lat. cappa ; 
ident. with cape^ and cope. 

cape^ yiy..cdpe\ borrowed from 
ONFR. cape (= IT. LAT. cappa 'a 
cloak, cape'): ident. with cap. 

cape^ 'a headland' borrowed 
from FR. cap 'cape, headland, 
head' = G. kap, it. capo. Source 
LAT. capu/ 'head'. 

caper from fr. ceipre (^ it. 
capper o, du. kapper, G. kaper): 
source lat. capparis. 

capon ME. cdpoun late oe. (c. 
looo) captiti fr. ontr. capon (fr. 
chapori) : source I-AT. cappo{nem), 
whence also G. kapaun and ohg. 

captain me. capitain from fr. 
capitainc (lat. type capitaneus 
capitanus, deriv. of lat. caput 
'head'). Ident. w. chief taiti. 

car ME. carre (by-form charre) : 
l)orrowed from ontr. carre (fr. 
char). Source lat.-gall. carrus 
(bret. ir. w. carr) 'chariot, 
whence also it. carro, du. kar, 
OHG. charra charro 'cart' g. karre 

cara\A^ay borrowed from fr. 
carvi = it. carvi, lat. carewn 
'caraway*; cp. nv.karwij, G.karbe. 

carbuncle me. car buck: bor- 
rowed from ONFR. carbuncle car- 
boucle (fr. escarboucle; ident. with 
it. carbonchio, du. karbonkel, G. 
karbunket): lat. carbunculus 'a 
glowing coal, gem, hoil'> dimin. 
of car bo. 

card 1 ME. card: borrowed from 
FR. carte 'a card, ticket, bill, 


card 2 — cashier. 

map, chart'; ident. with du. 
kaart, G. karte, ir. carta. Source 
LAT. c{h)arta 'a card, paper'. 

card'"' ME. carde: adapt, from 
FR. carde) ident. with the synon. 
DU. kaarde, ohg. charta o. karte, 
SPAN, carda, it. cardo 'a card'. 
Source LAT. carduus 'a thistle'. 

care me. cdre oe. cam (cearu) 
'sorrow, suffering, grief = OSAX. 
OHG. kara 'lament' (g. kar- in 
karfreitag 'Good Friday'; mhg. g. 
karwoche 'Passion week') =-- goth. 
kara sorrow'. A cognate vb. 
(meaning 'sigh') is preserved in 
OHG. qucran (goth. *qalran). 
Cp. chary. 

carol ME. Carole 'dance, song' 
from OFR. Carole 'a kind of dance, 
also a carol or Christmas song'. 
Of CELT, origin (bret. koroll 'a 
dance', Manx carval a carol', 
w. carol 'a song', gael. carull 
'melody, harmony'). 

carp ME. carpe = du. karper, 
OHG. charpho karfo G. karpfen, 
ON. karfe, s\v. karp, dan. karpe. 
Ident. with late lat. carpa = fr. 
carpe, it. span, carpa. 

carp vb. me. carpe c^xt^ at, talk, 
say' : adapt, of on. karpa 'boast, 
brag'. The present meaning 
is prob. an outgrowth of the 
associated idea in lat. carpere 

carpenter me. carpenter: bor- 
rowed from ONFR. carpentier (fr. 
charpentier'). Source lat. car- 
■pentiim 'carriage'. 

carriage me. carid^e 'burden, 
baggage': borrowed from onfr. 

cariage (fr. charriagi), deriv. of 
carier = e. carry. 

carrion me. carion caroine = 
du. karonje; cp. also me. crone, 
odu. kronie: adapt, of onfr. 
caroigne (ofr. cJiaroigne = fr. 
charogne); lat. type caronia 'a 
carcass' fr. caro 'flesh'. 

carry vb. me. carte: adapt, from 
ONFR. carier (fr. charrier^; lat. 
type car r tea re 'carry' (lat. car r us 
'a cart, car'; cp. car^. 

cart me. cart fr. o^.kartr; ident. 
w. OE. crcet plur. cratu 'chariot' 
= du. krat 'hindpart of a cart': 
of Celt, origin; cp. oiR. cret 

a wain-body. 

cartridge with intensive r for 
cartidge, a corruption oi cartouche 
=. FR. cartouche (it. cartoccio 
'cartridge', deriv. of lat. charta 

carve vb. me. kerve oe. ceorfan 
= DU. kerven, G. kerben 'notch, 
indent' (goth. *kairfan, ohg. 
^k'crban not found). The \^ kerf 
appears in gr. yodrfco scratch, 

case^ me. cds case: borrowed 
from FR. cas (span. it. caso 'cir- 
cumstance, chance'). Source 
LAT. casus. 

case'"^ ME. cdce cdsse: adapt, 
from OFR. casse fr. caisse; source 
LAT. capsa 'box, cover'. 

cash from fr. casse. Hence 
cashier sb. 

cashier vb. dismiss from ser- 
vice' (= G. kassiren): from fr. 
casser 'discharge'. 




cask borrowed from fr. casque 
'a cask, helmet' (= it. casco 'a 

casket corrupted from fr. cas- 
sette 'a small casket', dimin. of 
FR. casse a chest, box'. 

cassock: adapt.fromFR.^rtja^«<f 
(ir. casacca 'an outer coat', span. 
casaca 'a great-coat, surtout). 

cast vb. ME. caste: a Scand. 
loanword; cp. ox. svf.kasta, dan. 
kaste 'throw. 

caste 'a breed, race' = G. kaste, 
FR. caste: borrowed from spax. 
casta 'breed, race, caste'. 

castle ME. late oe. casiel (also 
iiE. castc'l = ODU. Du. kasteel) 
'a castle, village': borrowed (c. 
looo) fr. OXFR. castel (pvK. chastei 
^rz FR. chateaii). Source lat. ca- 

cat ME. OE. cat (ttj: borrowed 
from OIR. CORX. cat or from 
OXFR. cat (fr. chat) and ident. 
with G. katze, ox. kpttr, XORW. 
s w. katta. The word (base cattu-s) 
is in use in the Teut. Rom. Celt, 
languages; c\^. late lat. catta 
cattus 'cat'. 

catch vb. ME. cacche (with the 
earlier by-form c(chen): borrowed 
from OXTFR. cacher (== fr. chasser, 
SPAX. cazar, it. cacciare), whence 
also ODU. caetsen 'to chase' du. 
kaatsen play ball' and mlg. katzen 
'play ball'. Source a lAt. type 
'"captiare = captare 'catch'. — 
Hence catchpoll me. cacchepol 
late OE. cceiepol prop, 'catcher 
of poultr)-' (cp. FR. poule under 
poult) = OXFR. *cachepol (ofr. 

chacepof) ; cp. G. hiinervogt title 
of a tax-gatherer. 

cater sb. yiE.catour acatour acha- 
tour 'a buyer of provisions , a 
caterer' : source oxFR.rt-rdf/ = fr. 
achat' a. buying, purchase', whence 
FR. acheter. Orig. lat. type 

caterpillar earlier form late me. 
caterpd corrupted from ofr. 
chatepeleuse 'a weevil' lit. 'a hairy 
she-cat': ofr. chate 'a she-cat' 
+ peleuse (lat. pilosus) 'hair}'. — 
catenvaul :me. caterwawe shows 
the e. word cat in an extended 
form like caterpillar; me. wawe 
'make a noise' is imitative. 

catkin dimin. of cat; cp. g. 
kdtzchen 'catkin'. 

cattle me. catcl {chatel, whence 
e. chattel) : borrowed from oxfr. 
catel (ofr. chatel); source med.- 
LAT. capitale 'capital, ])roj)ei;ty*. 

caudle me. caudel: borrowed 
from OXFR. caudel (chaudel = fr. 
chaudeau) 'a warm drink ; deriv. 
of FR. chaud 'hot' (lat. caldus 
calidus 'warm'). 

cause me. cause: adapt, from 
FR. cause (by-form chose) 'a cause, 
thing' = IT. LAT. causa. 

causeway causey corruption 
of causey (due to confusion with 
7vay) ME. cause from oxfr. cauce 
(whence also odu. casseie) = 
FR. clmussie: lat. type {vici) ^cal- 
ciata 'a paved (way)' fr. calciare 

caution yie.. caucioun: borrowed 
from ¥Vi.catition (it. cauzione) = 
lat. cautio 'caution'. 

cave — champion 

cave ME. cave: adapt, from fr. 
cave 'a. cave' (::=it. cava^\ source 
LAT. cavus 'hollow'. 

cease me. cesse ccse: adapt, of 
FR. cesser = it. lat. cessare. 

ceil ciel me. cele sele vb. lit. 
'emboss' from an earlier syle cyll 
'a canopy': source fr. ciel 'a ca- 
nopy' (fr. ciel, SPAN. IT. cielo 
'heaven, canopy, roof = lat. 
coehtin 'heaven'). 

cerge me. cerge; adapt, from 
FR. cierge (it. cero) ; source lat. 
cere us 'a wax taper'. 

certain :me. certein certain: bor- 
rowed from FR. certain {= it. 
certano) horn j.A.r. certafius, deriv. 
of certus. 

chafe ME. chaufe 'warm': adapt, 
of FR. cliauffer', source a lat. 
type caleficare (= lat. calefacere) 
'make warm'. 

chafer :\ie. '^chafer oe. ceafor: 
TEUT. base kafru-; cp.the synon. 
Du. kever, ohg. chevaro G. kiifer 
(goth. *kifra ^^kafrus). Perh. 
chaff is cognate. 

chaff ME. cliaf OE. ceaf (^ du. 
LG. kaf^\ akin to ohg. c/ieva 'pod, 
husk' and perh. to chafer. 

chaffer me. chaffere chaffare 
earlier chap-fare = OE. iiap 'a 
bargain' -(-/(Trw 'a journey' also 
'business'; cp. on. kaupfgr 'a 

chaffinch prop, 'the chaff- 

chain sb. me. chaine: borrowed 
from FR. chaine ofr. chaine (= 
IT. LAT. catenci); ident. with du. 
keten, ohg. chetinna G. kette. 

chair me. chair e: adapt, from 
fr. chair e (ofr. cha-ere); source 
LAT. cathedra (or. y.a&edoa) 'a 
chair, seat'. 

chalice me. c(h)alice: borrowed 
from OFR. chalice (calice = fr. 
calice, it. calice): source lat. 
cdlic-, stem o{ calix 'a cup . From 
the same source also oe. cdlic, 
OSAX. kelik, DU. helh, ohg. helih 
G. kelch. 

chalk MK. chalk oe. iealc 'chalk, 
lime' = DU. G. kalk, on. sw. 
DAN. kalk: early loanword from 
LAT. calc- stem of calx 'lime- 
stone, chalk' (whence also FR. 
chaux, IT. cake, ir. gael. cailc, 
w. calch lime'). 

challenge sb. me. chalenge 
'claim': adapt, from ofr. chalen- 
gier; cp. it. calogna 'accusation' 
=^ LAT. calumnia 'a slander, false 

chamber me. chaumbre: bor- 
rowed {xova.'S'R.,chambre', cp. it. 
camera = lat. earner a camara 
'a vault, a (vaulted) room'; 
ident. w. DU. kamer, ohg. chamara 
G. kamtner "chamber, office'. — 
chamberlain :me. chaiimberlein : 
borrowed from ofr. chainbrelein 
chambrelenc (span, camarlengo, 
IT. camarlingo camerlengo) ; ident. 
w. MED. -LAT. camar- earner lingiis, 
OHG. chamarlinc G. kcimmerling, 
formed with suffix line and lat. 

champion yiv..chaumpioun: bor- 
rowed fr. FR. champion (cp. du. 
kampioen). lat. type catnpio, IT. 
campione 'a combatant' {campus 

chance — chapter 


'a battle, duel ). From the same 
source OE. cempa, ohg. chanph{i)o 
yiRG. kempfe, olg. kempio, ox. 
kappi 'warrior, hero'. 

chance me. chaunce: adapt, of 
KR. chance (whence also mhg. 
G. schanze ; but Du. kans fr. onfr. 
came): ofr. che-ancc, it. caiienza 
point to a lat. type cadentia 'a 
falling, chance' (esp. in dice- 

chancel me. chauncel'. borrowed 
from OFR. chancel \ med.-lat.^^?«- 
cclli plur. a grating, lattice-work', 
whence ohg. cancella chanzella G. 
/{■dr«s^/pulpit', DU. kansel. — chan- 
cellor ME. chaunce ler chaunse/er: 
borrowed from VK.chancelier (lat. 
type cancellar'ms 'a chancellor', 
orig. 'an officer near the screen 
before the judge's bench', deriv. 
oii^XT.cancellus grating). Ident. 
w. OHG. chancildri mhg. kanze/cere 
G. kanzler, du. katiselier, dan. sw. 
kansler, icel. kanzellari. — chan- 
cery ME. chauncerie earlier chaiin- 
cellerie: adapt, of ^K.chancelkrie 
(ident. w. it. canceller'm, du. 
kanselarij, G. kanzlei, dan. can- 
cclli, sw. kansli). 

chandelier from fr. chandelier 
= SPAN, candelero, it. candelliere; 
LAT. type candelarius also in 
du. kandelaar'y cp. candle. — 
chandler me. chaundeler; loan- 
word fr. FR. chafidelier 'a candle- 
maker, candle-stick' = it. cande- 
la jo: LAT. type candelarius. 

change v'b.yis..chaunge: adapt, 
from FR. changer (=rspAN. cambiar, 

IT. cambiar e cangiare); source 
LAT. cambiar e 'change, exchange'. 

channel me. chanelle: adapt, 
from OFR. chanel\ ident. w. e. 
canal (=r fr. span, canal, it. 
canale, du. kanaal, G. sw. kanat). 

chant vb. me. chaunte: adapt, 
from FR. chanter {= span, cantar, 
IT. LAT. cantar e 'sing'). 

chap vb. ME. chappe 'cut, chop' 
= mdu. du. happen, dan. kappe, 
sw. kappa. 

chapel ME. chapele: borrowed 
from FR. chapelle {= it. lat. 
capclla, OHG. kap'ella G. kapelle, 
DU. DAN. kapel, sw. kapelt). lat. 
capella (dimin. of capci) signified 
'a cape"; the chapel itself where 
the cloak of St. Martin and other 
relics were preserved first ob- 
tained the name capella; then 
from the 7 ^^ cent, the use of 
the word became general. Cp. 

chaplain me. chapelein : borrow- 
ed from FR. chapelain {= span. 
capellan, it. capellano, med.-lat. 
capellanus, orig. 'the priest guard- 
ing the cloak of St. Martin'). 
Cp. :mhg. kapelldn G. kaplan, 
DU. kapelaan, dan. sw. kapellan. 

chapman me. chapman 'a mer- 
chant' shortened for OE. ccap- 
man = du. koopfnan, ohg. chouf- 
man G. kaufmann. For OE. c4ap 
'bargain, trade' cp. cheap. 

chapter me. chapitre: adapt, 
of FR. chapitre = lat. capitu- 
lum 'a chapter of a book', 
whence also G. kapitel 'chapter 
of a book'. 


char — cheek 

char vb. me. cherre oe. cyrran 
wk. vb. "turn*: teut. base karrjan 
or karzjanl See ajar. 

charge vb. me. charge; adapt. 
oi^^. charger (it. caricare, aiED.- 
LAT. carricare 'load a car) ; deriv. 
of LAT. carrus = car. — charge 
sb. ME. charge', adapt, from fr. 
charge (it. caricd) 'a load'. 

chariot me. chariot: borrowed 
from FR. chariot, dimin. of char 
'a car'. 

charity :me. charite (cherite) : bor- 
rowed from FR. charity (it. carita 
= LAT. caritatetii). 

charm me. chartne: borrowed 
from i"R. chartne 'an enchant- 
ment'; source lat. carmen 'a 
song, enchantment'. 

chart ident. w. g. karte, du. 
kaart; borrowed from fr. charte; 
source lat. charta. — charter 
ME. chartre c/iarter: adapt, of 
FR. chartre 'a charter' (lat. 
chartula 'a little paper'). 

chary me. chart oe. cearij^ 
"full of care , sad' = OSAX. 
OHG. karag (Heliand modkarag 
'sad') 'full of care' o. karg 'slow 
to give'. Cp. care. 

chase vb. me. chdce chase', bor- 
rowed from FR. chasser (Picard. 
cachier see under catch'); lat. 
type captiare. — chase me. 
chdce chase', adapt, from fr. 
chasse ^= it. caccia 'chase'. 

chaste me. chaste', borrowed 
from FR. chaste (it. casto r=r lat. 
castus chaste'). — chaste vb. 
'chastise' me. chastie also chasty: 
adapt, of OFR. chastier = FR. 

chdtier (= span, casiigar , it. 
lat. castigare) ; ident. w. g. 
kasteien, ODU. castien. — chastise 
vb. ME. chastise for the shorter 
chastie 'chasten'; see chaste vb. 

chattel ME. chatel chetel, ident. 
w. cattle: source ofr. chatel. 

chatter vb. ]ME. chat(e)re {chiterc) 
'chatter', an imitative word. 

chaudron 'entrails': borrowed 
from OFR. chaudun cauldun', ident. 
w. G. kaldaunen. The synon. 
IT. caldiime , Sicilian quadutni, 
Cat. escaldntns point to vulgar 
lat. *caldiimen, 

cheap ME. ch(p 'trade, barter, 
price' OE. ccap 'price' = oSAX. 
hop , DU. koop , OHG. kouf G. 
^a///" 'trade, traffic'; source lat. 
caupo 'huckster'. 

cheat vb. ME. chcte short for 
eschcte 'escheat'. The meaning 
'defraud' was ushered in in the 
lb"* cent, on account of the 
unscrupulousness of the eschea- 
ters. Cp. escheat. 

checker sb. me. cheker c/ukker{c) 
'a chess-board' short for eschekcr 
'the excfiequer : loanword from 
OFR. eschequier eschakier 'a chess- 
board, exchequer' = fr. ichiquier 
(= IT. scacchiere , med. -lat. 

cheek ime. cheke oe. ceoce: teut. 
base keukon also in OFRis. tziake 
'jaw-bone' (modern soke) ; akin to 
GOTH, kukjan = eastfris. kiikken 
'kiss'. But ME. cheke ch(ke oe. ceace 
'jaw-bone' may also point to 
DU. kaak ODU. cake 'cheek': teut. 
base kakon- kekbn-; cp. mlg. 

cheer — chimney 


kake (fr. *kako) and keke (fr. 

'^kcokii) gums, jaw-bone'. 

cheer sb. me. chcrc: adapt, of 
FR. chlre (whence it. ccrd). 

cheese me. r///jY o's..cesc{cys)^=^ 
uu. kaas, OSAX. ohg. kasi g. kdse : 
early loanword from lat. caseus 
(whence also it. cascio, span. 
qucso and OIR. caise). 

cherish vb. me. cherisshc: adapt. 
oiv^.ch&riss-, stem of some parts 
o{ cMrir 'hold dear'; source fr. 
cher = LAT. cams 'dear. 

cherry me. chery in comp. 
cherc- chiri- (plur. cherys cheries 
chirks), a new sing, developed 
from the supposed plur. '"chcris 
*chiris oe. ciris cyrs = ohg. 
kirsa G. kirsche. Source lat. 
cerasus , whence tlie corresp. 
Rom. group it. ciriega, fr. cerise 
from a vulgar LAi'. type cercsia. 

chess ME. ches(s)e: borrowed 
from OFR. eschecs chess' prop, 
the plur. of eschec 'check* (it. 
scacco, G. schach , DU. schaali) . 
Source pers. shah 'king. 

chest :me. chesie (chisie) oe. 
cest {cistc) = DU. kist, ohg. chista 
G. kiste , on. sw. kisia , dan. 
kiste. Source lat. cista (gr. 
y.tOrij) a box . 

chestnut me. chestein chasiein 
'chestnut': loanword from ofr. 
chastaignc = fr. chataigne and 
ident. with ohg. kesiintm G. 
kastanie , du. kastanjc. Source 
LAT. castanea. 

chew vb. 1ME. chewe oe. iecnvan 
= DU. kauwen, mlg. keuwen, 
ohg. kimvan G. kaucn. A pre- 

TEUT. glw cp. in OSLOV. zivq 
zivati 'chew'. 

chich 'a dwarf pea' me. <r/«V/iif: 
borrowed from fr. chiche 'chick- 
pea' (= it. cece, span, chicharo, 
ohg. kichurra G. kichcr). Source 
lat. cicer. 

chicken short for me. chlkc oe. 
dycen plur. cycnu = du. keuken 
kieken, g. dial, kiichen kiichlein. 
TEur. base kiukma- is perh. 
traceable to OE. cocc = cock. 

chicory ident. w. du. chikorci, 
G. cichorie, dan. cikorie\ adapt, 
of fr. chicorie = it. cicorea, 
lat. dehor ium ? 

chide vb. me. chide oe. cidan 
'chide, brawl' : teut. base kidjan. 

chief ME. chef: borrowed from 
FR. chef = SPAN, cabo, it. capo\ 
source lat. caput 'head'. — 
chieftain me. chevctaiti cheve- 
tein: borrowed from ofr. cheve- 
taine = med.-lat. capitanus ; ident. 
w. captain. 

child me. child (plur. childrc) 
OE. cild (])lur. cildru) : teut. 
base kilpiz- kelpaz-, not found 
elsewhere; but i)erh. akin to 
GOTH, inkilpo 'pregnant'. 

chill me. chile oe. cyle celc fr. 
a TEUT. base irt//-; for the V~ /(v// 
cp. cool and cold. 

chime me. chimbe orig. 'cymbal', 
short for orig. cimble oe. dim- 
bal{a) : from lat. cymbalu7n 'a 

chimney WE..chimuce^dix\\Q,x che- 
mene: loanword from fr. cheminee 
= IT. cammiuata, ohg. cheminata\ 


chin — churl 

akin to G. kamin. Source lat. 
caminus 'hearth'. 

chin ME. chin oe. cin = osax. 
OHG. hnm G. kinn, DU. kin. The 
older meaning: 'cheek' cp. in 
GOTH, kinnus 'cheek'. For a pre- 
TEUT. base genu- cp. gr. yivvq 
'chin, jaw, jaw-bone', yevsuic f. 
'chin, beard'; lat. gma 'cheek' 
{iientes genuini 'molar teeth') ; IR. 
gin 'mouth'; skr. hanu-s 'jaw', 
hanavya 'jaw-bone'. 

chine :me. chine : adapted from 
OER. eschine = fr. ichine, which 
with IT. schiena 'the chine, back- 
bone' is traced to ohg. skina 
'the shin-bone' G. schicne 'shin, 
shin-bone, splint*; cp. shin. 

chip vb. ME. chippe 'cut into 
small pieces' = du. G. kippen 
"hatch out'. 

chirp vb. ME. chirpe (chirke) : 
an onomatopoetic word. 

chisel sb. :me. chisel: borrowed 
from OFR. cisel = fr. ciseau 
(it. cesello = med.-lat. sciselupi) 
'a chisel'; prob. ult. connected 
with scindere. 

chivalry me. chivalrle'. loanword 
from FR. chevalerie (deriv. of 
cheval from lat. caballus 'a 

choice ME. choisie) : borrowed 
fr. OFR. chois FR. choix 'a choice'. 
The FR. vb. choisir choose' points 
to a TEUT. kaicsjan\ cp. choose. 

choir earlier quire ME. quer: 
borrowed from FR. choeur 'the 
choir of a church, a troup of 
singers': source lat. chorus 'a 
band of singers'. 

choke ME. choke', older by-form 
yis.. a-cheke O'E.. a-ceocian} Phono- 
logy and etymology doubtful. 

choler me. choler: borrowed 
from FR. colere (= it. collcra, 
lat. cliolera 'bile'). 

choose vb. older chi'ise with 
obscure phonology , but me. 
chese oe. ceosan 'choose' = 
OSAX. OHG. kiosan g. kiesdii, du. 
kiezen , on. kj'dsa , go th. kiusan : 
TEUT. V"^?/!j from pre-TEUT. \f gus 
in LAT. gus-tus — gus-tare, gr. 
ytv(x) for ysvow ; SKR. y^ Jus 
'choose, like'. The teut. facti- 
tive ^(77/^0// (cp. choice^ appears 
in Slav, kusiti. 

chop vb. ME. choppe (chappe) 
'cut up, strike off; akin to i)u. 
G. kappcn 'cut, lop'. 

chord cord fr. lat. chvrda. 

Christmas shortened for iviE. 
Christesmasse oe. Cristesmcessc\>xo\>. 
'the mass of Christ'. 

chronicle me. cronicle with the 
by-form cronike (but late oe. 
cranic^: ixomYV.. chronique'^ ident. 
w. DU. kronijk, lat. chronica. 

church ME. chirche oe. cyrceiirie 
older cirice = oSAX. kirika, DU. 
kerk, OHG. kiricha G. kirchc c\\\xxc\\ . 
As shown by the E. palatalization 
and by the G. ch in kiricha, the 
word must have existed in the 
5^'' cent. ; but a goth. '^kyreiko 
'church' is unrecorded. Source 
GR. nvQiu'/.ov (not found in lat. 
nor in the Rom. languages). 

churl :me. cherl oe. ceorl 'a 
churl' = DU. kerel, :mlg. kerle LG. 
G. kerl: teut. base kerla-. With 




different vowel on. karl 'old- 
man', OHG. karal >fflG. karl 'man, 
husband, lover' ; hence the G. 
proper name Karl (lat. Karolus, 
FR. E. Charles). 

chum sb. .ME. chirJie OE. dyrne ; 
the corresp. vb. chtirn is :me. 
cliirne OE. cyrnan from a teut. 
base kirnjan = ox. kirna, DU. 
LG. kermn karnen 'make butter' 
and the 'vessel for making butter, 
is ON. kirna, DU. ^</r«, LG. butter- 
kerne. Source a teut. base 
kerna- cream' in G. (prov,) kern, 
ICEL. kjarna 'cream'. 

cider me. sider cider : from fr. 
cidre {= it. cidro, span, sidra] 
source lat. sicerci). 

cigar = FR. cigare, span. it. 

cinder sb. :xrE. cinder sinder OE. 
sinder 'dross of iron' = ox. sindr 
'slag or dross from a forge', DU. 
sintels 'cinders, coke', OHG. sintar 
G. sinter 'dross of iron, scale'. 

cipher sb. me. ciphre (= du. 
cijfer, G. ziffer) : loanword fr. 
OFR. cifre FR. ciffre, span, cifr.a, 
rr. cif{e)ra. 

cite borrowed from FR. citer 
^= LAT. ci/are (deriv. of lat. 
citus quick'?). 

citizen me. citesein formed after 
me. denizein (cp. denizen) ; the 
earlier me. citeyen is an adapt, of 
OFR. citeien (fr. citoyen). — city 
me. cite', loanword from fr. citL 
Source lat. civitatem. 

clack vb. ME. clacke = du. 
klakken 'clack, crack'; akin to 
fr. claquer 'clap in applause'. 

claim vb. me. claime cleime: 
borrowed fr. ofr. claimer cleijner 
(source lat. clamare = it. c/iia- 
mare 'call, name, send for'). 

clamp sb. after mdu. klantpe du. 
klamp, LG. klampc; akin to MHG. 
klimpfen 'draw, press'. 

clan sb. borrowed from GAEL. 
clann = IR. clann oiR. eland 

clap vb. yiS..clappe o^. clceppnanl 
=^ DU. klappen , lg. klappen 
(whence G. klappen), ohg. klaphon 
G. klaffeft. 

clasp ME. claspe, prob. akin to 
clap and OE. clyppan 'embrace'. 

clatter vb. me. clatere oe. 
'^clatorian (inferred from the 
verbal noun clairung 'a clatter- 
ing') ; akin to DU. klateren 

claw sb. me. claive (by-form cle) 
OE. clatuu (by-form cl4a clip) = 
OSAX. klawa, DU. klaauw, ohg. 
klawa chloa :mhg. kldwe kid: a 
GOTH, ^klhva f. is probable, 
though ox. kid seems to point 
to ^klowa. Pre-TEUT. \fglu. 

clay ME. clai oe. clcei = du. 
LG. klei\ akin to OE. clam 'clay' 
E. (dial.) cloam 'earthenware , 
OHG. kleimen, sc.vxD. kleima klina 
'besmear'. Outside of teut., 
GR. yXoi : yXt in ylotog 'sticky 

clean me. clfne [dene) oe. clcejie 
= OSAX. kleni, DU. kleen klein, 
OHG. kleini 'pretty' G. klein 'small' 
{gotu.* klai-ni- is wanting). The 
nasal belongs to the suffix. For 


clear — cloister 

the root syll. cp. gr. yXoiog fat 
oil'. — Hence cleanse for me. 
dense OE. clcetisian 'make clean": 
a causative vb. witVi formative -s. 

clear me. cler: borrowed from 
OFR. cler =r FR. clair (span, claro, 
IT. chiaro from lat. clarus). 

cleave ' vb. 'adhere' me. cleve 
OE. cleojian = OSAX. klibon, DU. 
kUven, OHG. kliben o. kleben 
'adhere'; goth. '^•klibon not 
recorded, teut. yfklib. 

cleave ^ vb. 'split' me. cleve oe. 
cleofan = osAX. clioban *cliiian, 
DU. klovcn, OHG. klioban chliuban 
G. klieben: teut. sfkliib : ^/^//<^ 
cogn. w. GR. yXvifiHv 'hollow out', 
perh. also w. lat. gliiberc 'peel'. 

cleft ME. Clift OE. '^clyft = OHG. 

G. kltift; from the teut. \fklQb\ 
cp. cleave-. 

clergy ME. clergie'. borrowed 
from OFR. clergie = FR. clergi 
(lat. tjpe clericatus). — clerk 
ME. clerk late OE. clerc cleric (= 
DU. klcrk, FR. clerc') \ source lat. 

clever not yet found in Shakesp., 
a recent word, perh. developed 
from ME. deliver 'agile , nimble, 
lively' (from OFR. delivre 'prompt, 
alert'). Or cogn. w. lg. kluftig 
'wise, clever', DU. kluftigl 

clew sb. ME. cleivc oe. cleowen 
cliicen 'clew' = DU. kliiwen: teut. 
base kliujina- : dimin. of a shorter 
base kliujo- = OHG. kliuwa (g. 
kniiuel) 'clew'. 

cliff ME. clif {cleve) OE. clif 
(plur. cleofii) = ON. OSAX. DU. 
klif 'a cliff, rock'; cp. G. DAN. 

klippe, perh. akin to ox. klifa = 

climb vb. me. climbe oe. climban 
= DU. klimnun, OHG. kliinban 
G. klimmen. The nasal was orig. 
a formative of the pres. tense 
as seen by on. klifa, me. clk<c 
'climb'. The teut. \fklib (cp. 
cliff) may be found in cleave^ 
and cling. 

clinch vb. me. clenche oe. *r/tv/- 
cean = OHG. mhg. klenken 'knot 

cling vb. :me. clinge oe. clingan; 
akin to sav. kliinga 'climb', dan. 
klynge sig 'adhere to , climb'. 
\f kling = \f kUinb'i Cp. climb. 

clip ^ vb. 'embrace* (Shakesp.) 
ME. <:/r/>^f OE. clyppan. Akin to 
OHG. kldflra G. klafter 'fathom'. 

clip^ vb. 'cut, shear' me. clippe: 
borrowed from ON. s\v. klippa 
'clip, cut. 

cloak by-form cloke me. clnke\ 
borrowed from ofr. cloke cloqiie 
'a cloak'. 

clock ME. clokke: prob. borrow- 
ed from o^vvL.clocke ivv..cloche^\ 
ident. w. ov..clugge {clucce}), du. 
klok, OHG. glocka G. glocke, on. 
klukka. The ROAi.-TEUT. clocca 
is of CELT, origin; cp. cymr. 
clock, OIR. doc (OCELT. klukko) ; 
OE. clucge. 

clod ME. clodde; a var. of clot. 

clog :me. dogge 'a lumj), block'. 

cloister me. cloistre: borrowed 
from OFR. cloistre = fr. cloitre 
(span, claustra , it. duostro). 
Source med. - lat. daustrum, 

close — clutch 


whence also ohg. klostar G. 

close ME. close : borrowed from 
the OFR. part, clos = lat. clausus 
(oFR. clore = LAT. claudere). — 
closet :me. closet from fr. closet 
(dimin. of OFR. clos 'a close'). 

clot ME. cloite (also clodde, see 

clod^ OE. *clott = MHO. klotZ 

(gen. klotzes) c. klotz. 

clotbur, clote me. clgie oe. date : 
TEUT. base klaiton-, cogn. w. the 
equiv. oe. elide, o. klette. 

cloth shortened for :me. cloth 
oe. cld/> (oe. cildcldp 'swaddling 
clothes) = DU. kleed, G. kleid: 
TEUT. base klaipa. — clothe 
vb. ME. clothe (clc'de) OE. clddian 

cloud 'siiL.clotide: scarcely ident. 
with OE. cltid = ME. cloud 'a 
mass of rock, a hill'; source and 
history quite unknown. 

clout ME. *^/i5'«/ OM.cliit (whence 
ox. klutr) , ident. with w. clwt, 

IR. GAEL. Clud, MANX clooid'i 

clove ^ ME. clove clou>e'. borrowed 
from OFR. do fr. clou 'a nail'; 
cp. SPAN, clavo^ 'a nail' also 'a 
clove' fr. LAT. clavus a nail*. 

clove- ME. clove oe. clu/e' c\ovq 
(esp. of garlic), in compounds 
dufpung crowfoot' — dufwyrt 
'buttercup' (cp. ohg. chloblouh 
klofolouh klovolouh = G. knoblauch, 
DU. knoflook 'garlic' with -n by 
dissimilation). The orig. meaning 
appears in ohg. klobo g. klobeii 
'a split stick*. 

clover :NrE. clover {cliver) oe. 

cldfre (c Ice/re) = DU. klaver ; cp. 
LG. klever (and klaver). A shorter 
and more primit. form is ohg. 
kleo (gen. klewes) G. klee: base 
klakv-. The formation of OSAX. 
*klebara = OE. cldfre looks like 
a compound, the second ele- 
ment of which is unknown. 

clo\vn borrowed from icel. 
klunni 'a clumsy, boorish fellow ; 
sw. dial, klunn 'a log' — kluns 
'a clownish fellow', dan. khmt 
'a log'? 

club :me. clubbe : borrowed from 
ON. klubba, by-form of ON. klutnba 
'a club'. — The meaning 'asso- 
ciation of persons' is a mod. 
application of a clump of people. 

cluck vb. ME. clucke clokke oe, 
doccian (fduccian) = du. klokkeJi, 
MHG. klucken iglucketi) g. glucken. 
The TEUT. group is onomato- 
poetic like lat. glocire , GR. 
yXi6l>Hv cluck as a hen'. 

clumsy adj. earlier clumse me. 
clumsed 'benumbed': orig. part, 
of me. clumse 'benumb' : of SCAND. 
origin; cp. sw. (dial.) klummsen 
benumbed', akin to DU. kleumsch 
'numb with cold'. 

cluster ME. duster oe. cluster 
(clyster) = LG. kluster: akin to 
LG. (Hannover) klunder 'cluster 
of berries or fruit' and (Dit- 
marsch) klus 'cluster, grapes, 
DAN. klyngc 'cluster'. 

clutch ME. clucche; connected 
with cloche 'a claw'. The older 
ME. form is cUchen'i 




coach borrowed from FK.foc/ie: 
a mod. common europ. word 
from HUNG, koszi 'wagon from 
tVie Hung, town Koszi; cp. span. 
cache, ir. cocchio, g. kutsche. 

coal ME. cole and col oe. col 
= DU. kool, OHG. kolo. m. — 
kol n. G. kohle, on. kol n. plur.; 
orig. 'a burning coal'; cp. skr. 
Jval 'burn bright, flame'. — coal- 
mouse, also colemouse me. 
col-ttipse OE. cobnase (= DU. kool- 
tfiees, G. kohlmeise) ; prop, 'coal- 
tit' on account of its blackhead; 
from col 'coal' 4" ^'idsc me. 7nose 
= G. meise, on. mcisingr, whence 
FR. viisange 'tit-lark'. 

coast lA^.cpstie): borrowed from 
OFR. coste (whence also DU. kuste 
= G. kiiste) = FR. cote (it. costa, 
MED. -LA r. costa 'coast'). 

coat ME. cote: borrowed from 

OFR. cote = FR. COtte (= SPAN. 

cota, IT. cotta 'a coat'). Source 
a TEUT. kotta- in ohg. chozzo 
MHG. ^i?/2^ 'a coarse woolen 
mantle'. Cp. cot and cote, 

cock aiE. ^<?^,^ OE. coc cocc (perh. 
cogn. w. chicketi) = ON. kokkr, 
DAN. kok\ ident. w. fr. r(?5^; 
perh. of imitative origin. History 
unknown (earliest reference lat. 
coccus in Lex Salica). 

cockle ME. cokel cokkel oe. cocel i 
coccel 'tares' borrowed from IR. 
cogal 'corn-cockle' {= GAEL. 
cogall 'tares, cockle ) ? 

cod 'husk, shell' me. cod codde 
OE. codd'bdig* = ON. kodde 'pillow'. 

s\v. kudde 'cushion', DU. kodde 

coffee = DU. koffj, g. kaffee: 
borrowed from turk. qahweh =r 
ARAB, qahweh 'coffee'. 

coffer ME. co/re: borrowed from 
FR. coffre (whence ou. G. koffer^. 
Source LAT. cophinus, GR. y.crptro^' 
'a basket'. From the same source 
also coffin ME. coffin: borrowed 
from OFR. cojiii (= span, cofin, 
IT. c of and). 

cog ME. cogge = sw. ciigge; 
prob. of CELT, origin, cp. GAEL. 
IR. cog, w. cocas a cog'? 

coif ME. coif: borrowed from 
FR. coiffe from med.-lat. cofa 
cof{e)a\ akin to mhg. kuffe ohg. 
chuppa from ohg. chuph g. kopf. 
Cp. cnp. 

coil vb. borrowed from OFR. 
coillir = FR. cueillir 'collect' 
(lat. colligere 'gather together). 

coin ME. coin: borrowed from 
FR. coin wedge' (ofr. coin 'wedge, 
stamp upon a coin, a coin'). 
Source LAT. cuneus 'wedge'. 

cold ME. cold OE. cdld {deaUt) 
= GOTH, kalds, X)N. kaldr, osax. 
kald, OHG. g. halt, DU. koiid: an old 
partic. formation in lat. -tus, 
skr. -ta-s (goth. d from Aryan 
t, cp. old, loud, dead etc.). 
A TEUT. verbal \fkal cp. in OE. 
calan, Oii.kala'^heeze'; a corresp. 
Aryan y^gel is seen in lat. gelu 
'the cold' and gelidus 'cold'. Cp. 
chill and cool. 

cole 'cabbage' me. col fr. onfr. 
col = FR. chou; the me. by-form 




caul = OE. cdwl from lat. cauletn 
{caulis). Cp. OHG. kol G. kohl. 

collier me. coliir: deriv. of coal 
\\\\.\\ -ier as in lawyer. 

collop ME. colopes: ident. with 
SWEO. kalops, G. klops', source lg. 
kloppen (g. klopferi) 'beat'? 

color ME. colour from ofr. colour 
= FR. couleur (lat. color-evi). 

colt ME. OE. colt 'a young ass'; 
peril, akin to SKS.. gardabha 'ass'? 

comb sb. ME. comb oe. cdmb 
'comb, crest' = G. kamm, DU. 
DAN. s w. kant : TEUT. base kamba- 
from an Ar}an gombho- in gr. 
yo/iirfoq 'peg' {yu/u(f>ij jaw'), skr. 
jambha 'jaw, teeth'. 

come vb. me. come oe. cuman 
= DU. komen, osAX. kuman, ohg. 
komdn G. kofmnen, on. koma\ cp. 
GOTH, (jiman: a common teut. 
str. vb. kuman qcman fr. an Aryan 
\fgC7n in SKR. ^aw, or. (iaivcOf 
LAT. ?Y7//^ (for *gz>emio^. 

comely me. <r;^w// <r^///y oe. cymlic 
'fine, handsome'; cogn. w. ohg. 
kumig 'delicate, weak' and G.kaum 

cony sb. me. <:^/// earlier coning 
'rabbit': adapt, from ofr. connitt, 
whence also DU. konijn, G. kanin- 
chen. Source lat. cuniculus (ofr. 
conil) in a by-form cuninus. 

cook sb. ME. cpk oe. <r<7V: loan- 
word fr. l^xiL.coquus, whence ohg. 
G. ^f?^^ and IT. cuoco, ofr. ipieux. 
— The vb. cook me. coke is 
derived from the sb. by in- 
fluence of lat. coquere {= G. 
kochen, DU. koketi), whence also 
FR. cuire 'cook'. 

cool ME. OE. col = LG. kol, DU. 

koel, OHG. kuoli G. kiihl: teut. 
base kolu- from the teut. \fkal 
kol under cold. Deriv. keel. 

coot 'a bird* me. cptc oe. *cpt(a) 
= DU. koet 'coot'. 

cope vb. 'vie with, match' orig. 
'bargain or chaffer with': a loan- 
word fr. T>\:.koopen buy', cogn. w. 
oe. c'eapian 'chea])en' from OE. 
cc'ap 'bargain'. Cp. cheap. 

copper ME. coper oe. copor: 
borrowed from vulgar lat. cup- 
rum 'copper' (orig. cup>rium acs 
'Cyprian brass'). From the same 
source ohg. kupfar G. ktipfer, 
DU. koper and fr. cuhfre. — 
copperas me. coper osc from ofr. 
coper ose = it. copparosa, lat. 
cupri rosa lit. 'copper-rose'. 

copse earlier coppice contr. of 
ofr. copeiz derived from OFR. 
coper (fr. couper) 'cut'. 

cork = G. dan. sw. kork, 
DU. kurk: borrowed from span. 
corcho 'cork' = lat. corticem 
(cortex) 'bark'. 

com^ 'grain' me. oe. corn = 
DU. koren, g, on. dan. sw. korn, 
GOTH, kailrn: teut. korna- = 
pre-TEUT. base grno- cogn. w. 
LAT. grdnufn, russ. zerno. 

com^ 'a hard excrescence on 
toe or foot*: borrowed from fr. 
corne (= lat. cornu 'horn'). 

corner me. corner: borrowed 
fr. MED. - LAT. corneria 'comer, 
angle' (lat. cornu 'horn'). 

cornet me. cornet cornette 'a horn' : 
borrowed fr. fr. cornet cornette, 
dimin. of fr. corne 'a horn'. 


cornice — country 

cornice a loanword from ofr. 
cornice fr. it. cornice 'a cornice, 
border, ledge' (lat. type comix 
'a border' contr. of med. - lat. 
coronix a square frame'). 

corps ME. corps: a loanword 
from PR. corps cors from lat. 

corpse ME. corps: borrowed 
from OFR. corps cors = lat. 

corset dimin. of :me. cors 'a 
body'; cp. corpse. — corslet 
corselet: a loanword fr. fr. corse- 
let , dimin. of ofr. cors with 
suffix -et. 

cost vb. ME. coste: borrowed 
fr. ofr. coster (= fr. coiiter, 
lat. constare^, whence also DU. G. 

costume me. custilme (and 
custome): adapt, fr. ofr. costume 
FR. coiitume = it. costume (med.- 
LAT. costuma = lat. cotisuetu- 
dinein). Cp. custom. 

cot me. OE. cot = LG. DU. ON. 

G. kot 'hut': TEUT. base kuia-. 

cote (in comp. dove-cote, sheep- 
cote^ ME. cote OE. cot = G. kote. 
The TEUT. word passed into 
SLAV. (osLOV. ^<7//V/ 'cella'). Akin 
to cot. 

cottage ME. cotdge fr. ofr. co- 
tage: deriv. of teut. kota- under 
cot and cote. 

cotton ME. cotoun : a loanword 
fr. FR. colon = IT. cotone : source 
ARAB, qoton 'cotton'. 

couch vb. ME. couche: adapt. 
fr. FR. couchcr (earlier colcher 
= IT. colcare) fr. LAT. collocare. 

couch-grass sb. ; see quitch- 

cough ME. coughc (oE. cohhettan) 
^ DU. kugchen, MHCi. kiichen. 

council adapt, fr. fr. concile 
'a council, an assembly, session' 
from LAT. concilium 'an assembly 
called together'. — counsel 
ME. conseil connseil: loanword fr. 
fr. conseil (lat. consilium 'deli- 

count sb. (me. '^counte is not 
recorded, but inferred fr. ME. 
couutessc E. coutitess) loanword fr. 
fr. comte 'a count, an earl'. 
Source lat. comitem {comes) 'a 
companion, a count'. 

count vb. ME. countc: borrowed 
fr. FR. conter (source lat. com- 
putare compute, reckon). 

countenance me. countenaunce : 
loanword fr. ofr. contenancc 'be- 
havior, carriage' (lat. continentia 

counter 'contrary' fr. fr. contre 
= lat. contra 'against'. 

counterfeit me. counterfeit : 
borrowed fr. ofr. contre/ait, part, 
of contrefairc 'imitate'. 

counterpane 'a coverlet for a 
bed' earlier counterpoint: loan- 
word fr. OFR. cotitrepoinct 'the 
quilting stitch'; prop, connected 
with ovv^. contr epoincter 'quilt'; con- 
trepoinctis a corruption oi coutrc- 
poind coutepoint 'a counterpane' 
(source I-AT. culcita puncta 'a 
stitched quilt'). 

country me. cuntre contre: 
loanword fr. fr. contr ie (= it. 
contr ada^. Source :med. - lat. 

county — crab ' 


contrata derived fr. lat. contra 
(Cj). G. gegend from gegeti). 

county ME. counte: borrowed 
fr. OFR. conti 'county' (deriv. of 
FR. comte = count sb.). 

couple ME. couple: adapt, fr. 
FR. couple (= LAT. copula) 'a 
bond, band'. 

courage me. cordge: adapt, fr. 
FR. courage (lat. type coraticuni). 

court me. curt', borrowed fr. 
OFR. curt cart (source lat. cortis 
'a court-yard, palace"). — Hence 
courteous transformed fr. me. 
rurteis = OFR. cartels fr. courtois. 

cousin :me. cosin cousin: adapt, 
fr. FR. cousin (med.-lai". cosinus 
for lat. consobrinus 'a cousin). 

cove me. erne o^.co/a 'a chamber, 
cave' == ON. ko/i 'hut', goth. 
*kuhan- is wanting. 

covenant yi¥..convenant covenant: 
loanword fr. fr. comjcnant cove- 
nant \nes. part. o(con7enir 'agree. 

cover vb. me. covere: borrowed 
fr. OFR. covrir cueuvrir fr. couvrir. 
Source lat. cooperire 'cover. 

covet vb. me. cuveite: adapt, 
fr. OFR. ciweiter coiwiter = fr. 
comwiter (Lat. type *cupiditare 

covey borrowed fr. ofr. covie 
= fr. couvie 'a covey of par- 
tridges', prop. part, of fr. couver 
'hatch' (source lat. cubare lie 

cow sb. ME. cti (plur. kie kye) 
OE. cii (plur. cy) = ox. kyr, 

DU. koe, MLG. ko, OHG. MHG. kuo 

G. kuh: TEUT. base ko- 'cow' 

English Etymology. 

from an Aryan stem gow- (go-) 
in SKR. gaus (ace. gam) , gr. 
(iovg (stem /!^o/), lat. bos. 

CO'W vb. (me. *couu>e earlier 
*cugen are unrecorded): loan- 
word fr. SCAND. kiiga 'cow, tyran- 
nize over' = DAN. kue 'cow', s\v. 
kufva 'check, curb'. 

coward mhe. couard co^oard: 
borrowed fr. ofr. couard coart 
coard = rr. codardo (formed 
with suffix -ard and ofr. coe fr. 
queue = lat. Cauda 'tail'). 

coAver vb. :me. coure: borrowed 
fr. ON. kura (s\v. kura , dan. 
kure) 'lie quiet, rest'. 

co^vll 'a monk's hood, a cap, 
hood* ME. couel earlier cuwel 
OE. ctigle a cowl' (= mhg. kuget) : 
loanword fr. lat. cucullus 'hood . 

cowl- 'a vessel carried on a 
pole': borrowed fr. ofr. cuvel 
= FR. cuveau, prop, 'a little 
tub' (source lat. cupa *a vat, 
j cowslip OE. cuslyppe ciisloppe. 

coxcomb corrupted fr. cock's 
comb 'cock's crest'. Cp. cock 
and comb. 

coxsv(^ain, cockswain ^teersvsx2i-n. 
of a boat' from cock 'a boat' 
and S7vain 'the person in com- 
mand of the boat'. 

coy: adapted fr. ofr. r^/ (coit). 
Source lat.- quietus 'quiet, still'. 

cozen vb. 'flatter, beguile': 
adapt, fr. FR. cousiner 'call cousin, 
sponge' fr. fr. cousin. Cp. coit sin. 

crab ^ ME. crabbe oe. crabba 
= ON. krabbi, sw. krabba, dan. 


cracK — cream 

krabbe, DU. krab, MLG. krabbe 
(whence G. krabbe)'. akin to 
OHG. kr'ebar^ = G. krebs fr. ci'abe 
fr. TEUT. — Ident. \v. crab* 'a 
kind of apple' me. crabbe; a 
Scand. loanword ; cp. sw. krabb- 
iiple. — crabbed 'peevish, cramp- 
ed'; perh. fr. crab^. 

crack vb. me. crake krake OE. 
cracian == DU. kraken^ OHG. kra- 
chbn chrahhon G. krachen : teut. 
\f krak fr. pre-TEUT. grg\ cp. 
SKR. grg 'rustle, crackle'. 

cracknel formerly craketiel cor- 
rupted fr. FR. craquelin 'a crack- 

cradle me. crddel oe. cradol: 
a Celt, loanword, cp. IR. craidhal, 
GAEL, creaihaltz. cradle, a grate'; 
cp. crate. 

craft ME. craft oe. crceft = osAX. 
craft, DU. kracht, G. kraft, ON. 
kraptr. — crafty me. crafti oe. 
crcpftii = OHG. chreftig G. kriiftig. 

crag ^ie. ^rtf^: borrowed fr. w. 
craig, GAEL, creag. 

crake 'a bird' so named fr. its 
cry; cp. ME. crake 'cry out' under 

cram vb. me. cramme oe. cram- 
mian = ON. kremja, sw. krama, 
DU. kratmne 'squeeze'. 

cramp me. crampe oe. '^crgtnp 
(inferred fr. crgmpeht full of 
wrinkles ) = DU. lg. kramp, G. 
krampf: a common west-teut. 
term for spasm, cramp*. 

crane me. crdtie oe. cran = 
olg. kraiio, du. kraan, mhg. 
krane ; with formative guttural oe. 

cornuc, OHG. chranuh chranih(h) G. 
kranich; cp. the cogn. gr. yioavoc, 
CYMK.garan; oslov. zeravi, lith. 
gerwe. lat. ^r«^ (gt?n. gru-is) 
agrees with ohg. chreia 'crane'. 

crank sb. me. cranke. teut. 
base krank\yN\%i allied to cramp. 

cranny me. crany\ formed by 
adding E. -y to Y'&.cran 'a notch'. 

crape borrowed fr. fr. crepe 
(oFR. crespe = lat. crispus). 

crash vb. a var. of craze and 
crack: a Scand. loanword; cp. 
sw. krasa, dan. krase 'crackle'. 
Cp. crack. 

cratch yiE.cracche crecche: bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. creche (fr. creche) 
which is of Teut. origin; cp. 
OSAX. kribbia 'crib' under crib. 

crate borrowed fr. lat. crates 
'a hurdle'. 

cravat (= G. kravatte) bor- 
rowed fr. FR. cravate (from Cra- 
vates 'a Croation'). 

crave vb. aie. crave oe. crafian 
= on. krefja 'crave, demand', 
sw. krdfva 'demand', dan. krave 
'crave, exact'. Perh. the e. word 
is borrowed from Scand. 

craven me. cravant 'beaten, 
overcome' shortened fr. OFR. 
cravanti 'oppressed', partic. of 
cravantcr (source a lat. type 
*crepantare 'crack, break). 

craw (by-form crag 'neck, 
crop') ^fE. crawe oe. *craga\ 
GOTH. *kraga is wanting. 

cream me. crpnc from fr. crime 
(oFR. cresme, lat. crenior). 

creed — crown 


creed sb. me. crede oe. creda\ 
loanword fr. lat. credo I believe' 
(»credo in deum patrem« etc.); 
cp. the origin of dirge. 

creek me. creke crike (oe. *creoca 
*cricn); perh. a Scand. loanword 
from ON. krike 'crack, nook'. 

creep vb. me. crepe oe. creopan 
str. vb. ; cp. DU. kruipen, lg. 
kriipen, on. krjupa. Akin to G, 
kriechen ohg. kriohhan : teut. 
\f krup kruq. Cp. cripple. 

cress me. cresse earlier kerse 
OE. cerse ccerse\ ident. with o. 
kresse OHG. kressa, du. kers and 
FR.cresson, it. crescione. Phono- 
logy, history and origin quite 
obscure ; common base a lat. 
type *crexo(nem) ? 

crest me. creste from ofr. cresie 
FR. Crete (lat. crista). 

crib ME. cribbe oe. cribb crybb 
= OSAX. kribbia, du. krib, G. 
krippe OHG. krippa'. teut. base 
kribjo (krubjo) akin to OHG. kr'eba. 
Cp. cratch. 

crimson me. crimosin from ofr. 
crainoisin = fr. cramoisi. 

cringe vb. me. crengc oe. cren- 
gan : TEUT. base krangjan, deriv. 
from OE. cringan 'sink, fall in 
battle', cogn. w. G. krank 'sick'. 

cripple ME. cripcl oe. crypel = 
DU. kreitpel' cx'v^\i\& \ prop, 'a man 
who creeps'; teut. base krupila-, 
deriv. fr. y^ krup in creep. 

crisp ME. OE. C7-isp = OHG. 
krisp : an early loanword fr. lat. 
crispns 'curled'. 

croak vb. me. croke oe. *crdciaft 
(inferred from oe. crcecetung 

'croaking ) : teut. base krekbn 
krakon; akin to crack} 

crock ME. crocke oe. crocca; 
borrowed fr. OIR. croccan; perh. 
cogn. with G. krug ohg. kiuog, 
LG. krtike, OE. crph crpg. 

croft ME. OE. croft 'small field' 
= ODU. krochte high and dry 
land' DU. kroft 'hillock'. 

crook sb. me. crgk oe. '^crpc 
= ON. krokr krdkr 'hook', ODU. 
croec, DAN. krog 'hook'. Akin to 
OHG. krdko 'hook' (as e. hook 
is to G. haken). 

crop ME. cropp oe. cropp. 

crosier me. croser croiser. 

cross ME. cross (whence scand. 
kross, sw.-DAN. kors) : borrowed 
from oiR. cross (cymr. croes). 
Source LAT. criix whence also 
FR. croix (me. crois from ofr. crois) ; 
OIR. croch and ohg. osax. kruzi 
G. kreuz point to the infl. lat. 

crow vb. ME. cr&ive oe. crdwan 
= DU. kraaien, G. krdhcn ohg. 
krdc7i : TEUT. base a str. vb. 
kr^jan, but orig. not restricted 
to the cock's crowing as shown 
by the sb. crow ME. crg^ve oe. 
crdwe = G. krdhe ohg. krdia. 

cro\vd vb. ME. croude ok. 
crudan str. vb. crowd, press' = 
ODU. criiden 'push, thrust' (du. 
kruieti), mlg. kruden kroden vb. 
'molest': i^xjr:. y/^krud. 

crow^n ME. criine (whence on. 

kruna, cp. ODU, criine DU. kriiiii) 

earlier by-form coroune corune : 

borrowed during the reign of 



cruel — curb 

William the Conqueror fr. ofr. 
corone = fr. couronne 'crown'. 
Source lat. corona 'crown', 
whence also OE. corenbeag crown' 
and OHG. korona G. krone. 

cruel ME. criiel {creivcf) fr. FR. 
cruel = LAT. crudelis 'severe' in 
a vulgar form criidalis. 

crumb = me. crombe short for 
croume oe. criima (cp. thumb 
OE. punui) = DU. kruim ODU. 
crume, LG. G. krume (osAX. *kriima). 
The m is derivative; cp. the 
TEUT. y" krii in g. krauen ohg. 
krouwon vb. 'scratch'. 

cruse ME. crouse oe. tvvijv (cp. 
E. room OE. rw/«) = odu. kruis, 
mhg. i^r?/.f(? g. krause\ akin to 
odu. du. -^/-t;^.?, ME. crps. 

crust ME. cruste fr. ofr. cruste 
FR. ^r^///^ =r LAT. crusta 'crust 
of bread'. 

crutch .ME. crucche oe. crycc = 
DU. -^r«^, ohg. cruccha G. kriicke 
'crutch': TEUT. base krukjo-; 
ident. w. it. croccia 'crutch', fr. 
crosse , which rest on a lat. 
crilcea , deriv. of crux crucis 

cross'. Therefore crutch krukja 
crucea meant originally 'stick 
having a cross', 

cry vb. me. crle: adapted fr. 
FR. crier 'cry'. 

cuckold ME. cukeiiiohi: trans- 
formation of FR. coucou 'cuckoo', 
whence also e. cuckoo me. 

cudgel OE. cycgel: dimin. of 
a lost primitive oe. *cyc^: base 
kugja- ? 

cuff sb. ME. cuffe coffe 'sleeve*; 
perh. ident. w. late oe. cuffie 
'coif under coif. 

cull vb. ME. culle {cole coille) 
vb. 'gather, select' fr. ofr. coillir 
= fr, cueillir 'collect' (source 
LAT. colligere). 

culver ]ME. culver {colver) oe. 
culfre culufre 'dove'; not found 
in the other teut. languages, 
prob. of LAT. origin : LAT. columba 
'dove' in a vulgar form *colubra ? 

cumber vb. JiIE. cumbre vb. 
'annoy' fr. ofr. combrer, whence 
also G. kummer mhg. kumber ; the 
base MED.-LAT. combrus 'rubbish, 
bank of earth, ruins' rests on a 
GALL.-LAT. combero- 'that which 
is carried together'. 

cummin me. comin late oe. 
cumin (= du. komijn^ fr. ofr, 
comin =. fr. cumin. Source 
LAT. cmninum, whence also a 
TEUT. kumin in oe. cymen, ohg. 
kumin kumil g. kiimmel. 

cunning me, cunninge: deriv, 
of OE. cunnan ■= know. 

cup ME. OE. cuppe 'cup' = mhg. 
kopf, ODU. kop 'beaker, cup': 
loanword fr. lat. cuppa (ciipa), 
whence also oe. me. cop (copp) 
'summit, head', G. kopf 'head'. 

cur iiE. cur re cor re = odu. 
korre 'watch-dog', swed. (dial.) 
kurra 'a dog'; cp. LG. G. (dial.) 
kiirrcn vb. 'growl'. Therefore cur 
prop, 'a growler' ? 

curate see cure. 

curb vb. ME. curbe 'to bend' 
fr. FR. courber 'bend'. 




curd vb. w. metathesis fr. me. 
crudde vb. : a celt, loanword, 
deriv. fr. IR. gruth 'curds'? or 
cogn. with croivdl cp. lax. coagii- 
limi fr. cogerel 

cure ME. ciire fr. fr. cure = 
LAT. cura. — curate me. cilrdt 
= MED. -LAT. curatus (in fr. 
pronunciation; cp. curious ME. 
curious fr. LAT. ciiripsusT). 

curfew ME. curfeu {curfeui) fr. 
OFR. covrefeu (cp. poor fr. ofr. 
povre): prop, the sign for put- 
ting out fires. 

curious see cure. 

curl vb. deriv. fr. me. crul (//) 
adj. 'curly* = DU. krul\ west- 
I'EUT. hull- for kruzl- krusl- is 
cogn. with ODU. kruis , G. kraus 
MHG. krus 'curly' (aso me. crous 

curle^v me. curlew {corleiv) 
fr. OFR. cor lieu = fr. courlieu 
'a bird's name' ('scolopax ar- 
quata'), composed of ofr. corre 
'to leap' and lieu 'lightly'. 

curry vb. me. currie curraie 
vb. fr. OFR. conreier; lat. type 

curse vb. me. curse oe. ciirsian 
'to curse'; cogn. with OIR. cursa- 
chaiffi 'I curse'. Source and 
history unknown. 

curtain sb. me. curtin cortin fr. 
OFR. cortine = lat. (also it. 
SPAN.) cortitia 'curtain'. 

curve adj. fr. lat. curvus 

cushion :me. cusshin (cuss hen — 
cusshoii) cussin quissin (quissheti) 
fr. OFR. coissiti = FR. coussin 
'cushion'; cp. span, coxin, it. 
cuscino and ident. w. DU. kusscn 
ODU. cussin, G. kiissen kissen OHG. 
kusstn 'cushion'. Source a med.- 
lat. coxvium prop, deriv. of LAT. 
coxa "hip, haunch' = fr. cuisse 
'thigh', whence e. (Shakesp.) 
cuisse 'piece of armor for the 

custom me. custome earlier form 
(c. iioo) custihne fr. OFR. cuslume 
{YY^.coutume) = it. prov. costuma: 
source a lat. type "^consuetinnen 
instead of lat. constietiido. 

cut vb. me. cutte (by-form with 
umlaut kitte) : a me. vb. of celt. 
origin; cp. cymr. cwtan vhi 
'shorten' — cwta adj. 'short'. 

cutlas fr. FR. coutelas = IT. 
coltellaccio prop, 'a large knife': 
ROM. deriv. of lat. ctilter 'knife'. 
Cp. FR. couteau = OFR. coutel 
'knife* fr. lat. cultellus. Hence 
FR. coutelier = me. cuteler e. 
cutler 'maker of knives'. 


dace from me. darce darse : ! called from its swiftness). See 
from OFR. dars, nom. also spelled dart, 
dart 'a dart', also 'a fish' (so ; dagger me. dagger = on. dag- 


dainty — dandelion 

gardr, DU. daggert'. of Celt, origin, 
borrowed from \v. dagr = IR. 
daigear; bret. dag = GAEL, daga : 
all synon. 

dainty me. deinte'. borrowed 
from OFR. deinte 'dignity, im- 
portance, value' (the me. by- 
form dainUth is an anglo-norman 
deinted 'pleasure'). Source lat. 
dignitatem ((iainty and dignity are 

dairy me. deierle 'room for a 
milk-woman; me. rt5?/V'milk-woman' 
(hence day-woman 'dairy-wo- 
man' Shakesp.) is borrowed from 
ON. deigja *milk-woman' (sw. dejd), 
whicVi is supposed to be a deriv. 
of teut. daiga- (under dougK) 
and to mean prop, 'the bread- 
maker, kneader of dough'. Cp. 
dough and lady. 

dais me. deis'. borrowed from 
OFR. deis later dais 'a high table 
in a hall' == fr. dais *a canopy' 
(base MED. -LAT. discus 'a table' 
= LAT. discus 'plate, platter' see 
under disH). 

daisy me. daies-ie daies-eie oe. 
dcEges-(age'. prop, 'the eye of the 
day'; cp. day and eye. 

dale ME. dale oe. dcel plur. dalu 
(me. e. e in dale is derived from 
the oe. plur. dalu or from the sing, 
infl. dales, dcele). The teut. base 
dala- cp. also in the synon. goth. 
dais, ON. dalr, OSAX. dal, ohg. 
MHG. tal (mod. that). 

dally vb. me. dalye points to 
GOTH. *daldn OE. "^dalian (== G. 
dahlen). The ending >' is a 

southern continuation of the oe. 
infinit. in -ian (= ohg. ^talonf). 
dam ME. datfi{me) oe. "^dai^nim) 
= G. damm, DU. dam, ON, daviinr 
(goth. faiirdammjan = oe. for- 
demftian 'dam up). 

damage me. damage: borrowed 
from OFR. damage damage fr. 
dommage 'harm' (it. dannajd), lat. 
type damnaticuvi harm' (lat. darn- 
num 'loss, injury' under damn). 

dame '^u-.. dame: borrowed from 
FR. dame, whence also g. du. 
dame. Source lat. domina 'lady' 
(= rr. donna) \ cp. damsel. 

damn vb. me. dam{p)ne : borrow- 
ed from OFR. damner da7np?ier 
FR. damner (:= span, dailar, it. 
dannare) = lat. damnare 'con- 
demn, fine' (lat. damnum 'injury, 

damp ME. *damp = du. lg. 
damp 'vapor', g. dampf 'vapor, 

damsel me. damesele damiscle: 
borrowed from ofr. damisele 
dameisele = fr. demoiselle. The 
source is med.-lat. domicella 'a 
young lady', lat. type dom{i)ni- 
cella, dimin. of domina *a lady'. 

dance vb. me daunce daunse: 
borrowed from fr. rt'a^i'^r, whence 
also DU. dansen, G. tanzen, dan. 
dandse, sw.dansa. Th.eo'PK.danser 
is traced to an ohg. danson 
'draw, trail'. 

dandelion : borrowed from fr. 
dent de lion (= span, diente de lean, 
IT. dente di leone): prop, 'lion's 
tooth', so called from the jagged 

danger — day 


leaves of the plant (g. I'&wen- 
zahtt) . 

danger me. daunger: borrowed 
from FR. danger 'danger*. Source 
a LAT. type *doniiniariuni 'power' 
from LAT. dominium 'sovereignty'. 

dank 'damp' me. fl'd'«^: borrow- 
ed from the Scand.? cp. sw. 
dial, dank 'a marshy piece of 
ground' = ICEL. dgkk for *danku 
'j)it, pool*. 

dapper :me. daper 'pretty, neat'; 
cp. ox. dapr 'sad, dreary*, DU. 
dapper 'brave' , ohg. tapfar G. 
tapfer 'valiant, brave'. 

dapple 'a spot, dot' a daj)- 
pled horse' M£. in dappel-gray. 
perh. Scand. loanword from 
ON. depill 'a spot, dot' {dapi 'a 

dare me. dar oe. dear I dare' 
= GOTH, dars, ohg. tar. The 
TEUT. \/~dars darz is akin to gr. 
&oa(JiTv 'be bold' — &paovg 
'bold' and skr. dArs 'dare': 
Aryan \f dhers. 

dark me. derk oe. deorc\ perh. 
akin to oiR. derg 'red' : common 
base dhergo- (cp. also OIR. dorche 

darling me. derling shortened 
from OE. deorling *a favorite': 
deriv. of dear = oe. deore. 

dart ME. dart from ofr. dart 
IR. dard (= SPAN. IT. dar do); 
f)f TEUT. origin: oe. darod, ox. 
darradr also shorter darr. 

dash vb. ME. dasshe', corre- 
sponding to DAN. daske (== sw. 
daska) 'slap, strike'. Scand. 
origin of the E. word (oe. *das- 

cian *daxian) is improbable, 
E. sh pointing to a hereditary 

date^ 'an epoch, given point 
of time' ME. date from the synon. 
FR. date (meu.-lat. datum, whence 
g. datuni). 

date^ 'fruit of the palm' me. 
date: borrowed from ofr. date 
= FR. datte' source lat.-gr. 
diictylus, whence also G. dattei, 
DU. dadel. 

daub vb. ME. daube: borrowed 
from OFR. dauber 'whiten' from 
"^dalber = lat. dealbare 'whiten, 
])laster' (lat. albus 'white'). 

daughter me. daughter OE.dohtoi- 
=^ii\j. dochter, osax.' doMir, ORG. 
AfflG. toAter G. tochter, on. dottir, 
GOTH, datihtar: ident. with the 
synon. lith. dukti, OSLOV. diisti: 
Arya.nha.sii dAukter; anAr}-an base 
dhugatcr appears in gr. dvyu- 
vrjp, SKR. du/iitdr, avest. duydar 
'daughter', skr. duAttar'da.ughttiT 
is traced to the skr. \r duh 
'milk' and is interpreted as 'the 
milk maid'. 

daunt vb. me. daunte: borrow- 
ed from OFR. donter fr. dompter 
= IT. ^/ccw/Z^zr^ 'subdue, tame': the 
source is l.A.T.domitare (frequent, 
of domare). 

day ME. day dai oe. da;~^ = 
goTh. dags, OHG. mhg. tac(g) G. 
tag, DU. OSAX. dag, on. dagr; 
by-forms oe. dogor, on. ddgr (fr. 
dogaz dbgiz) : all connected with 
the skr. \fdah (for Aryan dhegh'. 
dhdgK) 'bum'. This root appears 
also in lith. degti 'bum' — 


dawn — dear* 

ihgas daga 'harvest', pruss. dagas 
'summer', skr. nidagha- heat, 
summer (also skr. dhar 'day'?). 
The base dhogho-s common to 
our day and to lith. ddgas signi- 
fied 'the time of the burning of 
the sun, the hot part of the 
day or year. 

dawn vb. late me. daime earlier 
dawe OE. dagian = ox. daga, 
OHG. tagen G. tag en become day'; 
cp. E. dawning me. dawinge: 
deriv. of teut. daga- under day. 

daze vb. me. dasc 'stupefy' 
from ox. *dasa, refl. dasask (^sk 
represents the refl. 'oneself') 
'daze oneself' = dax. dase, sw. 
dasa 'lie idle'. From daze is 
deriv. the dimin. dazzle vb. 
'overpower with light'. 

deacon me. dcken from oe. 
* deacon for diacon {= DU. dekcn, G. 
diakon, ox. djdkn, ofr. diacne 
FR. diacre, spax. it. diacond) : 
source lat. diaconus (gr. !SiaY.o- 
rog) "a servant, a deacon'. 

dead adj. me. de'd oe. dead = 

GOTH. dauJ>S, OHG. MHG. tO/ G. 

to{d)t, OX. daudr, OSAX. dod, DU. 
dood. The common base dau-da is 
prop, panic, {dhau-td-) belonging 
to the TEUT. verbal \'^ dan dis- 
cussed under die. Cp. death. 
deaf iiE. def oe. deaf ^= osAX. 

dof, DU. doof, OHG. MHG. toup(b) 

'hearing or feeling nothing, dull, 
foolish' G. taub, goth. daufs{b) 
'deaf, O's.dau/r. The meanings 
of org. MHG. toup{b) bordering 
on those of ohg. mhg. tu7np g. 
dumni, connection of both groups 

is sure ; prob. akin to gr. TV(f>X6g 
'blind'. Cp. dumb. 

deal vb. 'divide, distribute, 
negotiate in' me. dele oe. dcelan 
= OSAX. dilian, du. deelen, lg. 
delen, G.teilen, gotv.. dailja?t: de- 
nominatives of daili- (cp. deal) 
like OSLOV. deliti 'divide'. 

deaP sb. part, portion, indefinite 
quantity, degree or extent, bar- 
gain etc' me. d('l OE. ddl {ddlj 
= OSAX. d^l, DU. deel, lg. deel, 

OHG. AfflG. G. teil, GOTH, dails 

m. daila f. teut. dai'li{la-) seems 
to point to an aryan \fdhai, 
proved by oSLOV. dilii part. 

deal^ sb. 'a board, plank' 
borrowed from du. decl'dL board, 
threshing floor' = mlg. dele 
'board lg. dele 'a board, floor, 
a room". The corresponding 
OHG. dm G. diele 'boarded floor' 
corresponds to ox. />ilja, OE. 
pel 'board'. Lrrn. //'// '])lank in 
the boat', oslov. tilo 'bottom', 
SKR. tala-m 'surface' arc cog- 

dean me. d(n (contr. of *deieji) 
borrowed from ofr. deien = 
FR. doyen : source lat. decanus 
'the chief of ten soldiers or 
monks' (=: IT. dccano , OHG. 
techan G. dechani). 

dear^ me. dere oe. ^/(fbrr'beloved, 
precious, of great value' = 
OSAX. diuri, DU. dier, ohg. tiuri 
'dear, beloved, esteemed, costly' 
G. teller. 

dear- (in Shakesp.) 'fierce, 
ferocious' me. der OE. dear 'wild' : 

dearth — deep 


different from dear^. Ident. with 
E. deer, G. tier; cp. deer. 

dearth me. derthe 'scarcity, 
dearness' (= OSAX. diuridiiy ohg. 
tiurida, ON. dyrd, OLG. dmrthd) : 
deriv. oi dear^ -{- -///formative 
of abstract nouns. 

death me. dcth oe. d(aj> = 

GOTH. daUptlS, OSAX. doth, OHG. 
tod 3*IHG. tdt(d) G. tod, DU. dood, 
ON. daudr : a verbal abstr. noun 
of a \rdau (cp. //?V) with the 
abstract suffix teut. pu = lax. 
SKR. tn- (Aryan base dhau-tti-s). 

debate vb. me. debate: borrow- 
ed from OFR. debatre fight, 
contend , debate' fr. dibattre 
'contend , debate' {= span. 
liebatir, it. di batter e). 

debt sb. earlier det me. dette: 
from OFR. debte dette kr. dette 
(it. dettd) = LAT. debita f. sing., 
orig neut. plur. of lat. debitum. 

debtor me. dettur from ofr. 
detor deteur fr. detteur (it. 
debitore) ^= lat. debitorem ace. 
of debitor 'debtor'. 

decay vb. from ofr. decaer 
(span, decaer, it. decadere) = 
LAT. type *decadere (instead of 
decidcre) fall away, perish'. 

decease sb. me. dec(shoxxo\sQA 
from OFR. deces fr. dices = lat. 
decessus prop, 'departure'. 

deceit me. deceit: borrowed 
from OFR. deceit = lat. deceptus 
'deceit' {dccipere 'deceive' under 

deceive vb. earlier deceave me. 
deceive: borrowed from ofr. de- 

cever deceveir fr. dicejioir = lat. 
decipere 'entrap'. Cp. deceit. 

deck vb. borrowed fr.DU.rt'i?M^« 
'cover'; cp. oe. peicean under 

declension from ofr. decli- 
tiaison (fr. ddclinaisoti) beside 
FR. declination, E. declination from 
LAT. declinationem. 

decrease vb. me. decr(se bor- 
rowed from OFR. decresser decrestre 
decreistre decroistre fr. dicroitre 
(lat. discrescere) = lat. decres- 
cere 'decrease'. 

j decree sb. me. decre borrowed 
I from OFR. decre decret fr. decret 
'■ (span. it. decretd) = lat. decre- 
turn 'a decree'. 

deed ^iv.. ded dede oe. ded d(ed = 
OSAX. dad, DU. daad, OHG. mhg. 
tat G. t{h)at, ON. dad, goth. in 
ga-deds 'deed', teut. base de-di- 
from dhe-ti- from the vvxT.sf de : 
do from aryan ^/>^6' : dho; cp. do. 

deem vb. me. dane oe. deman 
(= OSAX. domian in a- , DU. 
doemen, mlg. domen, ohg. tuotnen 
mhg. tiiemen, ON. dcima, goth. 
ga-dotnjan 'judge, deem') : deriv. 
of TEUT. doma- see doom. 

deep adj. me. dep oe. ^/^-V?/ = 

OSAX. diop, DU. ^//V/, OHG. tiof 

tiuf MHG. G. tief , ON. ^^«/>r, 
GOTH. ^/«/.y. The common teut. 
adj. deupa- belongs to a teut. 
\^ diip whose by-form dub 
appears in oe. dyfan E. dive 
and in E. dub. Cp. cymr. dw/n, 
OIR. dofniin fu- domain, lith. diibiis 
'deep, hollow', oslov. dilpli hol- 
low' from an xviYAii\/^dubh : dhiip. 




deer me. der oe. dcor 'wild 
animal' ^= on. dyr 'wild animar, 
OSAX. dior, ohg. tior mhg. g. 
tier 'animal' ('stag, roe' in the 
language of hunters). teut. 
detiza- is prob. an adj. used as 
sb. signifying 'wild animal'; cp. 
OE. deor 'bold, wild' (cp. dear). 

defeat vb. me. defete : from 
OFR. dcfeter 'annul (ofr. defait 
desfeit part, of defaire fr. dl- 
faire; med.-lat. de/acere 'annul, 
undo'). See feat. 

defile vb. 'make unclean, sully' 
a fusion of me. file OE. dfylan 
'defile' and me. defoule 'defile': 
]ME. foule (oE. fuUan) wk. vb. 
'make foul' with parallel form 
file (oE. fylan) has taken the 
LAT.-FR. prefix de-. 

defy vb. me. defie: from fr. 
difier (= med.-lat. it. disfidare 
diffidare 'renounce faith, repu- 
diate). Cp. faith. 

delay vb. me. delaie delay e'. 
from fr. delayer (= med.-lat. 
IT. dilatare). 

delight sb. (orig. delite) me. 
delite delit: from ofr. delit. With 
the vb. delight me. delite from 
ofr. de liter (iT- delettare dilettare) 
^= lat. delectare 'please'. 

dell ME. dellc oe. dell a dimin. 
derivative of teut. dala- (under 
dale), pointing to a goth. *dal/a 
f. and corresponding to ohg. 
tellia mhg. telle 'ravine' G. (dial.) 

deluge sb. me. delilge'. from 
FR. dduge (= SPAN. it. diluvio, 
LAT. diluvium 'a flood'). 

delve vb. me. delve oe. delfan 
str. vb. ^ T)V. delven, osax. M- 
d'elbati, ohg. bi-telban 'bury'. The 
iv.\2-v.\fd'clh {kryan dhelbh dhelpT) 
is unknown elsewhere. 

demijohn from the synon. fr. 
dame-jeanne ==: Arab, damagan 
(orig. the town Damghan in 
northern Persia, once famous 
for its glass-works). 

den short for me. dene oe. denu 
dene 'valley' ; akin to mdu. dan 
'woods, wilderness' and G. tann 

denizen me. denescyn dc?iesein: 
source anglo-fr. ofr. densein 
deinsein: deriv. of ofr. dcinz (= 
fr. dans) 'within' and suffix -ein 
(= LAT. -anus)) cp. citizen. 
The FR. word means 'a trader 
within the privilege of the city- 
franchise as opposed to foreign. 

deny vb. me. denie: from fr. 
denier (span, denegar, it. dene- 
gar e = LAT. denegar e 'deny'). 

depaint vb. me. depeinte: from 
FR. d^peindre. Cp. paint. 

depict vb. me. only in part. 
depict = LAT. depictns , whence 
also ofr. depicter 'depict'. 

deploy vb. from fr. diployer 
(ofr. despleyer despleier, whence 
E. display). Source LAT. dis- 

depth ME. depthe : an abstract 

sb. from the me. adj. dep\ DU. 

diepte , on. dypt, goth. diupifa 

point to an oe. *dypp \ cp. 

i deep. 

I derrick 'a kind of crane' from 
I DU. Dierryk, short Dirk, also 

descry — dike 


Diederik corresp. to G. Dietrich, 
OE. piodrlc 'chief of the people'. 
Orig. derrick signified 'gallows' 
named from a Dutch hangman. 

descry vb. me. descrie discrye 
'discern' from ofr. descrier {des- 
crwe descrivre fr. dicrire) 'de- 

desire vb. me. desire from fr. 
disirer (it. desirarc = lat. 
desiderare 'long for'). 

desk from fr. disque (it. desco 
'a table' = med.-lat. discus 'a 
table see under disfi). 

despair vb. me. despeire from 
OFR. desperer fr. disespirer (= 
LAT. IT. desperare) 'lose hope'. 

despatch, dispatch vb. from 
ofr. despecher (fr. dephher') 
'discharge, expedite'. 

despise vb. me. despise from 
OFR. despiser despicer 'despise' 
(lat. despicere 'look down upon, 

despite sb. by apheresis spite 
me. despU from ofr. despit despeit 
FR. dipit (it. dispetto = lat. 
despectus 'contempt' see despise). 
Despite prep, abbrev. for in 
despite of. 

despoil vb. ME. despoile from 
OFR. despoiller (fr. dipouiller, it. 
despogliare, span, despojar 'de- 
spoil') : source lat. despoliare 

plunder, rob'. See spoil. 

destiny destenye destinee: bor- 
rowed from FR. destinee (it. lat. 

deuce 'a two at cards or dice' 
early mod. also dcwce dius = 
FR. deux. 

devil ME. de'vel oe. deofol = 
OSAX. diubal, DU. duivel, OHG. 
tiuval tioi>al mhg. tiuvel (tievel) 
G. teufel\ GOTH, diabaiilus points 
to LAT. (gr.) diabolus. 

dew ME. d(w OE. dcaw = 
OSAX. dau, OHG. MHG. toii (gen. 
touwes) G. tau, du. dauw, ox. 
dggg (goth. *daggu'a- is wanting). 
Perh. cogn. with the ?>KK.\fdh(n' 
'to flow'. 

die sb. (plur. dice); the sing, is 
developed from the plur. dice. 
ME. dis usually des 'dice' which is 
borrowed from ofr. dez plur. of 
det 'die' fr. dd {= span. it. 
dado 'a die*) from lat. datum 
'that which is given' and 'that 
which is cast'. See date. 

die vb. ME. de'-^e die dye: ge- 
nerally considered as a scand. 
loanword from ox. deyj'a (= oSAX. 
doian, ohg. :^fflG. touwen 'die'). 
An OE. dy'^an dei^an (from daujan) 
is not recorded before looo after 
Chr. , hence SCAXD. origin is 
prob. For the t^\j'1.\'^ dau cp. 
dead, death. In other Ar}an 
languages, osi.a\.daviti 'strangle' 
and lith. dovyti 'torment' are 
compared as related (ixdo-eur. 
'\fdhew dhoiv). 

diet ME. diete diite: from fr. 
di'ete (spax. it. dieta^=i.A.i. dicetci). 

dig vb. ME. digge earlier dikie 
OE. diiian 'dig' : derivative of OE. 
rt^r 'a ditch'. ^ee.dike dind ditch. 

dike ME. dik(e) oe. die 'a ditch, 
cliannel, dike, wall' = MHG. 
tich G. teich 'fishpond, pond'. 


dill — dissever 

E. dike and ditch are doub- 

dill 'the two-seeded tare' me. 
dille OE. dile = du. dille, ohg. 
tilli MHG. iille G. dill. Of obscure 
dim ME. OE. dim (w;«)=OFRis. 
///;//, o^. dimmr: perh. by-form of 
the synon. OSAX. ihim (tntfi). A 
TEUT. \l^ pern (whence G. ddtn- 
vierti) corresponds to SKR. tatnas 
'gloom', LAT. tenebrae (for tetnesrd) 
'darkness'. For the initial gram, 
change from th — </see doughty. 
A PRE-TEur. \^ dhein may be 
found in oiR. de7nc 'darkness'. 

dime me. divic 'tithe' from fr. 
dime (= LAT. deeima 'tenth'). 

dimple inie. dimpel ^=^ g. tilmpel 
OHG. tumfilo m. 'whirlpool': deriv. 
with nasalization from the teut. 
\f dup 'be depressed' in deep 
and dip\ cp. lith. dutnbu 'be- 
come hollow'. 

din sb. me. dine oe. dyne (= on. 
dynr) *a din'. Cp. OE. dynnan 
= DU. deunen , osAX. dunnian, 
ON. dynj'a and the skr. \^ dhvan 
dhutt 'rush'. 

dine vb. me. dine: from fr. 
iHner {= it. disinare) 'dine'. See 

dinner ME. diner: from fr. diner', 
ident. with dine: the infinitive 
is used as sb. Sec dine. 

dint ME. dint OE. dynt 'a blow' 
= ON. dyntr dyttr 'a dint, stroke'. 

dip vb. ME. dippe oe. dyppan; 
cp. G. tau/efi OHG. touffan (from 
*ioufJa>i) 'baptize' and deep. 

dirge me. dirige oe.,(i i"' cent.) 
dirige 'watches' (cp. »dirige for 
ford-farenum« — - vigilia pro de- 
functis). »dirige, Dominus mens, 
in conspectu tuo vitam meam« 
Psalm 5^ was used in the office 
for the dead in medieval service. 

dirt ME. drit excrement' fr. oe. 
ledritan str. vb. =^ on. drita, 
DU. drijten 'to void excrement: 

dish ME. dish disch oe. disc 'a 
dish, plate' =^ OSAX. disk 'table', 
DU. disch, OHG. tisc G. tisch 'table*. 
LAT. discus, the source of teut. 
diskuz, has the meaning 'dish 
only post-class, (prop, 'disk') ; 
cp. also rr. desco, ofr. dois 'table' 
(fr. dais 'a canopy, dais' see 
under dais and desli). 

dismay vb. me. dismaie desmaie 
(liemaie esmaie 'dishearten, lose 
courage') : from ofr. desmayer 
csmayer (ir. smagare from dis- 
magare points to goth. magati; 
see may). 

dispense vb. me. dispense: from 
OFR. de Spenser fr. dispenser (= it. 
spensare = lat. dispensare 'weigh 
out, distribute'). 

display vb. me. displcie: from 
afr. despleier = fr. d(ployer 
'deploy' (== Vi.spiegare, med.-lat. 
displicare 'unfold', whence also 
fr, d^p layer = e. deploy). 

dispute \h. me. dispute: from 
FR. disptiter (=:: LAT. IT. disputarc). 

dissever vb. me. dissever e desc- 
vere: from ofr. dcssevrcr {xi.dis- 
ceiierare fr. a lat. type disseparare 

distaff — dole 


distaff ME. distaf orig. dis-staf; 
OE. *(iis-sUef 'staff bedizened with 
flax' points to a teut, dtso- in 
MLG. (iise f. 'distaff, the bunch 
of flax on the distaff'. Cp. lat. 
fiisus 'spindle' for an Aryan 
yf dhis dhois pointing to a pre- 
LAT. dhoiso-. 

distinguish vb. me. distingwe 
distinge: borrowed from fr. 
distingucr (lat. distinguere). 

distrain vb. me. rt'/.f/m«^'compel, 
constrain': borrowed from ofr. 
destraindre (lat. distringere 'pull 

distress me. distresse destresse: 
from OFR. destrece 'distress' = 
FR. dltresse. 

disturb vb. me. disturbe desturbe: 
from OFR. destotirber (span. 
disturbar , it. disturbare = lat. 
disturbare 'disturb'). 

ditch 'a dike' me. diche oe. dii: 
equiv. to OSAX, dik 'dam', whence 
G. deich: related to or. Xityoci 
'wair ? 

ditty ME. diti; borrowed from 
OFR. ditt^ 'a story , poem' (lat. 

dive vb. me. dive oe. dyfan = 
ON. dyfa., DU. beduiven, LG. bediiveii : 
teut. \f dab (a by-form of the 
TEUT. \'^ dap) under deep. 

dizzy adj. me. disy oe. dysi^ 
'foolish , stupid' = ohg. fusig, 
MDU. duysigh: \^ diis (dhas). 
Another form of the \'^dus 
appears in oe. dva^h (= mdu. 
d%vaes DU. dwans) 'foolish' and 
in G. tor ohg. tbro (teut. base 

do vb. me. oe. don = DU. doen, 
OSAX. diian, ohg. mhg. tnon 
G. than. For the teut. \'^dd:de 
cp. also deed and the suffix 
- do jn. The pre-teut. \f dho : dhe 
has a wide ramification within the 
other Aryan languages; cp.theGR. 
\fd^7i'. 9^e in tH^tjui 'place, put', 
SKR. \r dhd {dadhami and dhanii) 
'place, put, do' (dhatr 'creator'), 
OSLOV. dejq (and deida) 'do, 
make', lat. facio. The meaning 
'place, put' seems to be the ori- 
ginal one and the teut. meaning 

dock sb. origin uncertain; from 
the E. word are borrowed G. 
dock, DU. dok, sw. docka, dan. 
dok(ke), FR. dock. 

doe ME. do OE. dd; cp. dan. 
daa. The oe. word — generally 
considered a loanword from lat. 
ddma — points to a weak stem 
dcin nom. sing, dd from a teut. 
base dain , which is evidently 
connected with ofr. dain m. FR. 
daine f. Perh. a lat. base *ddnus 
(assimilated for *ddmus) may be 
assumed. The phonology of 
the Engl, word may have been 
affected by roe oe. rd. 

doff vb. ME. doffe, orig. imper. 
dof contr. of do of 'put off'; cp. 
don contr. of do on 'put on'. 

dog ME. dogge OE. dogga, whence 
DU. dog, sw. dogg, G. dogge, fr. 
dogne. OE. dogga (recorded about 
1050) is a west-teut. duggan-. 

dole 'portion, share, lot, fortune' 
ME. dpl(e) OE. ddl: equiv. w. dea 
(oe. d(zt). 


dollar — dove 

dollar sb. a modern loanword 
from the continent: DU. daalder; 
the source is G. iJuxler which is 
short for Joachimsthaler 'gulden 
from Joixchhisthaf (Bohemia) 
where the coin was first struck 
in 1 5 19. 

-dom ME. -dotn OE. -dgm = 
OSAX. -dotn, DU. -dom, ohg. mho. 
'tiioni G. -tunr. an abstract noun 
suffix, orig. a sb. meaning 'juris- 
diction' preserved in doom (and 
its deriv. deeiti). 

domain (poet. by-*form demaiii) 
from FR. domaine (lat. dominimfi), 
whence also du. domcin. 

don see doff. 

donkey not found in me. oe., 
appar. a deriv. of dun. Suffix 
key of donkey is dimin. as in 
monkey. The orig. meaning of 
donkey is 'the little gray one' 
(Shakesp. uses dun 'a gray horse'). 

doom sb. 'judgment, sentence, 
decree, law' me. oe. dom = 
OSAX. dom, OHG. tuom, ON. lidmr, 
GOTH, doms judgment'; derived 
from the teut. \fdd in do\ for 
the w-suffix cp. SKR. dlummn 
'sacred custom' and gr. &f/iiig. 

door ME. dp're oe. dor = osax. 
dor, G. for, goth. dtj/ir 'gate'; ident. 
with oe. duru = osAx. dura; on. 
dyrr plur. corresponds to oSAX. 
duri plur., OHG. /«r/ plur. door' 
G.tur. The TEUT. bases //i^'r^;- and 
dur- (cons, stem) cp. also in 
GOTH, datirons 'door'. To the 
Aryan base dhur belong also lat. 
fores, GR. d^vQtt, lith. durys and 
SKR. dur (for dhur^ 'door, gate'. 

dot OE. dott 'speck' r= du. fris. 
dot; cp. LG. dott dotte 'the yellow 
of the egg' and osAX. dodro, du. 
dooier, oe. dydring, OHG. totoro 
tutar-ei G. dottcr: prim, term for 
'the yellow of the *t^^\ the 
orig. meaning of dydring is prob. 
'spot, point in the &Qg. 

dote vb. me. d^te dgtie ^ odu. 
dotcn 'mope' ; perh. akin to mhg. 
ttiz{e) 'quiet' — tiizen 'be quiet' 
from a teut. \f dut. 

double adj. me. duble : borrowed 
from FR. double (it. doppio ^= 
LAT. duplus); from the FR. source 
also g. doppelt, du. dubbel. 

doubt ME. douie: borrowed from 
FR. doute (it. dotiu = LAT. dubi- 

dough sb. ME. dough oe. ddhig) 
= du. LG. deeg, ohg. mhg. teicfg) 
G. tetg, on. de/g , GOTH, daigs 
'dough': deriv. from a teut. dig 
knead' in goth. dcigan 'mould, 
form'; an Aryan \fdhigh cp. in 
SKR. dih 'stroke, smear', lat. 
finger e 'shape, form* {^figura 
'form) and gr. xeT/og xoT^oq 
'wall'. Cp. lady. 

doughty adj. me, dou{g)hty dohti 
OE. dohti-^ ; the by-form OE. dyhti^ 
corresponds to mhg. G. tuchtig 
deriv. from ohg. mhg. tuht an 
abstract noun of the verb re- 
presented by ohg. tugan = oe. 
dugan. The oe. by-form /j7///j (cp. 
dim = OSAX. thinwi) points to 
a primitive teut. sT P^^g- 

dove short for me. douve oe. 
diife', corresponding to goth. 
diibdj OSAX. duba, ohg. tuba g. taube. 

down — dream 


The TEXjii.dubdn- 'dove' is based 
on a pre-TEUT. adj. dhtibho- 'black' 
in oiR. dub 'black'. 

down sb. 'soft plumage': a 
Scand. loanword of the me. period 
(me. douri), borrowed from ON. 
dtinn = sw. dun, da.n. dunn, 
whence also G. daune, du. dons. 

down prep, and adv., orig. 
adcncn (cp. back for aback) : short- 
ened for me. adoune adoun OE. 
ofdiine'. OE. dun is hill' and of- 
dune 'off the hill, downwards'. 
Ateut. duna- 'hill' (in mod. lg. 
dill is 'dale' and 'down ), oe. diin 
survives in the Kentish doums- 
cp. DU. duin. Perh. the word is 
a Celt, loanword, cp. iR. dtin 'a 
fortified hill', gael. dun, w. din 
and the Celt, place-names such 
as Tarodunum, for which cp. also 

1 01V 71. 

doze vb. prob. borrowed from 
ox. dilsa 'doze'. 

dozen me. dozcine dusain = fr. 
douzaine (ofr. dosaine), whence 
also g. dutzend, du. dozijn. The 
Fr. word is deriv. from douze 
(oFR. doze = LAT. duodeciin). 

draff ME. draf oe. draf; cp. 
OHG. '^■trab in the plur. trebir G. 
triiber 'grains, husks' and du. 
ON. s w. draf. Cogn. w. I.XT. /races : 
ARYAN y'^^/Arrt^; cp. also dregs. 

dragon me. dragon drago{u)n\ 
from FR. dragon 'dragon, stand- 
ard* = IT. dragone, lat. draco(n-) 
'dragon'. See drake. 

drain vb. me. dreine oe. drc'ag- 
nian; a teut. \f drau^ appears 
in NORTH -FRis. druughe 'sieve, 

j strainer' and drziugin vb. 'strain, 
sieve' (nfris. u from teut. ««) 
and in ditmarsh dorchdroven 
'drain', hess. drauefi 'drain'. 

drake ^ in drakefiy oe. draca 
'dragon'; cp. synon. ohg. trahho 
g. drache = oe. draca borrowed 
fr. lat. draco. Cp. dragon. 

drake- 'male of the duck' me. 
; drake OE. *draca = lg. (dial.) 
I drake mlg. ant-drake, which points 
j to identity with icel. andriki, 
germ, enter ich OHG. antrehho an- 
trahJio (orig. *anut -j- trahho'). 
The TEUT. drakon- occurs only 
in this compound and in the sub- 
stituted simple form (the Teut. 
word for 'duck' was oe. cened, 
OHG. anut G. ente). 

draw vb. me. drawe oe. dragan 
;= ON. draga; perh. ident. with 
GOTH, dragan 'bear, carry', OSAX. 
dragan, DU. drag en, OHG. tragan 
G.tragen 'carry, bear'. The teut. 
\fdrag 'bear' (aryan dhragH) has 
been compared with OSLOV. drii- 
zati 'hold'. 

dream 'vision' me. dr{m; an 
equiv. OE. dr{am is not recorded 
(the synonym is swefti), but is 
to be inferred from osAX. drom, 
DU. droom, ON. draumr , OHG. 
MHG. troujn G. traum 'dream'. 
The meaning 'dream , vision' 
attaching to these forms may 
be deduced from 'deception, 
vision' so that teut. drauma- (for 
*draugfna- or *dhroughwm6- ?) 
would belong to the teut. 
\'^ drug, seen in osAX. bidriogan 
^OKG. triogan G. triigen 'deceive . 


dreary — drop 

dreary adj. me. dreri oe. dreorij^ 
'sad': corresponding to mhg. 
trurec G. traurig; oho. iriirbi 
G. trauern 'mourn' belongs perh. 
to OE. driisian E. drowse drowze 
'be sluggish'. 

dregs 'lees' a Scand. loanword 
of the ME. period (me. dregges) 
borrowed with the plur. form fr. 
the equiv. on. dregg. The teut. 
base dragjo- may be a pre-TEUT. 
dhraki- which is also possible 
of LAT. /races 'dregs' (i,at. / = 
ARYAN dh as under distaff^ ; cp. 
also PRUSS. dragios 'dregs' (perh. 
Teut. loanword?). 

dress vb. me. dresse borrowed 
from FR. dresser (ofr. drescer 
drecier\ Lat. type directiare). 

drift sb. 'driving, impulse' me. 
drift 'act of driving, drove, im- 
pulse': deriv. from drive with /- 
suffix; cp. DU. drift 'drove, flock, 
course, current, ardor', G. trift 
'pasture', ON. drift dript 'snow- 
drift'. See drive, drove. 

drink vb. me. drinke oe. drincan 
=1 OSAX. drinkan, du. lg. drinken, 
OHG. trinchcui aihg. g. trinken, 
on. drekka , goth. drigkan: a 
common teut. str. vb. From 
TEUT. comes the Roman group 
IT. trincare, fr. trinquer 'hobnob'. 
The teut. \f drcnk (Aryan dhreng^ 
does not appear outside of 

drip vb. ME. drippc o%.dryppan\ 
associated with OE. *dreopan 
.ME. drepe 'drop, fall' = oSAX. 
driopan, du. druipxen, ohg. triufan 

MHG. G. iriefcn, on. drjiipa 'drop, 

drive me. drive oe. drifan str. vb. 
= OSAX. drWan 'drive, banish, 
perform', du. drijven drive, do, 
fly, swim", on. drlfa 'hasten', 
GOTH, dreiban 'drive', ohg. trWan 
MHG. triben G. treiben. For the teut. 
\fdrib (ARYAN dhribhl d/iripl) 
cp. also drift. 

droll adj. perh. borrowed fr. 
FR. drolc 'odd, queer, funny'. Cp. 
G. droUig frt)m lg. driillig, du. 
drollig; not found in the older 

drone sb. me. dronOY.. dran (plur. 
drdn). The synon. ohg. treno 
MHG. irene G. dro/ine, osAX. dran 
plur. draiii (dan. drone is a con- 
tinental loanword) are evidently 
related, but not phonetically 
identical; oe. drdn points to 
GOiH. "^drainuSy while ohg. tr'ciio 
points to GOTH. *drina. An 
Aryan y^ dhren cp. in gr. Xhv- 
&()}jvt] 'a species of wasp' — 
also dvd^Q-tji'7^ 'woodbee' — Laco- 
nian &g(3vtt^ 'drone'. 

drop vb. ME. droppe oe. droppian 
also dropiati and droppetian (= 
DU. droppen, g. tropfeti)'. a frequent, 
deriv. of the orig. str. vb. OE. 
drcopan .me. drepe = osax. drio- 
pan, DU. druipen, ohg. triitfan 
MHG. G. triefen, on. drjiipa 'drop'. 
See drip and drop. 

drop sb. 'a globule' me. drgpe 
oe. dropa = o.SAX. dropo, du. 
drop, ON. drope, ohg. trojfo; the 
OHG. by-form tropfo (g. tropfeti) 
points to a teut. base druppon-. 

dropsy — dung 


All derivatives of the teut. 
\'~ limp. See drop^. 

dropsy me. dropsy dropesie short 
for idropsie hydi'opsie: borrowed 
from FR. hydropisie (lat. hydro- 
pi sis) . 

drought ME. drought older 
drougth drught OE. drugod 'dry- 
ness': deriv. from OE. driigian 

become dry' and teut. adj. 
iirugi in dry. 

drouse (drowze) vb. me. *drouse 
OE. drus(i)an 'become slow or 
sluggish' = MDU. droosen 'doze'; 
cp. LG. drilnse(l)n 'slumber' drunsen 
'low' (of cattle); akin to oe. 
dreosan = goth. driusan 'fall'. 
See dreary. 

drove sb. 'herd, road for 
sheep or cattle in droves' me. 
drm'C earlier drof oe. drdf^ drove : 
• leriv. from \.\\it\/^drtb in drive. 

drown vb. me. droune; short 
for ME. druncne (also dissimil. 
drimlile) OE. driincnian 'sink': a 
passive formation of the teut. 
verb drink. 

dry ME. drie drye oe. dryy: 
from teut. driigi-, as shown by 
OE. drugod = mod. E. drought. 
A TEUT. by -form draugi- (or 
draugu-') is seen in OE. dri^e 
ME. dreic and in DU. droog, 
LG. dni'ge (by the side of lg. 
dryge, north-fris. druiigH). All 
with the same meaning, which 
appears also in the related G. 
tree ken (oHG. truckan). Cp. on. 
draugr 'a dry log'; ohg. f)roper 
nouns e. g. Driihi-kiinga prove 
a TEUT. druhi 'dry'. An Ar\an 

English Etymology. 

sfdhruk is probable and OHG. 
truckan would point to a by- 
form Ar}'an dhrfig. 

duck sb. ME. douke oe. diice: 
akin to oe. *ducan under duck 
vb.; hence duck prop, 'the diving 
one, diver'; cp. t>as. dukand 'sea- 
duck', G. tauchente. 

duck vb. ME. douke \ an oe. 
*ducan may be inferred fr. DU. 
duiken, ohg. tiihhan mhg. tiichen 
G. tauchen. 

due adj. me. dUe from fr. dii 
m. due f. OFR. deu m. deue f. (= 
IT. debuto) ; cp. MED. -LAT. *debu- 
timi debuta for debitum. 

duke ME. diike from fr. duc\ 
with the deriv. duchess me. 
diichesse short for diichesse = fr. 
duchesse. — duchy (cp. me. 
ducherie instead of *duchie') from 
FR. ducM. 

dumb adj. me. domb dumb oe. 
dumb; goth. dumbs, on. dumbr 
have essentially the same meaning 
; while the corresponding g. dumm 
(ohg. mhg. tump) signifies 'stupid, 
foolish'. Perh. deaf without 
nasal {= oe. deaf, goth. daufs) 
belongs to .the same Aryan 
\'~dht'ihh, which may be found 
also in gr. xvipXog 'blind'. 

dun adj. 'dark, swarthy' me. 
don donne oe. dun (nn) : an early 
Celtic loanword (oiR. GAEL. 
donn, GALL, donnos); therefore 
not found in other teut. lan- 

dung me. dung dong; cp. ohg. 

tunga 'dung' G. dung. ohg. 

; MHG. tunc 'subterranean weaving 


dungeon — ear 

room'. If 'cave, underground 
room' is the orig. meaning, gr. 
rdipog from an Aryan dJmgkivos 
may be allied. 

dungeon sb. ivie. dongcon don- 
joun\ loanword from ofr. don- 
geon dongon donjon fr. donjon 
(med.-lat. domjtionem 'a com- 
manding tower' fr. a lat. type 
donunionevi; cp. LAT. dominm?n 
under domaiti). 

dusk ME. dosk OE. dose (of 

rare occurrence, but also seen 
in the deriv. vb. dusciaii). Akin to 
the sw. dial, diiskug 'misty*. 
A TEUT. base duska- admits of 
relation to lat. fusctis 'blackish, 
dark' (base dhusko-T). 

Dutch orig. meant German 
including Dutch; for down to 
1600, Dutdi was considered 

a dialect of Germany. Dutch 
corresponds to G. deutsch = mlg. 
dildcsch, mhg. diutsch tiutsch tiiisch 
OHO. dintisk (osAX. thiudiscc lindi 

dwarf ME. dwergh dwerugh 
OE. dweorh{g) = du. dwerg, 
ohg. mhg. tw'erc(g) gettu'erc G. 
swerg, ON. dwergr m., sw. dan. 
dverg. TEUT. base dwcrga- 
belongs prob. to the t^e^^'\:.'\^ drug 
'deceive', hence dwarf prop, 
'deception, vision*. 

dwell vb. ME. dwelle late oe. 
divelian : scand. loanword from 
ON. dvelja 'delay, stay' =:- ohg. 
t7vellan (and tivalcn) 'linger'. 

dye vb. me. die deie dej^e oe. 
deagian : derived from oe. d('ah(g) ; 
a TEUT. dauga is not found 

each ME. c'ch earlier (Ich oe. 
cbI^ orig. d-gilid = ohg. iogilih 
MHG. iegelich G. jeglich\ cp. ohg. 
fftanno-gilth 'every man' — wibo- 
gilih 'every woman' etc. 

eager me. (grc. adapted from 
OFR. eigre 'keen, sharp'. Source 
LAT. acre (acer). 

eagle me. e'gle: loanword from 
FR. aigle'y source lat. aquila. 

eanling'lamb'(Shakesp.) points 
to an OE. (an 'lamb' ; cp. yean. 

ear^ sb. me. ere oe. (Wv = teut. 

base auzon- in goth. ausb, osax. 
ohg. bra g. ohr , du. oor. An 
Aryan base aus- cp. in lat. 
auris, gr. ovq, Russ. SLOv. ucfio 
'ear' ; perh. cogn. with hear. — 
Hence earwig me. (r-wigge oe. 

ear'^ sb. (of corn) me. cr oe. car 
contr. from *eahor (Northumbr. 
^M^;-)=TEUT. base ahaz-\ ident. 
w. ohg. ahir G. iihre, goth. ahs, 
ON. ax. Perh. akin to awns. 

ear vb. me. (re oe. erian = 

earl — eight 


GOTH, arjan, ohg. erian 'plough'; 
cogn. with LAT. arare, or. uqosiv, 
oiR. araim '\ plough': Aryan 
\/" ar in lat. arzmm 'field' and 
in earth. 

earl me. erl oe. eorl = on. 
jar I, OSAX. erl. Perh. ident. 
with the TEUT. tribe-name Heruli. 

early me. 4^li OK.cerlke; cp. ere. 

earn vb. me. ^'rne oe. {arnian 
= ohg. arnon. Perh. traceable 
to the Aryan v^<7r in GVi.aovvf.iai. 

earnest me. ernest oe. eornust 
rr^ OHG. crnust G. DU. ernst 'serious- 
ness'; perh. akin to goth. 
arniba adv. 'surely'? 

earth me. erthe oe. eorde = 
uSAX. eriha, ohg. m/^z G. ^r^^/^', 
GOTH, airpa, on. yi^rd?; cognate 
with OHG. era 'earth' = ON. 
jorvi 'ground', lat. arviwi 'field', 
GR. ^oaLe 'to the ground'. 

earwig cp. ear"^. 

ease me. ese earlier else from 
FK. aise 'ease'. 

east ME. (ii OE. cast; ident. 
with DU. oost, G. osten ; the teut. 
base aust- is traced to the 
Aryan name of the aurora lat. 
aurora, GR. ffWg, SKR. tisas: Arj'an 
base ausos. Cp. Easier. 

Easter me. ester oe. {astro = 
OHG. ostarnn G. Ostern. Accord- 
ing to Beda Venerabilis, in 
heathen times the Anglo-Saxons 
called the feast in April after 
their goddess Eostre, which is 
elsewhere quite unrecorded. The 
west-teut. word (base austron-) \ 
is prob. of the same origin as 
east; cp. lith. auszra 'aurora'. 

eat vb. ME. (te oe. ctan = du. 
eten, osax. etan, on. eta, goth. 
itan, OHG. a^yin g. essen. Cp. 
the Aryan \fed in lat. edo, GR. 
sdojitaj, SKR. ad, LiTH. edmi 'eat' 
(see also tootK). 

eaves me. eves oe. efes 'eaves'; 
the E. dial, form oaves (Essex) 
points to an oe. *ofes = ohg. 
obasa 'porch, hall', goth. tibiztva 
'porch', on. ups 'eaves'. 

ebb sb. ME. ehheOY.. ehba =ofris. 
ehba, du. eh ebbe, G. dan. ebbe, 
SWED. ebb. Source and history 

edge ME. egge oe. edg (infl. 
eege) = du. egge, osax. eggia, 
ON. egg, OHG. ecka G. ecke. Cogn. 
with LAT. acies 'point', gr. uKig; 
cp. SKR. a(ri 'corner', GR. ay.goc. 
'pointed', LlTH. aszru-s 'sharp': 
Aryan y^rt"^. 

eel ME. OE. el oe. dl = ohg. 
dl, g. du. dan. aal, on. all: teut. 
base ela- clu- ? 

egg sb. ME. egg from on. egg. 
OE.^j (plur. ck-irii) — ME. «(plur. 
eire) 'egg' were supplanted by the 
SCAND. loanword egg. oe. tsj and 
ON. egg correspond to osax. 
OHG. ei, DU. g. ei: teut. base 
aia- (ajjiz- ajjaz) perh. related 
to lat. oznini, GR. wo'i' egg'. 

egg vb. 'instigate' me. egge 
from ON. eggja ''&^% on'; akin 
to edge. 

eight ME. eighte oe. ''ehte mostly 
eahta = gOth. ahtau, osax. ohg. 
ahto G. DU. acht'. Aryan base 
oktbu okto in gr. oxroi, lat. oeto, 
SKR. ,asldu, OIR. o^d. 





eisel ME. aisll late oe. aisil (= 
ODU. aisijl) fr. OFR. aisil. Source 
a LAT. type acetiilum; cp. OE. 
eced 'vinegar fr. lat. acidufn 

either me. either oe. xyier 
shortened for d^^kwader orig. 
a -|- ykivceder ; cp. ohg. io-giwe- 
dar 'each of two' and whether. 

eke ME. ek oe. ec earlier (ac fr. a 

TEUT. auk = GOTH, ailk, OHG. 

ouh G. aizr//. Prop, imperative 
of the str. vb. goth. aukan 'add' 
(== LAT. auger e). 
■ elbo'w ME. elbmve oe. elboga 
earlier eln-hoga = OHG. elinbogo 
G. elbogen, du. elleboog, on. f/«- 
/^<?^/: a GOTH, compound *aleina- 
buga 'the bow of the cubit' is 
wanting. Cp. ell and bow. 

eld old age, antiquity'(Shakesp.) 
ME. elde OE. eldo yldo 'antiquity': 
abstract of old = oe. did. — 
elder adj. me. elder oe. eldra: 
compar. of old. 

elder sb. (a tree) me. eldre eller 
oe. ellarn. 

eleven me. enlevetie oe. infl. 
endleofane cknlifatie\ oe. endlufon 
corresponds to ON. elli/u, osax. 
clleban ; cp. GOTH, ainlif , OHG. 
««/^ G. DU. elf 'eleven'. The 
TEL'T. numeral ain-lif- is a com- 
pound of ain =■ one and lif 
= pre-TEUT. -//i^<z in lith. i^etio- 
lika 'eleven' (cp. twelve). The 
orig. meaning of the numeral 
was perh. 'ten -(- one'. 

elf (with the older by-form 
ouphe Shakesp.) me. elf oe. celf: 
TEUT. base alba- also in on.dlfr; 

the word occurs in proper names 
as OE. jElfrid = ohg. Alp-rdt. 
An Aryan albhu- is found in 
SKR. rbhu 'the name of a certain 
kind of deity'. 

ell me. elle earlier elne OE. eln 
^=- OHG. elina G. du. elle, on. 
alin, GOTH, aleifia 'ell, cubit'. A 
pre-TEUT. dlend- is found in lat. 
ulna, GR. loXivrj, OiR. nile 'cubit'. 
Cp. elbo70. 

elm ME. OE. elm; akin to on. 
dlmr and lat. ulmus (g. ulme is 
a lat. loanword, du. ol»i is ofr. 

else ME. OE. elles adv. 'other- 
wise' : genet, of the pron. goth. 
aljis 'an other' (= lat. alius, 
OR. aXXoc, OIR. aile, armen. ail) ; 
cp. OE. ele-lemle 'a foreign land , 
OHG. eli-lenti 'being abroad and 
OHG. dies 'elsewhere', lat. alias 

ember-days me. imbri-dawes oe. 
ymbren-dagas prop, 'days of pro- 

embers ashes' me. e?nmeres 
emeres plur. oe. (kmyriau plur. 
= OHG. eimuria , on. ciinyrja 
'embers*. Prob. a compound of 
a TEUT. type aim-uzjon ; cp. on. 
eitnr 'steam, vapor' and Jisli "a 
conflagration' , mhg. usel lisel 
'ashes, embers' fr. an Aryan \^ us 
in lat. urere vb. 'burn' (cp. on. 
ysja 'fire'). 

emmet 'ant' me. emet oe. atmte: 
TEUT. base amaitjon- = ohg. 
avieiyx G. ameise: prob. cogn. 
with OHG. ani"if G. e?nsig "in- 



emperor me. emperour fr. afr. 
anperur ^= lat. imperator-em (but 
OE. Cdserc 'emperor' = G. kaiser 
fr. LAT. Caesar) ; cp. empire me. 
empire fr. FR. empire ^= lat. 
imperium and empress me. em- 
peressc earlier form emperice fr. 
OFR. emperice :=: lat. imperatrtcem. 

empty me. cmpti emti short for 
OE. itmtij^ 'empty'. 

enchant vb. me. etichaunte fr. 
FR. enchanter = lat. incantare. 

end ME. OE. ^W^ = GOTH. andeis, 
OHG. enii G. <?w/(?, DU. einde, on. 
^«<//: TEUT. base andja-, pre-TEUT. 
anty6-\ cp. skr. diita 'end, limit' 
and o:r. dt. 

engage cogn. w. gage. 

enough me. inuugh {inowe) oe. 
'^emih (jeupg earlier pnpg) : teut. 
base ga-noga- in DU. genoeg, 
osax. ginog , OHG. ginuog G. 
^'fw/^ 'enough'; cp. goth. ganohs 
and the goth. vb. ganatihan 'to 
suffice' — ganauha 'sufficiency': 
ARYAN v'~//<;>^ {ndJi). 

enter vb. me. entre fr.(?«- 
trer = lat. intrare vb. 'enter'. 

entire adj. me. entire fr. fr. 
entier ^= lat. integrum {integer). 

envy sb. ^vE..em>ie fr. fr. ^«otV = 
LAT. invidia. 

ere 'before' me. h-{e) oe. <?r 
(fr. ihri dri teut. rt'/'rz') 'before'; 
ident. w. goth. (^?/r, ohg. osax. 
cr G. t'///'. 

ermine sb. me. ermine fr. ofr. 
ermine fr. hermine, which is of 
Teut. origin; cp. ohg. harmin 
mhg. hertnin 'fur'. The primitive 

I ohg. harfno (corresp. to lith. 
czarmff) means 'weasel'. 

err vb. me. erre vb. fr. fr. 
errer = lat. errarc; hence 
errant fr. errant. 

errand me. ernde erende short 
for oe. (Brende := osax. arundi^ 
ohg. arunti 'message'; uncertain 
whether cogn. w. goth. airus, on. 
drr, OE. dr, osax. <''r 'messenger'. 

escape vb. me. escape vb. fr. 
ONFR. escaper = fr. ichapper. lat, 
type ex-cappare deriv. from cappa 

evening ^\K.eiieninge o^.c?/ftung: 
deriv. of eve me. eve(n) oe. dfen 
efen; cp. ohg. dbund G. abend, 
OSAX. at) and , du. avond; on. 
aptann (swed. afto7i, dan. a/ten) 
and OE. ^y/y^^ 'evening' belong 
to the same group : teut. base 
ebnd-1 eftn-1 

ever me. a>er earlier (vre oe. 
(zfre (earlier tzhre); the word is 
orig. compounded, but only 
the i^' element is evident; cp. 
oe. ^ 'ever' = goth. aiw under 
aye'^. — every me. everi earlier 
form everich late oe. ckfralc. 

everywhere me. ever iwhire oe. 

evil adj. me. evel prop, ivel oe. 
yfel: teut. base ubila- in goth. 
ubils, OSAX. ubil , ohg. ubil G. 
«^(?/, DU. etmel; cogn. w. ohg. 
uppi G. ilppig and perhaps w. teut. 
»ber = over. 

ewe ME. ewe oe. <?^£'« (not 
iowii, which would be me. *ewe) : 
TEUT. base ami- 'sheep' in DU. 
ooi, ON. d-r 'sheep' and cp. goth. 


ewer — fair 

aw^pi 'flock of sheep' and awistr 
'a sheepfold'; cp. ohg. oh (plur. 
ouzvi) fr. a teut. base awun-. 
A base 07vi- occurs in other 
Aryan languages : skr. dvi, lat. 
ovis, GR. ot'g (*ofig), lith. az'is 
'sheep', osLOv. oTuca, oir. ^/ 'sheep'. 

ewer me. ewer fr. afr. *ewiere 
VK.aiguiere : source lat. aquarium 
'vessel for water', whence also 
OHG. ahhdri, du. lg. aker 'pitcher, 

expound .me. expoutie vb. fr. 
ovR.espondre: source lat. exponere, 
whence also dug. sptlnon 'inter- 
pret, expound'. 

eye me. eie earlier e]^e oe. cage : 
TEUT. base augon- in goth. augo, 

OHG. oiiga G auge , osax. oga, 
DU. oogy ON. auga (under zoin- 
doiv). As shown by the teut. vb. 
*aujati pret. '^awida (==: oe. ywan 
eowde) for *agwjan ^agwlda 'to 
show', TEUT. augon- is transformed 
(by the influence of teut. auzon- 
= ear^ from an earlier agtvon-: 
ARYAN base okon- fr. a primitive 
stem ok 'eye' ; cp. lat. oc-ulus, 
OSLOV. oka, LITH. akis, gr. a(T(T£ 
'the eyes' (for *okje) ; skr. ^■/('jiV. 
eyot sb. me. eiet oe. /j^/ com- 
monly iiod: deriv. of oe. /j i^ 
'island', which answers to on. ey, 
OHG. ouwa 'island' (teut. aujo- 
fr. ag7Vjd- deriv. of goth. ahwa 
= LAT. aqua 'water'). 

fable ME. fable fr. fr. fable = 
LAT. fabula. 

face ME. face fas fr. fr. face = 
LAT. fades. 

fade (Shakesp. vade) vb. me. 
/<i(^/^ vb. fr. the fr. adj. fade 
(whence also G.fade, ODU. vadde). 
Source a lat. type *fatidus in- 
stead oi fatuus 'foolish'. 

fail vb. ME. faile vb. fr. fr. 
faillir (source lat. fallere), 
whence also du. veilen, mhg. 
velefi G. fehlen. 

fain adj. me. fain oe. fce^en 
'glad' = osAX. fagan, on. feginn 
adj. 'glad'; cyi.GQH'^. faginon 'to 
enjoy' and faheps 'joy', which is 

ident. w. ohg. gifeho 'joy' or 
more accurately w. oe. ^ffe'd 
(contracted fr. *gifeaha = *gi- 
fa/io) : TEUT. sTfeh (Ar}-an peli) 
in OE. lefeon (pret. yfcali) = 
OHG. gifehan 'to enjoy'. 

faint adj. me. feint fr. ovk. feint 
partic. oi feindre\ cp. feign. 

fair adj. me. fair oe. fryr =; 
=n G0TH.yv7^r.y'fit',0HG. 0%K\.fagar, 
ON. y<2'^r. According to goth. 
gafahrjan 'to prepare, there 
exists a teut. \ffeh also in G. 
fegen ohg. ev^^;/ vb. 'cleanse'; 
cp. on. fdga and ohg. fuogan 
G. ///^<?«, oe. lefeian. 

fair sb. 'market, festival' me. 

fairy — fast 


feire fr. afr. feire = fr. foire\ 
source lat. feria 'a holiday', 
whence also ohg. ftra G. feier 
'ceremony* {feier tag 'holiday'). 

fairy me. fairie fr. ofr. faerie 
'enchantment'; cp. fay. 

faith sb. -ME. faith feith (with 
the by-form fai fei) fr. afr. feid 
feiti (with the by-form /l?/ = fr. 
foi). Source lat. Jiiies — Jidein. 

falcon .sb. me. fiukoun fr. fr. 
faucon. Source late lat. falco- 
ncm, whence also ohg. falko G. 
falke, on. falke, du. valk 'falcon'. 

fall vb. ME. falle oe. fallan 
{/eallati) =r ohg. OSax. fallan, 
ON. falla str. vb. 'fall': teut. 
yffall = Aryan \'^pal in lith. 
piilli (pres. p'l'ilii) 'to fall'; cp. 
also gr. G(fdXXoiiai 'to fall*? 

fallow adj. me. falwe OE.fealo 
gcn.fealwes =- teut. faltoa- 
in ON. fplr, DU. vaal, ohg. falo 
G. fa/il 'pale, fallow'. Cogn. 
w. LAT. pallidus 'pale' — pullus 
dark', GR. nohog gray', skr. 
palila 'gray'; the teut. adj. has 
the same suffix as oslov. plavii, 
LHTL palvas 'fallow'. 

false adj. me. late oe. fats fr. 
OFR. fals =1 fr. faux; source 
LAT. falsus 'false'. 

fame me. fame fr. fr. fame = 
LAT. fama 'report'. 

famine me. famin(e) fr. fr. 
famine', deriv. fr. lat. fames 


fan ME. OE. fan (nn) : borrowed 
during anglo-sax. times fr. lat. 
7'annus (in the vulgar pro- 
nunciation ya««Kj; cp. G. vers = 

lat. versus^ ; G. wanne is an 
earlier loanword fr. lat. vannus. 

fancy short for me. fantasle = 
ofr. fantasie (lat. phantasid). 

far adv. me. fer fcrre oe. 
fcor feorran', cp. goth. fairra 
adv., ohg. ferro G. fern, du. 
ver, o^. fjarri'iz.x '. cogn. w. GR. 
neguv 'beyond', SKK.pdra 'distant', 
AR^^EN. /leri 'far'. 

fardel me. fardel fr. ofr. fardel 
= FR. far dean 'burden, load. 

fare vb. me. fare oe. far an 
str. vb. = goth. y<7rrt//, on. far a, 
ohg. OSAX. faran mhg. varn G. 
fahren, du. varen: teut. \^far 
= ARYAN \fpor in GR. noi)tvof.iai 
I travel, I go'. 

farm ME.fertne 'repast, banquet, 
rent, farm' oe. feorm 'banquet, 
food, subsistence'; cp. OE.feormian 
vb. 'sustain, feed, support' bor- 
rowed fr. LAT. firmare 'to make 
strong' (firmare alqm. cibo atque 

farrow .me. farh ')oung pig* 
oe. fearh 'pig' = OHG. farah 
(g. ferkel, du. varketi) : teut. base 
far ha- = pre-teut. porko- in GR. 
TTo'oxog, LAT. parens, lith. pdrszas, 
OSLOv. prase, OIR. ore 'pig'. 

farthing me. ferihing short for 
fer thing oe. feordung {feording 
feordling') 'the fourth part, farth- 
ing': deriv. of OE.feorda 'fourth', 
cp. four and OHG. for dung. 

fashion me. fafioun {fassoun) 
fr. TV,. fa(on ■= i^.w. faetw(nem). 

fast adj. me. fast oe. fcpst = 
os.fastr, du. 7'ast, OHG. festi adj. 
(fasto adv.) g. fest 'fast': teut. 


fast — feeble 

fastu-, An'an postu in armen. hast 
'fast'. — fastvb. ME./h;i-/'^0E./(^j-/(7« 
rt= GOTH, fastan, G. fasten, du. 
V as ten, on. fasta: prop, derived 
from the adj. with the orig. mean- 
ing make firm, observe*. 

fat adj. ME. /<?/ (tt) short for oe. 
fdtl prop, fffted ^= teut. base 
faitida- in Ohg. /If/^/V G. /"m/, 
osax. y^/zV/ lg. g. fett 'fat', uu. vet: 
prop, partic. of a teut. vb. 
*faitjan. The base is a teut. adj. 
faita- 'fat' in mhg. z'ei-^, on. yi?//r : 
Aryan \fpid cogn. w. \^pi in 
GR. niuYV nia^oQ 'fat' = skr. 
pivan — pwara'i'dii (skr. \^/j^). 

fatal .\rE. /<?/«/ fr. fr. fatal', 
cp. fate ME. fate = ofr. /<7/^. 
Source lat. fatiim — fatalis. 

father me. fader oe. feeder = 
GOTH. fada7' (commonly attd), 
OHG. fater G. zw/i?;-, OSAx. fadar, 
uu. vader, on. fadir: teut. base 
fader- =^ Aryan base pater- in 
LAT. pater, gr. naxiJQ, skr. //yd-'/' 
and oiR. rt-Zy^/V-, armen. y^d-Zr: all 

fathom ME. fithem oe. /<?//w 
'embrace, extended arms, fathom, 
cubit': ident. w. on. fad7nr, du. 
vadem 'a fathom' = OHG. fadiim 
G. faden 'a fathom, a thread': 
TEUT. base fapnia- fr. an Aryan 
\fpet in GOTH. ya/« 'hedge' = 
MHG. iHide fence' and in GR. 
TiiT(ivvv(.a 'I extend'. 

fault ME. faute fr. fr. faiite. 

favor ME. favour = fr. faz'etir. 

faw^n sb. me. faun prop, fa-oun 
fr. FR. faon 'a fawn': source a 
LAT. type fa' tonus, deriv. oi foetus. 

fay fr. fr. fie; cp. mhg. feic 
fr. OFR. feie: source a lat. fata 
= fa turn. 

fear me. /^r^ oe. //?r 'a sudden 
peril, fear' == osax. far, ohg. 
fdra 'treason, danger' G. gefahr 
'danger'; goth. ^fera is the source 
oi ferja 'a spy' : Aryan \fper also 
in LAT. periculum 'danger', GR. 
TTsTon 'trial . 

feast ME. feste fr. ofr. feste =- 
FR. fete: source festa. 

feat ME. fe't by-form fe/'t fait 
fr. FR. fait ^= LAT. factum. 

feather short for me. fc'ther 
OE. feder = du. veder , osax. 
fethara, ohg. fedara G. fcdcr, 
j ON. fjgdr 'feather' : teut. base 
\feprd-, Aryan petra-; cogn. \v. 
GR. ntfoov feather, wing', skr. 
pdtatram 'wing' — patra 'feather' : 
Aryan \fpet in skr. \fpat 'to 
fiy', also in lat. penna (prop. 
*petsna) 'feather. 

feature yis..fctilre fr. ovv.. future 
=. LAT. factura. 

fee sb. me.// o^.feoh (gen./iw 
dat. fed) prop, 'cattle, property 
in cattle' ; ident. w. goth. faihu, 
ON. fi 'cattle, property', (jhg. 
Jihu G. vieh 'cattle': teut. fehu 
Aryan piku neut. in skr. pd(u 
neut. 'cattle ; cp. skr. pafii 
masc, LAT. pecus 'cattle' (hence 
peciinia 'money'). 

feed vb. me. fede oe. fedan 
fddan : teut. base fodjan under 

feeble adj. me. feble fr. ofr. 
feible foible = fr. faible. 

feel — fetlock 


feel vb. ME. fi'le oe. felan fdlan 
\vk. vb. fr. a teut. base foljan in 
OSAX. gi/oljan, DU. voelen, ofris. 
fela, MHG. vilelen g. filhlen vb. 
'feel'. Perh. cogn. w. palnia, 
os.\x. OE. fohn 'hand': \fpal. 

feign vb. ME. feine fr. fr. feindrc 
'to feign' : source lat. Jingerc. 

fell sb. ME. OE. y^/(//) : teut. 
base fella- in goth. fill, on. 
/^//, OHG. T^'/C//) G. fell, DU. ?W. 
Cogn. w. LAT. /^///.f skin' : \^pel 
also in film. 

fellow sb. ME. felawc late oe. 
feolaga: borrowed fr. on. /"//iT^'-f; 
cp. on. fi-lag 'companionship, 
association', lit. 'a laying to- 
gether of property' (on. fi 'pro- 
perty' = e. fee). 

felly (felloe) me. felie (felwe) 
OE. felie (fclgan) = ohg. /e*4'-<? 
G. felge, DU. radvelge. skr. par(u 
'rib' is compared. 

felon ME. felotin borrowed fr. 
KR. felon 'a traitor' fr. med.-lat. 
fello{nem) felo(nem). 

felt .me. ok. fell; cp. the synon. 

OHG. G. filz MHG. Z^//s;, DU. 7'//^', 
SW. DAN. yf//: TEUT. /^//<;s ^filtiz 
from a pre-TEUT. *peldos. Felt 
is prob. related to OSLOV. pliisti 
'felt'. The .synon. Rom. words 
IT. feltro, FR. feutre (med. - i.a r. 
filtriwi) 'felt' are ofTEUT. origin. 

fen ME. OE. fen{nn) : teut. base 
fanja- 'morass' in the synon. 
GOTH, fani, DU. veen, ON. fen, 
OHG. fenni. 

fence sb. short for defence. — 

fend vb. me. fende', also- abbre- 
viation of defend. 

fennel me. fenel oe. finul: 
borrowed fr. i^m:. fenieulutn fenu- 
culum (whence also fr. fenouil, 
IT. finocchid) ; du. venkel , ohg. 
fenahhal fenihhal G. fcnchel are 
earlier loanwords. 

fern shortened for me. f{rn 
OE. fcarn fearn r^r- o. farn, DU. 
varen. The teut. base farna- 
'fern' is ident. w. skr. partia 
'wing, feather, leaf; cp. GR. 
meoov 'feather — irv^giq 'fern'. 

ferret borrowed fr. fr. furet 
{= IT. furetto^, which is a deri- 
vative of LAT. fur 'thief, fr. 
furet is also the source of DU. 
fret, G. frett usually frettchen. 

ferry sb. me. ferie: it is un- 
certain whether it is a genuine 
e. word (oe. ^^ferie) or a Scand. 
loanword (on. ferjd); cp. G. 
fdhre, du. veer. Source the 
verbal VV'"' i" f^^f'^- 

ferry vb. me. ferie oe. feriati 
'carry' = ON. ferja 'carry', goth. 
farjan 'travel'; cp. fare. 

fetch vb. y\.K. fecche with the by- 
form fete (pret. fette^ oe. feccan 
fetjan ea.r\i€r fetian (prct. fetode); 
E. -tch ME. eeh is developed fr. 
OE. tj (fetjan earlier fctian, west- 
TEUT. fetbjati). There exists a 
TEUT. \ffet\xi OE. sidfcct 'journey', 
ON. fet 'step, pace*; E. foot 
belongs to the same Aryan 

fetlock orig.'the tuft of hair be- 
hind a horse's pastern-joint'. 
ME. fitlock fetlack: a genuine E. 


fetter — fight 

word idenl. w. mhg. fi-^lach fiy- 
loch, deriv. of .mhg. fc"^el G. 
fessel 'pastern of a horse' which 
seems to be cogn. \v. teut. 

fot = E. f00t\ Cp. LAT. pes 

pedem 'foot'. 

fetter sb. me. feter oe. fetor 
= OSAX. fetur, on. fjgtiirr^ DU. 
veter, ohg. fe-i^yira mhg. ?.'^55(?r; 
cogn. w. LAT. pedica, gr. iTbdq 
'a fetter' and perh. w. G. fassen 
'catch' : Aryan \f ped pod. 

fever me. fener fefre oe. fefor 
{= OHG. ficbar Q.fieber) : borrow- 
ed fr. LAT. febris febretn, whence 
also FR. Jihire {^ it. febbre). 

fe^v adj. me. fewe oe. fcawe 
plur. represents a teut. */aimiai 
and is ident. with OHG. fohe 
plur. of a TK\:-\\*/auh{ta)a-: Aryan 
a.d]. paiKjo- in x.KV. pauais. Cp. 
also GOTH, fawai plur. with 
ON. fd-r (dan. /(^ar sw. fd; me. 
/(? is Scand. loanword); osax. 
fahe 'few', indo-eur. \f pau in 
GR. navM cease'? 

fey (SC.) 'doomed to die' me. 
/ete oe. /d^e = on. feigr, osax. 
y<^/ 'doomed to die'; du. veeg 
'about to die' (ohg. feigi 'daring, 
petulant' G. feige 'cowardly') : 
teut. base faigi-. 

fickle ME. fikel oe. Jicol from 
oe. ~^cfic 'fraud'; cp. oe. fdcen 
'fraud, deception', o?>.^y.. fikan = 
OHG. feihlian 'deception' : teut. 
yTfi^ f^^^t prop, faih in goth. 
bifaihon vb. 'defraud' and faih 
sb. 'deception, fraud'. There 

exists an Aryan \fpik in skr. 
pifiina 'treacherous'. 

fiddle ME. fithel oe. fidele = 
synon. ohg. fidula mhg. videle G. 
ffedel, ON. fdla, DU. vedel: the 
whole group is based on a 
westteut. fpula = fr. viole, it. 
span, viola. Source a vulgar 
LAT. vitnla (in a late pronun- 
ciation fdulaT). 

field ME. OE. fdd\ e stands for 
TEUT. /before Id; cp. OHG. osax. 
feld G. fcld, DU. veld. The teut. 
stem *felpu- is related to oe.. 
fplde, osax. folda 'earth'. A pre- 
TEUT. adj. plthu- is found in 
SKR. prthu 'broad' and prthivi 
'earth'; cp. GR. n'AuTvg, oiR. lethan 
'broad', lATU. plains. Verh.flal 
is cognate. 

fiend .me. fend oe. feond = 
GOTH, fjands, ON. fjdndi, osax. 
fiund, OHG. MHG. viant G. find. 
The sb. is prop, a pres. partic. 
of the vb. GOTH. Jijan (oe. feoyxn, 
OHG. fim 'liate'). A correspond- 
ing verbal sf piy hate' occurs 
in SKR. ; therefore fiend orig. 
meant 'the hater'. Cp. friend. 

fierce me. fers: borrowed fr. 
OFR. fers fiers, regular forms 
fer fier = fr. fer (lat. frrus 

fifth OE. fifda cp. five. 

fig ME. fg borrowed fr. fr. 
fgue = LAT. ficus, whence also 
OE. fic-treo 'fig-tree'. 

fight vb. ME. fighte oe. feohtan 
str. vb. = DU. vechten , ohg. 
fehtan G. fechlen: teut. \^feht} 

filei — fire 


file^ 'a string, list, order'; 
borrowed from FR. file 'a line, 
rank, row'; source i.kt. /llum 'a 

file- *a steel rasp' me. file oe. 
fil usually feol (contracted from 
*/i/iil) ; cp. OHG. fihala iMHG. vUe 
G. feiky DU. z'ijl. Connection 
with ON. fH f>cl 'file' is uncer- 

fill vb. ME. fille OE. fyllan wk. 
vb. = OSAX. fullian, du. vullen, 
OHG. fullen G. filllen, on. fylln'. 
GOTH. TEUT. fttlljati 'fill' is deriv. 
fr. the TEUT. adj. fulla- = e. 

filly loanword fr. on. fylja 'a 
filly', which is a dirain. of on. 
foli =z E. foal. 

film is\Y..filme oe. filmen fylmen 
= OKRis. filmen from a teut. 
dimin. b'dsc filf/mnt- which points 
to a more primitive teut. felma-, 
cogn. w. e. fell. 

filter vb. borrowed fr. fr. 
filtrer 'strain through a felt' fr. 
yi¥X>.-\.K'X.filtrnnifeltrum 'felt'; cp. 

filth ME. filtlie short for oe. 
fyld: abstract formation of OE. 
ful = E. foul; cp. OHG. fiilida 
= GOTH, '^fillip a. 

fin sb. ME. oE. fin (nn) ; cp. du. 
7'in, sw. fena 'a fin' ; cogn. w. 
LAT. penna pinna 'feather'. 

finch ME. finch oe. find fr. a 
TEUT. base finki-; cp. du. 7>ink, 
OHG. ?w-^^ G. fink. (3bserve the 
similarity of sound of the Rom. 
words for 'finch': it. pincione, 

FR. pinson and E. dialect, phik 

find UK.flndc o^. fin dan str. vb. 
= synon. goth. finpau , on. 
finna, osax. findan fithan , du. 
inn den, ohg. findan G. finden: 
TEUT. yffiinp finp or by Vemer's 
law fend find is pre-TEUT. /^;// 
in the synon. IR. vb. itaim 'I 

fine adj. me. fine borrowed fr. 
FR. fi?i (whence also mhg. vin 
G. fein, DU. fijn)- Source lat. 
finire vb. 'complete'. 

fine sb. ME. fine from- lat. 
finis 'a fine', lit. 'a final pay- 

finger me. oe. finger = goth. 
figgrs, o^. fingr, du. vinger, ohg. 
fingor G. finger : teut. ha.?,Gfingra-y 
perh. allied to five (Aryan 

finish vb. me. finisshe fr. ofr. 
fitiiss- base of some forms of fr. 
finir (lat. finire^ 'end, finish'. 

fir me. firre; perh. a Scand. 
loanword : on. fyra rare by-form 
oi fm-a 'fir'. There is a teut. 
name of the tree furh-\ oe. 
furhy ohg. for ha G. fdhre\ cp. 
pre-TEUT. /<';'^ <7^r^ in lat. ^«^r- 
f«^ 'oak'. 

fire ME. fir oe. fyr : contr. of 
westteut. fi/ir = osax. ohg. 
fi/ir commonly osax. ohg. ^4r 
mhg. 7'iur G. fetter y du. vuur. 
The ir of osax. ohg. /)?/';' (cp. 
ON. ftirr fyrr') is suffix; fit fr. 
pre-TEUT. ///- is the root ; on. 
fur-r, GR. Tiv-Qy Umbrian //-r, 
ARMEN. hu-r point to a common 


first — fleam 

base pu-r\ skr. \fpu 'flame', 
whence pazmkd 'fire'. 

first ME. first oe. fyrst fr. 
"^fyrest = teut. furista- in ohg. 
furist (cp. G. fiirst, DU. f'<7rj/ 
'prince'), on. fyrstr 'first'; the 
original word for 'first' is OSAX. 
formo = OE. for7na with ma- 
suffix (goth. fni-vui) from indo- 

EUR. //- ; cp. . GR. TTQOflOC , SKR. 

pArva-s, osLOv. pruvii, uncn.ptrmas 
'first'. Cp. former. 
fish ME. fish OE. fisc (and y^yf) 

r:= GOTH, fisks, ON. fiskr , OHG. 

OSAX. y?^-^ G. y^'.yr^. TEUT. fiska-z 
from pre-TEUT. pisko-s agrees 
with h\T.piscis; the corresponding 
oiR. iasc points to pre-historic 

fist ME. fist short for fist oe. 
y^^i-/ fr. TEUT. *fihti{z) = ohg. 
///i'/ G, faust, DU. 7V«J/ 'fist'. 'If 
connected with synon. \.KV. pug- 
niis and GR. nvy/iiTJ, wesiteut. 
fiisti- stands for fiihsti- = pre- 
TEUT. puk-sti pug-sti- ? 

five ME. five OE. fife; without 
inflection oe. fif from teut. fimf 

= GO-iH.fimf, OSAX. ftf DU. Vtj/, 
OHG. finf MHG. zv/w/" G. fUnf 
ON. /^>«/« (dan. sw. y<?w) : pre- 
TEUT. pimpe pinqc (for the shifting 
of INDO-EUR. q to f see fir^ 
four., wolf)\ cp. SK.R. panca, 
GR. Trfc'jTf (n'£ ns(.inroc), lat. 
quinque (for *pinque^, lith. penki, 

OIR. <WV, CYMR. //;///. 

flag sb. 'an ensign' = g. fiagge, 
DU. z^/i2^, DAN. y?'?^, sw. fiagg'. a 
modern word, not found in the 
OTEUT. periods. 

flail ME. fiail fieil oe. ^fiej^el 
(once recorded as fli'^et) r= 
OHG. flegil G. fiegel, du. vlegel: a 
WESTTEUT. loanword from lat. 
fiagellum 'whip, flail', whence also 
FR. fiiau (also oir. sraigcW). 

flask OE. fiasce = on. fiaska, 
DU. fiesch, OHG. flasca G. fiasche ; 
corresponding to the synon. it. 
fiasco, o?\<. fiasche VK. fiacon (med.- 
LAT. fiasco fr. LAT. vasculutuT). 

flat UK. fiat: borrowed fr. on. 
y?a/r = sw. fiat, dan. y^«^/; cp. 
OHG.yfrtt^ 'flat'; cp. oe. fict, osax. 
fietti 'floor' and ohg. fia"^a palm 
of the hand'. 

flatter vb. me. fiatere : borrow- 
ed fr. OFR. fiater = fr. fiatter. 

flax ME. fiax oe. fieax = ohg. 
y?<?/w G. fiachs, du. fVd'.y; prob. 
cogn. w. the vb. ohg. fiehtan g. 
fiechten and goth. fiaihtan 'braid' ; 
the .y in teut. *fiahsa- would be 
derivative; cp. the Aryan \'^plek 
'braid' in hxv.plectere, gr. 

flay vb. ME. fie OE. fican contr. 
fr. a TEUT. str. vh.fiahan = on. 

flea ME. fie oe. fi§'ah = ohg. 
fioh 0. yZ^i, DU. 7>/oo, on. y?<?: 
TEUT. base fiauh- for plauh- 
meant orig. 'a fugitive', so that 
the root under flee = goth. 
pliuhan is the source oi^.flea^ 
g. yf^/«. 

fleam 'a kind of lancet' fr. fr. 
fiatnme. Source lat. fielfotomum, 
whence also oe. fiytme, DU. 7>lijm, 

fleck — flood 


OHG. Jiietuma mhg. vliete(n) G. 

fleck a Scand. loanword: on. 

flekkr, sw. flack = DU. vlek, G. 

yff'r^'spGt'. Cp. ME.y^lffM/'spotted'. 

fledged dt.d]. sys.. flegge 0¥..flycge 

= MDU. vlugghe, LG. fliigge, G. 
fliigge from a west-teut. base 
fluggj- (oHG. flucchi MHG. vlucke 

from WEST-TEUT. flukkj-'). The 

source is the teut. \PflJig in E. 

flee vb. ME. fle oe. yf^^^?/? contr. 
of *fleohan = osax. ohg. fliolian 
MHG. vliehen G. fliehen; goth. 
pliuhan str. vb. 'flee' points to 
an ARYAN \filuk-; c^.flea and 

fleece (the ending r^ for i-) 
WE. fles OE. fleas (and with vowel- 
mutation yf)'.y) from "VEMi. fleiisaz 
{jiiusis) ; cp. DU. 7'//Vy, mhg. f/zVi- 
(j'/ius) G. z'liess. 

fleet ^ *a number of ships' me. 
//t'A' OE. yfe-V?/ 'a ship'. — fleet ^ 
a creek, bay' me. flet oe. fleot 
'a bay of the sea'. Both belong 
to the vb. fleet me. flete 'float, 
swim' OE.fleoian 'float, swim' = 
ON. fljota, o?,Kyi.fliotan, du. vlieten, 
OHG. flio"^ati G. fliessen. teut. 
\~fleut flat fr. aryan pleitd-pliid. 
cp. /■/// and float. 

flesh ME. yf/'yr// OE.flcesi shows 
umlaut and palatalization of the 
base *fldskt(z) *flaiski{z) = ohg. 
fleisk G. fleisch, DU. vleesch ; on. 
yfifjyi' means only 'pork', more 
esp. ham and bacon'; perh. 
cogn. w. flitch. 

flicker vb. me. flikere oe. fli- 
corian = DU. flikkeren 'sparkle, 
glitter'; a frequent, of a base 
flik flak in yiE.flakere, G.flacketft ? 
flight ' 'the act of flying' me. 
flight OE.flyht from oe. fleogan = 
E. fly. 

flight - prop, 'the act of fleeing" 
ME. flight OE.flyht (== DU. vliigt, 
OHG. OSAX. flitht, G. flucht) from 
yf <*'<?« 'flee', e. flight oe. fly ht, du. 
fV/i!^/ have both meanings of 

//;^/%/. Cp. //^^. 

flint *a hard stone' me. oe. 
flint 'a rock'; cp. dan. flint, G. 
y?/>?/^ 'musket, flint-lock', sw. 
flinta, dan. yfw/ 'flint': perh. re- 
lated to GR. Tih'vi^og 'a brick'. 

flit vb. ME. flitte OE. *flyttan = 
ON. flytja (sw. _/?>'//«, DAN. flytte) : 
cp. the root under fleet vb. 

flitch yi^.flicche oe. yf/VV^ =r ox. 
flikki: teut. base flikkja-, perh. 
akin to fleck'} or cogn. w. 

float vb. me. flpte oe. flotian; 
cp. .ME. yfj!?/^ 'a boat, a fleet' oe. 
flota 'a boat, ship, a fleet': 
deriv. of the TEVT.\fflut under 
fleet vb. 
flock 1 herd, flock' me. flok 

OE. floCC = ON. flokkr, DAN. ^(3/^, 

sw. y?<9^4. 

flock 2 'a lock of wool' fr. ofr. 
floe = i.\\'. flocctis, whence also 
OHG. floccho G. flocke, du. vlok. 

flood ME. OE. flpd =r 0?,.K\.fldd, 
du. ?:'/<?^'^/, OHG. yf«^/ G. yf«/, ON. 
flod , GOTH, flodus: a common 
Teut. word. goth. flodus from 
ARYAN plotu-s is bascd on the 


floor — foe 

TEUT. V^y^^- from pre-TEUT. plo- 
in flow. 

floor -ME. OE. flpr = DU. vloer, 
MLG. vlor, MHG. vluor (g. flur^ 
'field, surface, hall', ON. Jlor 'the 
floor of a cow-house': teut. 
Jloru-s from pre -teut. plorus 
plants closely related to OIR. 
/(/;• for '^pldr 'floor, paved floor'. 

florin .ME. florin : borrowed fr. 
FR. florin (it. fiorino so named 
because it bore a lily, from it. 
fiore 'a flower'). 

flounce changed fr. -sx^./rounce 
'a plait' : loanword fr. fr. froncer 
'plait , wrinkle' (prob. from a 
LAT. type '^frontiarc 'wrinkle the 

flounder sb. borrowed fr.scAND. 
sw. flundra, dan. flynder, on. 

flour ident. w. floiver from 
FR. fleur 'flower'. 

flourish vb. me. flourisshc : 
adapt, fr. ofr. fleuriss- stem of 
fleurir 'flourish' (lat. florescere 
inceptive oi florb'e 'bloom'). 

floAV vb. ME. flowe OE. flmuan 
str. vb. = ON. floa^ du. vloeicn: 
TEUT. ■v'y?^?- \n flood =z pre-TEUT. 
plo- in GR. nX(i')-M 'I swim, sail', 
nXiOToq 'swimming, sailing'. 

flower ME. flour : borrowed fr. 
afr. flour flor =■ fr. fleur (lat. 
flos). Ident. w. flour. 

fluke 'a flounder' MK.floke oe. 
floe = ON. floki; cogn. w. ohg. 
flah G.flach, du. vlak adj. 'plain . 
Cp. the ARYAN V^/Az^ in lat. 
placenta 'cake' and planus (for 
placnusl!) 'plain. 

flute borrowed fr. fr. fliite, 
whence also du. fluit\ cp. mhg. 
vloite G. flotc 'flute' and ofr. 
flaute, YV.flauto. Chaucer uses 
the vb. floute play on the flute'. 

flutter vb. u^.flotereOE.flotorian 
ix.sfflut under float. Cp. G. 
flatter n ? 

fly vb. ME. flie earlier flej^en 
OE. fleogan str. vb. = ohg. fliogan 
G. fliegen, du. vliegen, on. fljiiga. 
GOTH. *fliugan is inferred from 
the factitive flaugjan 'carry away 
in flight' and shows that the 
common Teut. vb. was fleugan; 
cp. LAT. plmna (for *pluhmaT) 
'feather'. — fly sb. me. flie 
earlier fle'^e oe. fleoge = ohg. 
flioga G. fliege, du. z'lieg (on. with 
ablaut fluga 'fly') : evidently fly 
means 'the flyer' from fly vb. 

foal .ME. fole OE. fola — - synon. 
ON. foli, OHG. folo G. fohlen, 
GOTH, fula: a common Teut. 
term for 'the young of a horse 
or an ass' from pre-TEUT. palon- ; 
allied to gr. 7T(riXog 'colt, young 
animal, lat. pullus a young ani- 
mal' esp. 'a chicken'. 

foam sb. me. fome ok. fdm = 
OHG. feim : base faima- for an 
earlier *faina- = skr. plicna, 
oslov. pena 'foam'. 

fodder me. fodder oe. foddor 
= DU. voeder , ohg. fuotar G. 
flutter^ ON. fodr: cp. OE. /<?^i<z 
under food. 

foe ME. /</ OE. lefd coiitr. fr. 
an earlier g if aha = west-teut. 
gafai/io{n)-; cp. the abstract of. 
fMd (oHG. gifchida G. f elide): 

fog — forbid 


OE. lefd sb. and fckhd sb. are 
based on the adj. oe. ~s,efdh = 
OHG. gifeh; OE. fdh = teut. 
faiha- from a pre-TEUT. paiko- 

fog: a Dan. loanword, vKS./og 
iu sneefog *a snow-storm' ; cp. 
ON. /(?^ 'spray, snow-drift', fjilk 
'snow-storm* from fjtika str. vb. 

fold vb. ME. fglde oe. fdldan 
{/(aldaii) str. vb. ^^= GorvH.fal^an, 
ON. falda, OHG. faltan G. falten: 
TEUT. \ffalj> = pre-TEU'J'. /// cp. 
in OSLOV. //?/a' //«// 'braid', OR. 
dmXd^iog for *t)(7iAartOij 'two- 
fold', ^KK.puta 'fold' (for 'Apulia). 
— -fold ME. -/f>A/ OE. -/did 
(^-/{ald) = dsAX. -/<?/r/, DU. -voud, 

G. -/(?//, ON. -faldr, GOTH. -falps\ 
a common Teut. suffix for 
the formation of multiplicatives 
corresponding to gk. Ti?^doiog in 
dinXaatoc (also diTiaXro<; 'two- 

folk ME. /<?/^ OE. /c;A- = OSAX. 

yi?/i^, DU. volk, OHG. yi;A: G. volk, 
ON. y<7/^. The primit. meaning 
is perh. 'a crowd of people', 
whence lith. piilkas 'a crowd', 
(iSLOV. plukil 'an army'. 
follow vb. ME. folwc folmue oe. 

folgian (b)-form /yfyin) = ON. 

fylgja, DU. volgefi, ohg. folgcn G. 

folgen: the common west-teut. 
and Norse vb. for 'follow'; 
possibly a compound verbal 
stem, the first member of which 
is full-, cp. OE. full-(ode 'he 
followed', OE. OLG. fulgangan, 
iHG. fola-gan 'follow'. Go fr. 

OE. gdn would be the second 

fond ME. fond prop, fonn-ed 
partic oi fonne 'be foolish'; cp. 
ME. ^h. fon(nn)'-A. fool': borrowed 
fr. sw. fane 'a fool'; icel. fdni 
'a buoyant person'. 

food ME. fade OE. fgda'. teut. 
\^fdd fad (cp. OHG. fatunga 
'food') fr. ARYAN /</V in nartTad^at 
'eat'. Cp. also feed, fodder, 

fool me. fgl\ adopt, fr. ofr. fol 
(= FR. foufot) 'a fool'. 

foot ME. OE. fot (plur. fei) = 

OSAX. fot, DU. VOet, OHG. /«<?5 G. 
fuss, ON. y^/r, sw. /.?/, DAN. fod, 

Gora.fotus: teut. base/^/- from 
ARYAN pod- changing with aryan 
pod- ped- in the declen.sion; cp. 
OR. noS- in nod'u, nom. sing, novg 
(aeol. TToic) ; lat. ped-em (nom. 
sing. pes)\ gk. nedtlov 'sole' — 
nsLog (for ^nedjoc) 'pedestrian*, 
SKR. pad 'foot' and /rt-^/// 'step, 

fop vb. borrowed fr. du. foppen 
'prate, cheat' {^fopper 'a wag', 
fopperij 'cheating') : orig. a word 
j of G. slang. 

for ME. o^. for prep. = goth. 
fatira 'before, for', ohg. fora G. 
vor 'before', du. voor\ cogn. w. 
lat. pro 'before', gr. tt^o 'be- 

forbear y\¥.. forbore ov.. f order an 
str. vb.; cp. bear vb. 

forbid ME. forbede oe. forbeodan 
confounded with yi%.forbidde oe. 
forbiddan; cp. bid. 




force sb. ME. force fors: bor- 
rowed fr. FR. force (lat. type 
fortia 'strength* derived ix.fortis 

ford ME. OE. ford (me. also 
forth) = DU. voert^ osax. '^ford 
in Hertford (prop, 'ford of an 
army"), ohg. viirt g. furt (Frank-, 
Er-, Schwehi'^ ; cp. oe. Oxenaford 
(lit. 'ford of the oxen') = Oxford. 
TEUT. '^fordii- forpu- from the 
•vvMT.sffar in fare; \\Qnce ford 
prop, 'passable, practicable pass- 
age'; cp. A VEST, peretti 'bridge', 
LAT. portus 'haven', on. fjordr 
'bay' ; also cklt.-lat. -rituvi (for 
"^prtotn) in Augusioritum, cvmr. 
rhyd 'ford'. 

foreign me. foreine: adapted 
fr.OFR. for aim type foraneus 
derived fr. foras adv. 'out of 

forfeit sb. \ve..forfete\ borrowed 
fr. OFR. forfait 'a fine' part, of 
forf aire for sf aire 'trespass' (med.- 
lat. forisfactum part, of foris- 
facere 'trespass', lit. 'do beyond'). 

forge ME. forge borrowed fr, 
FR. forge from lat. fabrica 'a 

forget vb. ME. forgete oe. for- 
gitan str. vb. = osii\.\.fargetan, du. 
vergeten, mlg. vorgeten, ohg. fir- 
gei^yin G. vergesscn. The comp. 
^b. is the remnant of a str. 
\QxhdXsf get, whence E. get 'ob- 
tain, reach'; cp. GOTH, bigitan 
"find", ON. geta 'obtain'. Cp. g et 
and the aryan y^ghed : ghend in 
lat. prae-hendere , gr. ^avdrxKa 

fork yK.. forke oy.. forca = du. 
vork, OHG f lire ha fur ka G.furkc, 
ON. forka: borrowed fr. lat. 
furca 'a fork', whence also fr. 
foiircJie, span, horca, it. forca. 

forlorn quite lost' me. forlorn 
OE. for lor en part, of oe. forleosan 
'lose utterly'; cp. lose and G. 
V)\:. vcrlorcn, dan. forlorcn. 

former formed by adding the 
compar. suffix -er to me. forme 
oe. forma = osax. forvio 'first' ; 
cp. first. 

forsake vb. me. forsake oe. 
forsacan str. vb. 'ojjpose' ; cp. 

forth 'sw.. forth o^.. ford = osax.. 

forth, OHG. *ford G. fort, goth. 

compar. faiirpis a*dv. earlier'. 

oteut. foip from older frpo prto 

I is allied to before diwd further. 

I fortnight siz-fourtenightfourten- 

I ///V/// from ME. fourtent 'fourteen' 

i and night (old plur.) 'nights'; 

cp. OE. feoii'crtyne niht and also 

E. sennight = set) en night. It 

was usual to reckon by nights in 

pre-hist. periods. — forty ME- 

fourty OE. feoivertii = du. veertig, 

G.z'ierzig, goth. fidjoortigjus ; cp. 

OE. feou'er = four and OE. //j 

= ten. 

foster vb. ME. fostre short for 
OE. fostrian from fp'stor 'nourisli- 
ment'; akin to food: TEVi:\'^fod. 

foul ME. foul OE. ful = DU. 
7>uil, OHG. //// G. fiul, ox. /////, 

GOTH, ////j"; la- is suffix, and the 
TEUT. yffu is inferred fr. ox. 
ftlenn 'rotten* and from tVie fac- 
titive vb. ON. fcyja 'cause to 

found — freeze 


rot'. An Aryan verbal \f pu 
appears in skr. piiy 'rot, stink'; 
cp. LAT. ////^tf 'stink' — piiter 'de- 
• caved', gr. ni-O^io 'cause to 
rot', GR. nvov — LAT. pus 'puss'. 

found ' vb. 'lay the foundation 
of' ME. founde : adapted fr. fr. 
fonder from UkT. fundare 'found'. 

found - vb. 'cast metals' bor- 
rowed fr. FR. fondre from lat. 
fundere 'cast metals'. 

fount yis.. fount fr. ofr. font = 
LAT. font-em. 

four ME. fourfower oe. feower 
{feowerl:') = oskx.fwar, du. g. vter 
OHG. for, Oi^.fjorir. The oe. by- 
form fyder- (in corap. ?Lsfyder- 
f(te 'four-footed') and goth. fid- 
wor (^fidur-) point to a pre-TEUT. 
bs.SQpeiwor petur for qetu'or qetur; 
ident. w. skr. catur, lat. quattuor, 
GR. xsaaaosc (ni'avfjec) , OSLOV. 
cetyri 'four'. 

fowl ME. foul earlier fuwel oe. 
fugol = osax. fugal, DU. vogel, 
onG.fogal MHG. G. vogel, on. fugl, 
GOTH, fugls'. TEUT. base fugla-. 

fox ME. oe. fox = OHG. fuhs 

G. fuchs, DU. vos, ON. fox \ the 
s of the TEUT. base fuh-s- is 
suffix as is shown by goth. fauho, 
ON. foa 'fox' = OHG. foha mhg. 
?w/^^ 'she-fox' (and OE.focge she- 
fox'?). Cp. vixen. 

frail (me. frde) borrowed fr. 
OFR. fraile (fr. fr^le^ 'brittle' = 
lat. fragilis. 

frame vb. me. freme oe. fretn- 
man 'promote, do' (= o^.fremja, 
OHG. fremtnan , osax. fremmian 

English Etymology. 

'perform') : derived fr. oe. fratn 
strong, good', ident. w. from. 

franchise me. frminchlse: bor- 
rowed from VK. franchise 'privi- 
leged liberty' from VK.franchiss-, 
stem of some forms of franchir 
'free' from fr. franc 'free'. 

fraught part, of me. fraughte 
vb.= DU. bevrachten, G. befrachten', 
cp. G.fracht oylg. freht 'earnings, 
gain'. Properly a compound ; 
cp. OE. dht, OHG. eht 'property' 
under own. 

freak 'a whim, caprice' me. frek 
'quick, vigorous' oe. free 'bold, 
rash' ^= ON. fr'ekr, ohg. fr'eh 
'greedy' G. frech 'pert', goth. 
faihu-friks 'avaricious' : teut. 
base fr'eka-. 

freckle from on. freknur plur. 
'freckles'; cp. sw. frdkne plur.. 
frdknar, fris. (Am run) friakan 
'freckles'. Perh. cogn. w. GR. 
776{)xvo'c 'spotted'. 

free me. fre oe. freo frl: teut. 
i base frija- = goth. freis, osax. 
j OHG. fri G. frei. The pre-teut. 
priyo- is the base of cvmr. rhydd 
'free' and of skr. priyd-s 'dear, 
beloved'; cp. the skr. verbal 
\^pri 'rejoice, render favorable' 
with GOTH, frijdn 'love' under 
friend and Friday. 

freeze vb. me. frese oe. frfosan 
str. vb.; cp. synon. on. frjosa, 
DU. vriezen, oncfriosan G. frier en', 
cp. GOTH, fnus 'frost, cold": teut. 
\ffreus fruz from a pre-teut. 
preusprtis, which seems to exist in 
lat. prtirio for *prtisio 'itch', if 
'itch, frostbum' is the inter- 




mediate meaning, and in skr. 
\^prus 'spurt out'; prusva 'drop, 
frozen drop, frost'. Cp. frost. 

freight ident. w. fraught. 

fresh adj. me. fresh fresch oe. 
fersd = OHG. frisc G. frisch, DU. 
versch 'fresh'; cogn. w. osLov. 
presitm 'fresh' from Aryan prais- 
kino-; cp. i.iTH. preskas 'sweet, 
unsoured' with Finn, rieska 'fresh, 
unsoured'. The Rom. family of 
IT. fresco, FR. frais comes from 
WEST-TEUT. fr'eska-. 

fret^ vb. 'eat up, devour' short 
for ME. frcte oe. fr'etati str. vb. 
= DU. LG. vreten, ohg. frex'^an 
G.fresscn 'eat up, consume'. The 
corresp. goth. frditan (pret./r^/) 
'consume' shows that west-teut. 
fr'etan is a compound of Uan ^= 
eat; fra is a common prefix in 
GOTH. (cp. fraught and fret^. 

fret^ vb. 'ornament, variegate 
me. fretie oe. frcetwan 'adorn': 
from O^.frcetwe plur. 'ornament'= 
OSAX. frataha 'ornament': source 
perh. a Teut. compound fra +- 
GOTH, tewa 'arrangement'. 

friar me. /r<r^ : adapted fr. fr. 
frcre 'a brother'. 

Friday me. frlday oe. friiedcei 
= DU. vrijdag, OHG. friatag mhg. 
vritac G. freitag , ox. Frjddagr: 
really 'day of the Teut. goddess 
Frija Frijjo in imitation of lat. 
dies Veneris {Fria and Venus 
correspond), on. iv-/^^ like ohg. 
Frta is prop, 'the goddess of 
love'; cp. SKK, priyd 'yfife, loved 
one' (osAX. fri, oe. freo 'wife'). 
Cp. free. 

friend me. frend oe. freond ;= 
OSAX. friund 'friend, relative', DU. 
vriend, ohg. friunt mhg. vriunt (d) 
G. freund, goth. frijbnds 'friend' : • 
TEUT. frijond- (formed like 
fiend) is pres. partic. of an old 
TEUT. vb. frijon 'love' = goth. 
frijon, ov.. frioian'love . ee. 

frieze (of a column) fr. fr. 
frise {= ir.fregio'Meze'y, whence 
also g. DU. fries. 

fright ME. fright oe. fyrhtu 
fyrhto; cp. the synon. goth. 
failrhtei 'fright' and osAX. ohg. 
for{a)hta mhg. vorht(e) g. furcht 
'fright'. — frighten \\).\\^.frighte 
oe. fyrhtan = goth. faurhtjan, 
OSAX. forhibn, ohg. furihten 
forahtan g. filrchten. 

fringe me. fringe', loanword 
from OFR. *fringe = fr. frange 
(source lat. fimbria 'fringe'), 
whence G. franse, du. franje. 

frisk vb. formed from the adj. 
OFR. frisque = scand. friskr 
'frisky, brisk". 

frith firth wi.. firth: a Scand. 
loanword; cp. ox. fjgrdr (plur. 
firdir) 'bay'; da^. fiord, sw.f/drd 
'a firth': TEUT. base ferpu-, aryan 
pertu- cp. LAT. partus 'haven'. For 
the Aryan \Pper cp. ford. 

fritter late me. fritoure: bor- 
rowed fr. FR. friture 'dish of 
fried fish', also 'a fragment' from 
OFR. frit 'fried' (source lat. 
frigere); cp. fry. 

fro ME. fro earlier fra : adapted 
fr. O'H.frd 'from', ident. w./r <?///. 

frock ME. frok: borrowed fr. 
OFR. f7-oc = med.-lat. frocus 'a 

frog — furze 


monk's frock'; source osax. hroc 

frog y\Y..frogge oe. /rogga; the 
OE. parallel form frocca (mod. 
dial, frock) points to the synon. 
ON. fraukr. Prob. OE. forsc, 
►OHG. frosk G. frosch, on. froskr 
\ show the same root, if derived 
fr. TEUT. *fruhsqa-. 

frolic borrowed fr. DU. vrolijk 
'merry' ; cp. yxHG.vroloken 'rejoice', 
prob. after mho. vro-sanc 'merry 
song' supplanting an older 

from ME. OE. from fram ^= 
osax. ohg. fram mhg. vram prep, 
'forth, from' — adv. 'forth', ON. 
fram adv. 'forward — frd prep, 
from' — adv. 'fro', goth. fnmt 
prep, 'from' adv. 'further, forward'. 

frost ME. frost oe, forst = on. 
DAX. sw. G. frost, DU. vorst: 
derived fr. \'" friis = freeze. 

froth sb. ME.//-,^//!^fr. o^.froda. 

froward adj. MK.f reward edt.r\{er 
frdward'. derived fr. fro. 

frown vb. ME. froune shortened 
fr. FR. refrogner. 

fruit ME. frilt {fruit) fr. fr. 
fruit =^ LAT. fructus. 

fry vb. ME. frie fr. ofr. frire 
= LAT./r/^'^r^ 'roast'; c^. fritter. 

fry sb. y,\^.frl fr. ox. frjo {free) 
'spawn, fry ; ident. w. GfyiH.fraiw 
seed': pre-TEUT. pro-eiwo-. 

fuel sb. late me. fouaile fr. Ofr. 
fouaille: lat. ty^e focalia fuel'. 

full -ME. o^.ful(ll) = G(yvH. fulls, 

ON. fullr, DU. vol, G. Voll OHG. 

fol(ll): TEUT. base fulla- fr. an 

' ARYAN base pal-no in skr. piiri.ia 
'full'; cp. LAT, pleniis , oir. Idn 
(orig. *pldnos) 'full'. Prop, partic. 
with suffix -no- fr. an arvan 
\f pie plo 'to fill' in skr. \f pur 
pr, LAT. implere, GR. vii.niX7]ia. 

fuller sb. me. fuller o^.fulUre 
'a cloth-bleacher': adaption of 
I.KT. fullo 'a fuller, bleacher'. 

funnel late me. funel fr. fr. 
fondefle; source \.K^.infuhdibulujn. 

fur JsXK.furre forre fr. ovK.fuerre 
forre 'a sheath, a case ; source 
TEUT. -GOTH. y^rifr 'a sheath'; cp. 
G. flitter ident. w. E. fodder. 

furbish vb. me. fur bis she fr. 
ofr. fourbir. {fourbiss-) 'polish', 
which rests on OHG, furb(j)an 
MHG. vUrben 'purify, clean' (teut. 
\f fwb = ARYAN yf prp in GR. 

furlong see furrow. 
furnace me. furneis forneis fr. 
fr. fournaise = LAT. fornax {for- 
nacetti) 'an oven'. 

furnish fr, fr. fournir (stem 
fourmss-). Source a teut. wk. vb. 
frumjan 'perform'; c\). perform 
furro^v me. fur we forwe oe. 
furh: teut. base furh- also in 
OHG. furha G. furche 'furrow', 
DU. 7ioor, on. for 'drain'. A pre- 
teut. prk pork is evident in lat. 
porca 'a ridge between two 
I furrows', cymr. rhych 'furrow', 
armen. herk. — furlong me. oe. 
\ furlong lit. 'furrow-long'. 
' further me. further 0%. fur dor', 
, cogn. w. for and ohg. furdir. 
I furze me. firse oe. fyrs earlier 
\fyres : Teut. base furisa- ? ' 


gab — gall ' 


gab ME. gabbe 'talk idly, jest, 
lie': borrowed fr. on. gabba, 
whence also TK.gaber, m.gabbare. 
Cp. gabble gibber. — gabber 
'gabble', var. of gabble both of 
which are frequent, verbs oi gab. 
Q^.jabber dindgibber. — gabble 
var. oi gabber. 

gabel 'a tax, impost, esp. the 
tax on salt': borrowed fr. fr. 
gabelle (= span, gabela, it, 
gabella, med.-lat. gabella gab(u)- 
bini). Source a teut. sb. gabula- 
in OE. gafol 'tribute". 

gable ME. gable: borrowed fr. 
OFR. gable 'a gable', which is 
of LAT. origin; cp. lat. gabalus, 
whence on. gafl 'a gable' (but 
GOTH, gibla, G. giebel 'a gable' 
akin to GR. xf rpa/.?; 'head': Aryan 
base ghebhald- ghebhlo-^. 

gad ME. gad: borrowed fr. on. 
gaddr *a goad, pike' ; teut. base 
gazda- ident. w. lat. hasta from 
an Aryan base ghazdha-\ but gad 
in gadfly stands for goad. 

gag ME. gagge 'suffocate'; prob. 
imitation of the sound of 

gage' ME. gage: borrowed fr. 
FR. gage = SPAN, gage, it. gaggio 
(lat. type wadiuni). Source a 
TEUT. sb. cp. GOTH. wadi\ cp. wed 
and wage. 

gage'^ also gauge me. gauge: 

adopted from ofr. gauger later 
jauger 'measure the contents'. 
Source uncertain. 

gain sb. ue. gain: borrowed fr. 
ON. sw. gagn = DAN. gavn 'gain'. 

gain vb. late me. gaine: bor- 
rowed fr. VK.gagner OFK.gaagnier 
gaaigner 'cultivate, gain': source 
a TEUT. vb. (OHG. *weidanjan — 
weidenbn 'pasture'). 

gain- pref. me. gein oe. geyi 
gin gedn (= G. gegen, on. gagn-'). 
— gainsay me. geinseie 'contra- 
dict'. Cp. against oe. ongeanes. 

gait ident. w. gate^. 

gaiter borrowed fr. fr. guiire 
(oFR. guestre, perh. loanword tr. j 
mhg. wester 'a child's chrisom- 
cloth'; cp. GOTH, wasti, lat. vestis 
'clothing). i 

gale sb. a Scand. loanword; akin i 

to DAN. gal, sw. galen 'furious, | 

mad', NORW. galen 'furious, wild, ' 

mad' (of wind and storm). , 

galU me. galle oe. gealla = ^ 
OSAX. OHG galla G. galle, du. gal, \ 
ON. gall. GOTH. *gallin- (hardly ( 
*galzin-') from pre-teut. ghol- is j 
cogn. w. GR. yo}.}] /okog, lat. j 
/el fellis 'gall' (whence it. fiele, \ 
SPAN. Mel, FR. ji^t). Many think j 
it allied with yellow so that | 
gallvidiS named from its yellowish ! 
color. ■ 




gall 2 'a sore on the skin' me. 
galle OE. gealla 'a gall' (on a 
horse) = DU. gal 'a windgall', 
MHG. G. galle 'a foot - disease 
in horses'; perh. borrowed fr. 
LAT-ROM. galla 'a gallnut, an oak- 
apple' =^ IT. galla, SPAN, agalla 
'windgalls'. But a confusion of 
galla with a teut. word of similar 
phonology is possible, since in 
sw. dialects too there exists a 
grdssgaller 'a swelling on a 
horse's hoof. 

gall"^ 'a gall-nut': borrowed fr. 
FR. gale from lat. galla 'a gall- 
nut, an oak-apple ? 

galley me. galeie: adapted fr. 
FR. galie galie (rr. galea =^ med.- 
LAT. galea 'a galley'). 

gallon ME. galoun'. a fr. loan- 
word: FR. gallon =. IT. gallone. 

galloon borrowed fr. VK.galon. 

gallop Vi^. galope: borrowed fr. 
FR. galoper; cp. also wallop. 

gallows (the plur. used as 
sing.) me. galwes plur. OE. galga 
gealga 'cross, gibbet' = OHG. osax. 
galgo, DU. galg, G. galgen, on. 
galgi, GOTH, galga : a common 
TEUT. word, TEUT. galgan- from 
Aryan ghalghan-] cp. lith. zalga 

gamble appar. a frequent, of 
an unrecorded me. *gam(e)le, 
commonly me. gamene oe. ga- 
vientan 'play at games . Deriv. 
of game. For the change of n 
to / cp. MHG. gamel gamen 'pleas- 
ure. — - game 'amusement' me. 
game oe. gamen gomcn = on. 
OHG. gaman (mhg. gamen gamet) 

'play'; prob. ident. w. goth. ga- 
-fnan 'communion of men'. The 
pref. ga- is used collectively ; 
for man cp. man. 

gander me. gander oe. gandra; 
akin to oe. gos from a teut. 
base gan-s in goose and cp. 

gang ME. gang 'a going, course, 
way, passage' oe. gang 'a going, 
way, privy' = osax. du. g. gang 
'a going, walk, way, passage', 
on. gangr 'a going, a crew'. 

gannet me. *ganet oe. ganot 
'swan' ; akin to DU. gent 'gander', 
OHG. ganai-p 'gander'; cp. a 
primit. teut. base gan- also in 
TEUT.-LAT. ganta 'goose'; see 
gander and goose. 

gantlet prop, gantlope 'a mili- 
tary punishment' corrupted fr. 
SW". gatlopp 'running down a 
lane' (sw. gata 'a lane' and lopp 
'a running' fr. I'opa 'run = E. 

gaol see Jail. 

gap ME. gap : borrowed fr. ox. 
gap 'opening, breacli, chasm . — 
gape vb. ME. gape adapted fr. 
SCAND. gapa 'yawn' = du. gapefi, 
G. gaff en 'gape, yawn'. 

gar see garlic and gore. 

garb borrowed fr. ofr. garbe 
'good fashion' from ohg. garawi 
'dress' ^ oe. gearwe 'preparation, 
dress'. Cp. gear. 

garden me. gardin fr. ofr. (Pi- 
card.) gardin=^'e'R. jardin, which 
is of Teut. origin : ohg. garto 
(gen. and dat. gartin) G. garten, 


gnrgle — gaunt 

OSAX. gardo, goth. garda m. 'a 
fold'; akin to yard. 

gargle borrowed fr. Ofr. gar- 
gouiller 'gargle* fr. gargouille 

garland me. gerlaund: borrow- 
ed fr. OFR. garlande ?K. guirlande, 
whence du. g. dan. guirlande. 

garlic ME. garlek garlick oe. 
gdr-le'ac; for lie = OE. l§ac cp. 
leek. The first element of the 
compound is oe. gar 'a spear' 
{c^.gore). Hence garlic prop. 

garment short for me. gar- 
nement: borrowed fr. FR. ^ar- 
nement , deriv. of fr. garnir 
'garnish'. Cp. garnish. 

garner me. gerner: adapted fr. 
OFR. gernier fr. grenier (it. 
granaro = lat. type grana- 

garnet me. gern(t: borrowed 
fr. fr. grcnat (= span, granate, 
IT. granato) : source lat. grana- 
ius 'having many grains or 

garnish vb. me. gamisshe: 
borrowed fr. fr. garniss-. the stem 
of certain forms of garnir (== 
IT. guarnire) 'avert, warn, garnish', 
which is of Teut. origin: teut. 
base warnjan. — garrison me. 
garnison \ borrowed fr. fr. gar- 
nison ; deriv. of fr. garnir 'pro- 
vide, fortify'. Cp. garnish. 

garret me. garite: borrowed fr. 
OFR. garite fr. guerite 'a watch- 
tower': derived fr. ofr. garir 
warir save, keep' fr. guirir 
{= IT. guarire). Source a teut. 

warjan = goth. warjan 'hold, 

garrison see garnish. 

garter me. garter e\ borrowed 
fr. OFR. gartier jartier fr. jarre- 
tiere: deriv. of fr. jarret 'the 
small of the leg behind the 

gash ME. garse gar(e: borrow- 
ed fr. OFR. garser 'scarify'. 

gasp vb. ME. gaspe oe. *gdspian: 
TEUT. base gaispon = oij. geispa 
'gasp'. The E. word is not 
borrowed fr. Scand. 

gate' (cp. gait) 'a way, road' 

ME. gate : borrowed fr. ON. gata 

(ace. ggtii) 'way, path, road' = 

sw. gata 'a street , lane', dan'. 

gade 'a street'; ident, w. ohg. 

'' ga-^lfi G. gasse 'a street', goth. 

\gatw6 'a street'. 

I gate'- 'door, gate, opening' 

j ME. gate ydte OE. leat (plur. 

gatu leatu) = osAX. du. gat 'a 

hole, opening, gap', ON. gat 'an 

opening . 

gather me. gadere oe. gaderian 
(= DU. gaderen, G. dial, gattern) : 
deriv. of oe. geador (cp. to- 
gether). Prob. akin to oe. gcede- 
ling 'cousin', G. gatte 'husband' 
from the same root as good. 

gaud 'a show, ornament' me. 
gaiide: borrowed fr. LAT. s;au- 
dititn. — gaudy 'merry, bright, 
showy' fr. gauddind the suffix -y. 

gauge see under gage^. 

gaunt prob. from Scand. ; cp. 
aORW. gand 'a thin pointed stick; 
a tall and thin man'. 

gauntlet — gibber 


gauntlet borrowed fr. ofr, 
^anielet, dimin. of gani = fr. 
ganf (= IT. guanto) 'a glove'. 
Source a teut. (med.-lat.) wantus 
the long sleeve of a tunic, a 
glove'; cp. DU. 7£/a«/, UMi.vanfe, 
on. vgttr 'a mitten'. 

gauze borrowed fr. fr. gaze 
'cushion-canvas, tiffany' = span. 
gasa 'gauze'. 

ga^vk (cp. goivk) 'a cuckoo, 
fool' ME. gouke: loanword from 
O^.gaukr (whence sc. gowk) = 
OHG. gouh{hh) MHG. gouch G. gauch, 
OE. leac 'cuckoo". 

gay ME. gay : borrowed, fr. fr. 
gai (= IT. gajo)^ 'gay, merry'. 
Source OHG. gahi 'quick, sudden' 
G. giihe — jdh. 

gaze vb. me. gdse, prob. of 
Scand. origin: sw. dial, gasa 
'gaze, stare'. 

gear me. ge're points to an oe. 
*g(?re or *gcBro, ce being vowel 
mutation of a ■= teut. ai. Perh. 
akin to oe. ^<ir 'spear {c^f. garlic, 

gem ME. gemme: adapted fr. 
VK. gemffte {=YV. gemma). Source 
LAT. gemma 'a swelling bud, a 
jewel, a gem", whence also oe. 
pmm, OHG. gimma 'gem'. 

gender me. gender : borrowed 
fr. OFR. gendre genre fr. genre 
'kind , genus , style" (= span. 
ginero, it. genere 'kind'). Source 
LAT. gener- in genus 'race, stock . 

german germane adj. formerly 
germain : borrowed fr. FR. ger- 
main (source lat. germnnus). 

gesture borrowed fr. med.-lat. 

gestura 'a mode of action* from 
gerere 'carry, behave'. 

get me. gete borrowed fr. ox. 
geta; oe. ytati would be me. yite 
ite'^ cp. GOiH. gitan from a teut. 
yf get , pre -TEUT. ghed ghend-^ 
cogn. w. LAT. praehendere, gr. 
/avddi'SH'. Cp. forget. 

gewga^v corrupted fr. me. 
giuegoue prop, gouegoue (pron. 
gugti'i): adapted of fr. joujou. 

ghastly ME. gastly oe. gcestltc 
fr. OE. gckstan 'frighten' and lie 
= E. -ly\ cp. aghast. 

gherkin :=: du. agurkje , dan. 
agurke, G. gurke: borrowed as 
orig. *agurike fr. pol. ogurik.^ 
BOHEM. okurka fr. late GR. ayyoii- 
(jior a cucumber, gherkin'. 

ghost ME. go'st OE. gdst (gcest) 
= synon. oho. g. dan. g;eist, 
OSAX. gest : a common Teut. 
word with the same meaning 
for which ahma is used in Goth. 
The orig. meaning of the word 
(excitement?) is not establish- 
ed; yet ox. geisa 'rage' (of fire 
and passion) and goth. usgaisjan 
terrify' seem allied. For the 
dental formative of teut. gaist 
(pre-TEUT. ghnisdos) cp. the skr. 
sfhid (from *ghizd) be angry', 
hedas 'anger' with which agrees 
E. aghast 'angry, excited'; cp. 
also ghastly. 

giant ME. glannt prop, gedunt 
fr. fr. g^ant = lat. gigant-eni, 
whence also OE.OHG.^/^<////'giant'. 

gibber and with other var. 
gabber gabble, frequentatives of 
gab of which jabber and 


giddy — gist 

jabble are the assibil. frequent- 

giddy ME. gidy oe. gydiy. 
orig. perh. having a demon, 
possessed of a demon': deriv. 
o{god\ cp. OE. ylfij^ 'deranged, 
crazy' prop, 'possessed of elves'. 

gift ME. gift yift OE. gift plur. 
gifta 'nuptials' = du. ohg. gift 
G. gift in mitgift 'a dowry' 
and in ohg. g. du. gift 'poison', 
lit. 'that which is given', goth. 
gifts in fra- 'promise' with the 
abstract formative -/ from gifan 
■■= give. The initial g in e. me. 
gift points as in give to Scand. 

gig ME. gigge 'a whirling thing'; 
prob. Scand.: on. geiga 'rove 
at random' ; cp. jig. 

gild vb. short for me. gilde 
OE. gyldan: derived with vowel- 
mutation ((TEUT. gulpjan) fr. gold. 

gill' me. gille: borrowed fr. 
DAN. gjalle, sw. gal\ icel. gjplnar 
plur. gills'. 

gill2 'one-fourth pint' me. ^///^ : 
borrowed fr. ofr. gelle 'a sort 
of wine-measure' (lat. X.y^&gella 
gillo a wine-vessel). 

gillyflower corrupted fr. ofr. 
girofie fr. clou de girofe; lat. 
type caryophyllum 'a clove-tree'. 

gimlet borrowed fr. ofr. gim- 
belet FR. gibelet; of Teut. origin, 
dimin. of the form represented 
by E. wimble 'a gimlet' cp. 

gimp adapted fr. fr. giiimpe 
(ofr. guitnple fr. ohg. ivimpal 'a 
light robe' = E. wimple). 

gin^ 'a trap, snare' me. (c. i 200) 
gin and ginn shortened fr. me. 
engin = fr. engin 'a contrivance'. 
Source lat. ingenium. 

gin^ 'a kind of spirit' shortened 
fr. earlier fr. genevre (= fr. 
genievre) 'juniper' (lat. juniperus 
'an evergreen shrub). 

ginger me. gingir^ earlier gingi- 
vere from ofr. gengibre fr. gin- 
gembre (it. zenzero, mho. ginge- 
bere from the synon. late lat. 
gingiber = gr. X,iyyi!^f:Oi(^. 

gingerly a Scand. loanword ; 
sw. dial, gingla gangla 'go 
gently,' totter': frequent, of on. 
ganga 'go'. 

gird short for xME. girde oe. 
gyrdan = osax. gurdian , du. 
gordetiy OHG. gurten gurtan G. 
giirten, ON. gyrda: all weak verbs 
(teut. gurdjan), ident. w. the str. 
vb. GOTH, bi-galrdan begird'. 

girdle me. girdel oe. gyrdel 
■= synon. ohg. gurtil G. gUrtel, 
DU. gordel, on. gyrdill: deriv. 
of gird. — girth me. gerth: 
adapted fr. on. gjord 'a girdle' 
{gerd 'girth round the waist', 
GOTH, gairda 'girdle'). 

girl ME. girl gerl; akin to lg. 
g&re 'boy, girl' which is of late 
occurrence (first record 1652). 
The / of the E. word (oE. 
*gyrel , teut. base gurila-) is 

gist borrowed fr. ofr. gist = 
FR. git from OFR. gesir = fr. 
gifsir 'lie'. Source lat. jacere 

give — glisten 


give ME. give fr. on. gefa ; ident. 
w. y\'E..yeve OE. pfan le/an = osax, 
geban, DU. geven, ohg. geban G. 
geben, goth. giban: a common 
Teut. verb ; cp. also oiR. gabij/i 
1 take', LiTH. gabi'nti bring, 
procure', gobin/i '{etch' ? C\>. gift. 

gizzard me. giser: adapted fr. 
FR. ^^sier; source lat. gizeria 

glad ME. glad OE. glad 'shining, 
bright, cheerful, glad' ; ident. w. 
OHG. ^/^^/G.^A?^/ 'smooth, shining', 
DU. glad 'smooth', on. gladr glad, 
bright'. TEUT. *glada- for aryan 
ghladho- agrees with OSLOV. gla- 
dilku 'smooth', lat. glabcr (for 
ghladhro-^ 'smooth'. The meaning 
of the E. word is secondar}' 
when compared with the orig. 
meaning smooth'. 

glair ME. gleire: adapted fr. ofr. 
glair e 'the white of an e^^ = 
IT. chiara ifun ovo, whence also 
G. eierklar (med.-lat. clara ovi). 

glance vb. a Scand. loanword; 
cp. swed. glans , dan. glands 
'brightness, splendor'. 

glare vb. me. ^A/r^; oii..*gldrian 
is unauthorized. 

glass me. glas oe. gl(es : a com- 
mon Teut. word, (not verified in 

GOTH.) = DU. MHG. G. OSW. 

s\v. DAN. glas (ohg. glas glass , 
also 'amber); but on. ^/<?/' with 
change from s to r, thus proving 
the word to be primit. Teut. 
(^•glaza- ^glasa-) . Perh. the OTeut. 
name of the 'amber (lat. glesum) 
is cognate. 

gleam me. gli'fn oe. glcem 
'splendor, brightness, gleam ; 
akin to osax. gli-mo 'splendor 
and to G. glifnmer; cp. ohg. 
gltmo gleimo 'glow-worm'. An 
ARVAn yfghli cp. in ir. gl^ (fr. 
base gleivo-^ shining, clear' under 

glean vb. me. glf'ne borrowed 
fr. ovv(.. glener (fr. glaner) 'glean'. 

glede ME. glide glede oe. glida 
'a kite' ^= on. gledi: deriv. of 
the TEUT. '\f glid in glide (the 
name of the bird means prop, 
'the glider). 

glee mirth, joy' me. gle oe. gleo 
with the by-form gliw = oy.. gly'. 
TEUT. base gliwa-, perh. akin to 
IR. gl6 (base gleiico-) 'clear, 
shining. Cp. gleam. 

gleed (E. dial.) me. glede oe. 
gled i^glced fr. glodi-) = DU. gloed, 

ohg. gluot G. glut, on. glod, GOTH. 

*gld-di- '. TEUT. sT glo under glow. 
glen of Celt, origin; cp. gael. 
IR. gleann valley (cvmr. Com. 

glide vb. ME. glide oe. glidan 
= synon. 0SAX.^/??^/(2«, D\i.gliJ{d)eny 
OHG. glitan G. gleiten, sw. glida, 
DAN. glide glide, slide'. Cp. 

glimmer vb. me. glimere = g. 
glivimern, dan. glimre] akin to 
sw. glimma and 05AX. gltmo 
1 'splendor nnd&r gleam. 

glimpse vb. me. glimse vb.; 

! akin to glimmer. 

, glisten vb. me. glistne oe. glls- 

nian 'gleam' ; akin to oe. glisian 

; =^ ofris. glisa 'shine' : teut. \fglit 


loat — goal 

in glitter me. glitere (oe. *glito- 
riati) vb. 'shine' = o^^.glitra, G. 
glitzern. A corresp. strong vb. 
is ON. glita, OSAX. glitan = ohg. 
glil'an shine' (cp. G. gleissen and 
GOTH, glitmunjan shine'). 

gloat vb. akin to G. glotzen, 
ICEL. gloUa ; an oe. glotian is un- 
recorded; cogn. w. yiE.gloute(p^. 
*glulia?i) look sullen'. 

gloom 0¥..glpm (glpmung) 'gloom, 
twilight'; the tn is formative (as 
in bloom, d 007/1)', for the teut. 
yPglo cp. glow. 

glory me. glgrie glgrie from ofr. 
glorie = \.KX. gloria', cp. fr. gloire. 

gloss vb. akin to mhg. glosen 

glove me. gloi>e short for gl&ve 
OE. glof = ON. glqfi 'glove'. 

glow vb. ME. gl&u<e OE. glowan 
str. vb. ; cp. du. gloeijen, ohg. 
gluoen G. glilhen, on. gloa 'glow, 
glitter, shine': teut. Y~^/(7 gle 
under gloom and E. dial, gleed. 

glue me. glile borrowed fr. ofr. 
gbi 'birdlime'; source lat. glus 

glum adj. from me. glomme 
glombe vb. be gloomy ; as 
gloomy shows, connected with 
g loo 7)1 and sw. glmnig 'languid 
of look'. 

glut sb. ME. glut sb. borrowed 
fr. OFR. glut gloiit (it. ghiotto) 'a 
glutton'. — glut vb. ME. glote 
gliite vb. borrowed fr. ofr. glotir 
gloutir (cp. FR. englontir 'swallow 
up') ; source LAT.^'-////'//>-^'swallow'. 
— glutton ME. glutoun glotoun: 
borrowed fr. fr. gloutoTi ofr. 

glutoTi ; source lat. glutio-gluttoTiem 

gnarl akin to oe. gnyrran. 

gnash vb. me. gTiaste 'gnash 
the teeth'; oe. '^gndstian is akin 
to ON. gtiista 'gnash the. teeth'. 

gnat ME. g7iat(tt) oe. gncetf. 
teut. base g/iatta-. 

gnaw vb. me. gnawe oe. gnagari 
= oSAX. gnagan, ohg. (g)nagafi 
G. ftage/i, ON. gtiaga; cp. a by- 
form with initial k: du. kTiage/i, 
OS. HG. knagaTi 'gnaw; the G. 
form nageTi arose from gTiagen. 

go me. go OE. gdn == OSAX. gdn, 
DU. gaan, ohg. gdn geti G. gehefi. 
The teut. "v^ ghai- (= oe. gd-, 
OHG. ge-) supplanted the arvan 
y^/ 'go' in LAT. ire, GR. isvai, 
skr. \/^i. Since teut. gai- has no 
old primit. noun-derivatives in 
Teut. and takes the place of 
the ARVANy"/ (the aorist goth. 
iddja = oe. eode still remains) 
and as it is inflected after the 
////-conjugation, the supposition 
arises that teut. *gaim *gais 
*gaip are contracted fr. the 
verbal particle ga and the 
inherited tm iz ip = skr. emi 
est Hi; cp. OR. i]f.u. 

goad ME. god OE. gad', ident. 
with LANGOBARD. gaida 'spear': 
teut. base gaido- = pre-TEUT. 
*ghai-td', akin to oe. gar, ohg. 
ger 'spear' under gore, aryan 
^ ghi gJmi'wi GR. yaloc, '.shepherd's 

goal borrowed fr. VK.gaiile ofr. 
loaiile. Source teut. 7iialu ^= 
ON. ziplr, GOTH, walus a staff'. 




goat ME. ggte o^.gdt = DU, on. 
geit, OHG. ^«5 G. geissy sw. get, 
DAN. gedy GOTH, gaits 'a goat': 
cogn. w. LAT. hcpdus fr. aryan 

gobble a frequent, with sufF. 
•le fr. FR. gober 'devour*. 

god MK. OE. god =■ OSAX. DU. 
god, OHG. ^<7/ G. gOtt , ON. ^«^ 

^i?^. GOTO, giida- gupa- god' is 
based on aryan ghu-to-, -to- being 
a part, formative as in old, cold, 

loud: INDO-TEUT. \'~ ghu ^ SKR. 

Ml 'implore the gods (skr. hutd- 
jjart.). Therefore god is 'the 
being implored'; in the veda 
puriihuta 'much implored' is an 
ordinary epithet of the god 
Indra. god in godfather godson 
goddaughter =. me. god -\- com- 
pound : used in reference to 
the spiritual relation between 
them ; cp. gossip. 

goggle-eyed me. gogel-eied; the 
first element of the compound 
can scarcely be a native E. word 
and is traced to IR. Gael, gog- 
shuileach 'goggle-eyed'. 

gold ME. OE. g^ld ^= OSAX. OHG. 

G. gold, DU. goud, ON. goll gull 

(for *golpa'), GOTH, gulf: ARYAN 

ghlto- = OSLOV. zlato = russ. 
zoloto from *zolto. The orig. 
paeaningofthe\^^//i?/, from which 
gold is derived (cp. lith. gel-tas 
'yellow' and skr. hdrita and hari 
yellow'), is 'yellow ; cp. skr. hi- 
raf.iya 'gold'. • Cp. yellow. 

good .ME. OE. gpd^= Gom. gods, 
OSAX. god, DU. goed, ohg. guot 
G. gut, ON. godr. The orig. 

meaning of the adj. was prob. 
'fit, suitable' from a root mean- 
ing 'fit, suit seen in gather, 
together. — goodbye short 
for orig, »God be by you« 
(Shakesp. »God buy you«). 
goose ME. oE. gps (plur. g^s') : 
Teut. base gans- = du. gans, 
OHG. G. gans, ON. gds; akin to 
gander and gannet. An aryan 
ghan-s- is represented also by 
SKR. hansd-s m. — haiisi goose', 

N.PERS. ydz, lith. ZqsiS, OSLOV. 

gqst , gr. yT\y , LAT. anser (for 
'^hanser) , oiR. giis swan' (fr. 
ghanst) . 

gore 1 u^.gp're 'a gore of cloth, 
a garment' oe. gdra 'a projecting 
point of land' ; cp. du. geer 'a 
gusset, gore', ohg. gero G. gehre 
'a wedge, gusset, gore', ON. geiri, 
NORW. geire, odan. gere 'a gore 
of cloth or land': deriv. of teut. 
gaiza- 'spear ^OE. gar 'a spear', 
OHG. ger 'a spear. Cp. goad. 

gore 2 'mud, blood' me. gore 
OE. gor 'mud' = ohg. on. gor 
'mud', sw. gorr 'mud'. 

gorge ME. gorge borrowed fr. 
FR. gorge 'throat': source lat. 

gosling dimin. of goose. 

gospel ME. gospel oe. god-spell 

the word of God', as shown by 
ON. gud-spjall, OHG. got-speUll). 
Cp. spell. 

gossamer me. gossomer repre- 
senting an OE. type *gps-sumor 

summer of the geese' ; cp. the 
G. names altivcibersomtner, mdd- 


gossip — grave 

gossip ME. gossip earlier gossib 
OE. god-sibb prop. 'relationsViip 
ia God' ; see the end of the 
article on god. OE. sibb ^ OHG. 
sippa, GOTH, sibja means 'relation- 

gouge from fr. gouge. 

gourd ME. gourde: borrowed fr. 
FR. gourde (orig. ofr. gouhourde 
cougourde; source lat. ciicurbita 
'a gourd'. 

gout sb. ME. goute borrowed fr. 
FR. goutte 'dropsy': source lat. 

gowk ident. w. gawk. 

gown ME. goune goun fr. ofr. 
gone 'a gown', which is of Celt, 
origin (gall. - lat. gunna 'fur- 

grab vb. cp. sw. grabba, mlg. 
grabben' grasp' . An Aryan \/^gh'bh 
'to grasp' is found in SK.K.\/^grbk 
'grasp, seize' — grapsa 'bunch, 
tuft' and OHG. garba G. gar be 

grace me. grdge fr. fr. grace 
^=^ LAT. gratia 'favor'. 

grade borrowed fr. fr. grade'. 
souTcehAT.gradus a step, station'. 

graft (Shakesp. gra//) vb. me. 
graffe 'graft : deriv. of ofr. graffe 
'a style for writing' (fr. greffe 
'graft'?). Source lat. graphium 
'a style for writing'. 

grail 'fine sand' fr. ofr. graile 
'fine, small' = lat. gracilis. 

grain me. grain grein from fr. 
grain: source lat. granum 'a 
grain, corn'. 

grammar me. gramytUre gram- 
maire from fR. grammaire. 

grange me. grautige: adapt, of 
FR. grange (lat. type granea 
granary' deriv. oi granum corn^ . 

grant me. graunte vb. adapt, 
fr. OFR. granter 'caution, secure 
(source a lat. type *credentare 
vb. — '^credentia sb.). 

grape me. grape: loanword fr. 
OFR. grape grappa 'cluster of 
grapes'. The fr. word is con- 
sidered to be of Teut. origin 
(teut. *krappa ?) . 

grasp ME. grapse perh. for 
*grapse OE. *grdpsian: possibly 
an intensive deriv. of oe. grd' 
pian = grope. 

grass ME. gras q'e. grces gcers = 


'herb, growth'. The final j" is 
formative, the \{^\&gra meaning 
'sprout, grow'; cp. grow and 

grasshopper me. grashopper 
ox'xg. grashoppe ok. gcsrs-hoppa {= 
DU. grashupper lg. grashupper) : 
'an insect which hops about in 
the grass'. Cp. hop. 

grate sb. me. grate: source 
LAT. crates a hurdle'. — grate 
vb. ME. grate vb. from ofr. grater 
'scratch' (fr. gratte/-), which is 
prob.ofTeut. origm.(p}iG. krazzbn 
G. kratzcti). 

grave vb. me. grdve oe. grafan 
'dig' = GOTH. OHG. graban G. gra- 
ben, DU. graven dig, oiA. grafa: 
teut. \fgrab = arvan ghrabh, 
orig. related to oslov. grebq 
'dig' and grobU grave'. 

grave adj. from fr. grave 

gravel — grizzly 


gravel me. gravil borrowed fr. 
ovR.gravele, dimin. oi o^K. grave 
'rough sand' fr. grcue 'strand'. 

gravy earlier orthography ^wa- 
vy, akin to greaves} 

gray grey me. gray grey oe. 
grcBi ; akin to du. grauw, ohg. 
grdo (infl. grower') G. grau, on. 
grdr, which represent a Teut. 
base grdwa- grewa- (oe. grce]^ 
pointing to a has^grdga-grega- ?). 

graze vb. 'feed cattle' me. grdse 
OE. grasian =^ G. grasen : deriv. 
of teut. grasa- = grass. 

grease me. gre'se grc'fe : adapted 
from ore. ^r^^i'^ (fr. graisse) 'fat- 
ness.'. Source lat. crassus 'fat. 

great me. gr^'i oe. great; cp. 
OSAX. grot, DU. groot, ohg. groT^ 
G. gross great': teut. grauta-. 

greaves cogn. w. G.griebe o^g. 
gruibo 'greaves'? 

greedy me. gredy oe. gredij^ 
grff'iii = OSAX. grddag, ohg. grd- 
tag, ON. grddugr, goth. gredags 
'hungry' : derived from a teut. 
gredu- 'hunger = goth. gredus, 
ON. grddr 'hunger'. Perh. akin to 
the SKR. sTgrdh 'to be greedy': 
A^YXS \f ghredh ghrdh. 

green me. oe. grene : Teut. base 
grbni- = osax. groni, ohg. griioni 
G. grun 'green', on. grdnn, sw. 
DAN. gron : deriv. of the teut. 
\rgrd in grow and grass. The 
adj. orig. means 'growing. 

greet vb. me. grete oe. gretan 
= OSAX. grotian, du. groeten, on. 
grceta, ouG. gruoT^-an G. griissen'. 
teut. type grotjan 'greet'. 

grey see gray. — greyhound 

ME. greihound formed after on. 
greyhundr 'greyhound'; cp. ON. 
grey 'dog'? 

griddle me. gredel 'griddle': a 
CELT, loanword; cp. ir. greideal 
'griddle' (fr. a lat. *crdtella). 

grief ME. gre/ (= odu. grief) : 
adapted fr. ofr. gref 'heavy' — 
FR. grief 'injury' (source lat. 
greens for gravis). — grieve vb. 
me. greve vb. 'burden, injure' fr. 
OFR. grever. 

grill vb. adapted fr. fr. griller 
broil on a gridiron'. 

grim ME. OE. gri7n (mm): teut, 
base grimma- = OSax. ohg. grim 
G. grimm, on. grimmr'. cogn. w. 
OE. ohg. gram 'angry' G. gram. 

grin vb. me. grinne grenne OE. 
grennian 'show the teeth, snarl, 
grin'; cogn. w. grind. 

g^nd vb. ME. grifide oe. grindan 
str. vb. : teut. \f grind = aryan 
ghrendh in lat. frendere 'gnash'. 

gripe ME. gripe OE.gripan str.vb. 
= 0'ihy..gripan, du. grijpen, ohg. 
grifan G. greifen , goth. greipan 
'gripe, seize'. Outside of Teut. 
cp. the related \fghrib in lith. 
greibiu greibti 'seize' and LETT. 
griba will' — gribet 'to will. 

grisly ME. grisly short for oe. 
gryslic {angryslic) 'terrible, hor- 

grist ME. grist short for OE. 
grist lit. 'a grinding': deriv. of 

grit 'gravel' me. gret oe. great 
= ohg. grioT^ G. gries, on. grjot. 

grizzly fr. me. grisel 'a gray- 
haired man': deriv. fr. fr. gris 


groan — gudgeon 

'gray'. Source a teut. grts- 'gray' 
in G. greis. 

groan vb. me. grgne oe. grdnian 
'moan' : intensive deriv. of a 
str. vb. *gri-nan = OHG. grtnan 
G. greinen 'weep*, DU. grijnen. 

groat sb-ME-^r^^Vc-: a continental 
TELT. word : MLG. ODU. grote, DU. 
groot, G. groschen. 

grocer borrowed fr. OVK. grassier 
(lat. type grossarius 'a wholesale 
dealer', cp. fr. engros'-v!\\o\& sale'). 

groin corrupted fr. ofr. gritu 
FR. grain 'the fork of a tree or 
of a river, a groin'. 

groom "^s^.grmti hoy : borrowed 
fr. OFR. gramme gaurme, whence 
OFR. gramet 'servant. 

groove ME. grove 'a pit' = du. 
graeve graef ohg. gruabn G. grube, 
ON. grof, GOTH. grdba\ from OE. 
grafan = grave. 

grope vb. ME.gnJipe oe. gr apian; 
intensive formation of gripe = 
OE. gripan. 

ground me. graund oe. grund 
orig. griind = OSAX. G. grund, 
DU. grand, ohg. grunt, on. grund 
'meadow' — grunnr (fr, *grunpus) 
'bottom of the sea, goth. grundus 
in grundu7i)addjus 'foundation', lit. 
'a ground-wall'. 

group borrowed fr. fr. groupe 
{= IT. grappa). 

grove ME. grpi'e oe. grdf 'grove'; 
TEUT. base graiba- graifa-. The 
ME. by-form grcve gr&ve 'grove, 
wood' corresponds to OE. grcefe 
= TEUT. base graibjon- ? 

grovel vb. with the adv.^r<?z;^//«^ 
ME. groveling{es) grufiing{es) ; akin 

' to ME. agruf agrouve 'groveling* 

I and ON. a grilfu groveling' — 

\griifa vb. 'bow down'. The E. word 

seems to be a Scand. loanword. 

gro'W vb. ME. growe oe. graivan 
I = DU. groeijen, ohg. gruoan mug. 
\gruejen, on. graa, sw. dan. gro: 
I TEUT. \f gro, whence green and 
j perh. also grass. 

growl ME. gro7vle from du. gr alien 
= g. grollen. 

grub vb. ME. grubbe 'dig': teut. 
\'^grab under grave; cp. ohg. 
grubilon (g. griibeln 'brood, pour 

grudge vb. me. grug'ge earlier 
grucche (short for "^grouchen ?) : 
borrowed fr. ov^.groucher graucer 

gruel me. grilel: borrowed fr. 
OFR. gruel = FR. gruau (lat. 
type grutellum , dimin. of ilED.- 
LAT. grutum 'meal'). 

gruff borrowed fr. du. grof 
= sw. grof, dan. grov G. grab. 

grumble loanword fr. fr. gram- 
mcler ; akin to mdu. grommelen, 
frequent. of mdu. grummen 
grommen 'murmur'. 

grunt vb. me. grunte gronte 
OE. grunnettan ; ident. w. G. 
grunzen, dan. grynte, sw. grynta. 
A more primit. stem appears in 
OE. grunian 'grunt'. The \^grun 
is imitation of sound; cp. lat. 

guarantee see warrant. 

guard vb. borrowed fr. fr. 
guarder, see ward. 

gudgeon borrowed fr. FK.gauJon 
(me. *gugeon *gougeaunT). 

guess — Gypsy 


guess vb. AiE. gesse: prob. not 
a native word, but borrowed fr. 
the continent (du. lg. gissen) or 
fr. the Scand. (dan. gisse, sw. 
gissd). A native me. gesse would 
point to an oe. *getsian (cp. 
bless OE. bletsian) ■= teut. base 

guest ME. gest borrowed fr. 
SCAXD. gestr guest'; there was a 
native oe. pest, which was 
supplanted by the Scand. loan- 
word. SCAND. gestr oe. = 
OHG. OSAX. G. DU. gast represent 
a TEUT. base gasti-z = lat. Aostis 
'enemy', OSLOV. ^''^y// guest' : arvan 
base gfwstis. 

guide vb. ME. gide borrowed 
fr. FR. guider (ofr. also guier = 
ME. gle vb.). 

guild ME. gMe OE. gy/d; cp. 
DU. gt'/d, G. gt/de. 

guile sb. ME. g//e borrowed fr. 
OFR. gui/e 'treachery', which is 
of Teut. origin; cp. wile. 

guilt sb. ME. gilt OE. gylt 'a 
crime': teut. base gulti; a \f gult 
is unknown elsewhere. 

guise ME. gise fr. ofr. guise 
'way, wise', which is of Teut. 
origin; cp. wise. 

gulf adapted fr. fr. golfe, 
whence also G. golf. The Rom. 
group Span. it. golfo 'a gulf, bay' 
is based on gr. xoAyoc xoknog 
'bosom, lap, a deep hollow'. 

gullet sb. 'throat' me. gullet golet 
borrowed fr. fr. goule 'throat' 
= LAT. gula. 

gum^ short for me. gome oe. 
gp'f/ia 'palate'; cp. on. gdmr, OHG. 
guomo 'palate'; cogn. with the 
equival. lith. gomurys: arvan 
yfgM {ghduT). 

gum- ME. gonmie gujnme: bor- 
rowed fr. FR. gomme = it. gomtna: 
source lat. gummi (gr. y.6f.if.ii). 

gun ME. gunne gonne ; the me. 
word was first applied to a cata- 
pult or machine for throwing 
stones ; perh. shortened for ofr. 
fnangonne, which is' the base of 
ofr. me. mangonel 'machine for 
throwing stones'. 

gush vb. y\E.gusche prop.gousc/ie; 
akin to on. gusa vb. 'gush', ODU. 
guisen 'gush': teut. \fgut in goth. 
giutan, OE. i(otan, ohg. gio'yyan 
G. giessen 'pour out'. 

gut ME. OE.gut (plur. ME. guttes 
OE. guttas') : Teut. base guttu-. 

gutter ME. gutire goth-e fr. fr. 
gouttiere (ofr. goutier, lat. type 
guttarium : deriv. of lat. gutta 

Gypsy short for me. Egipfien 
Egyptian ; cp. span. port, gitano 
Gypsy' from Aegyptidnus ; mod.- 
GREEK / vcftoc aus AtyvTJToc. The 
Gypsies were popularly supposed 
to be Egyptians. 


habergeon — hale 


habergeon me. habergeon haw- 
berjoun: borrowed fr. ofr. hauber- 
gon hauberjoHy dimin. of ofr. 
haubei'C', see hauberk. 

habit ME. ablt: adapted fr. fr. 
habit garment, liabit, a custom': 
source lat. habitus 'condition, 
habit, dress'. 

hack vb. me. /lakke oe. huccian 
(hcECcean) =^ DV.hakken, G. hackcn, 
sw. hakkay dan. hakke\ possibly 
from the \f haww haw seen in 
OE. heawan = e. hew. 

hack*'^; see hacktiey. 

hackle hatchel sb. me. hekel 
hechel; cogn. w. du. hekel, G, 
hechel\ sw. hiickla , dan. hegle 
(goth. *hakila). 

hackney me. hakeney: borrow- 
ed fr. FR. haquenie 'an ambling 
horse' (= ODU. hackeneye, span. 
hacanea 'a hackney). 

'haft me. haft OE. hceft; cogn. 
w. DU. heft, on. hepti, ohg. hefti 
G.he/t: TEUT.y haf (cp. heavy) 
= ARYAN \r-^rt^ in LAT. capio 'take'. 

hag ME. hagge short for oe. 
hcepesse = mdu. haghetisse, ohg. 
haga-zussa: the first part of the 
compound is perh. ident. w. 
haw, the second part still un- 

haggard ' adj. adapted fr. fr. 
hagard 'wild, lit. 'of the woods'; 
formed fr. ohg. haga with the 
Fr. suffix -ard from G. -hart', cp. 

haggard 2 adj. 'lean, meager' 
(earlier spelling hagged) prop, 

hail sb. ME. hail (Jiauf) oe. 
h(By;l {hagof) = du. g. sw. dan. 
hagel, OHG. hagal, ON.hagl: Teut. 
bases hagla- and hagala-. Perh. 
cog^. w. gr. Y.av.XrjS, 'a round 
pebble'. A single pebble is 
called stone' : e. hailstone oe. 
haj^elstdn, = on. haglstcinn. 

hail adj. (ident. w. hale adj.) 
ME. //^//'healthy, sound': Scand. 
loanword (on. heilt) superseding 
the native OE. hdl =■ E. whole. 
— hail vb. 'greet, salute' me. 
heile, formed fr. the me. adj. heil, 
which was borrowed fr. o^.h^ill. — 
hail (an exclamation of greeting) 
ifE. heil from ox. heill 'hale, 
whole' (esp. used in greeting 
as far heill 'farewell ). 

hair (earlier spelling hear h^arc 
in the i6. cent.) me. Mr oe. hir 
hcer = on. hdr, osax. ohg. ifflG. 
har, du. DAN. G. haar, sw. hdr: 
Teut. base hera- (heza-?). Orig. 
allied are on. haddr, oe. lieord 
(gotu.* ha zda-) 'hair'. Outside of 
Teut. cp. OSLOV. kosmit kosa (Lith. 
kasd) 'hair' — cesati vb. 'comb'. 

hale adj. (ident. w. hail adj.) 
fr. ON. heill sound'; cp. whole. 

hale haul vb. 'drag :me. hale 
OE. (j^eholian and) *iehalian = 
oSAK.halon,OFKis. halia,T>v. halen, 
OHG. holbn {halon) G. holen. The 

half — hamper 


TEUT. sfhal hoi answers to lat. 
caldre, gr. naXslv 'summon'. 

half ME. half OE. healf^= goth. 
halbs , ON. hdlfr, ohg. g. halh, 
OSAX. DU. sw. half, DAN. halv: 
Teut. base halba- , perh. cogn. 
w. SKR. klpay 'arrange, divide'. 

halibut holibut me. halibut; 
from ME. hgly 'holy' and butte 'a 
plaice'; cp. du. heilbot 'halibut', 
•s^ . helgfiundra, v>K^. hellefiynder; 
the fish is so called because it 
is excellent eating for holydays; 
cp. SCAND. heilagr fiskr , lg. heilige 
butt and heilbutt. 

hall ME. halle OE. heall r= on. 
hall hgll,o'S>PCL.halla,Yi\i.hal. teut. 
yfhdl hel in OE. helan 'hide' = 
DU. helen, ohg. helan G. hehlen; 
cp. ARYAN 'sf kel 'conceal, cover' 
in LAT. celdre occulere, gr. y^xaA 
in •AaAvnTO) hide' — xakv^Tj 'hut', 
OIR. celim 'I hide'; skr. /:^/a 

hallow vb. ME. hdlwe short for 
OE. hdlgian: from OE. hdli'^ = 
E. /^^/j. — hallowmass 'feast' 
shortened from All Hallotvs 
Mass 'mass of all saints'; 
hallows' is the gen. of hallmi'S, 
plur. of ME. hal{o)we 'a saint' = 
OE. hdlga 'a saint' from OE. hdli-^ 
'holy'. Cp. holy. 

halo borrowed fr. lat.-gr. 
halos 'circle around the sun or 

halt adj. me. halt oe. healt = 
GOTH, halts, ON. haltr, osAX. halt, 
ohg. halz: Teut. base halta-, 
pre-TEUT. koldo — - klodo in lat. 
claudus halt', gr. vXaiiagoq 

English Etymology. 

'brittle'. — halt vb. me. halte oe. 
healtian (= ohg. *halzen mhg. 
halzen 'limp') from OE. healt = 
halt adj. 'lame'. 

halter me. halter oe. hcelftre = 
MDU. halfter du. halster , ohg. 
halftra g. halfter', closely allied 
to OE. hylf m. = e. helve 
'handle', ohg. Juilp. From the 
same root are derived with 
w-formation ME. haltne 'handle*, 
OHG. halmo in jioh- 'rope fastened 
to the yoke to guide the oxen'. 

halyard halliard a rope for 
hoisting sails' shortened from 
hale-yard, because the ropes 
haul the yards into their places. 
Cp. hale vb. and yard. 

ham ME. hatnme oe. hamm lit. 
'bend of the leg'; Teut. base 
hamtna- from an Aryan kamna- 
knamd- in GR. ■^vTjf.iri'i OIR. cndim 
(base kndmi-^ bone'. 

hame 'horse-collar' me. hdme 
(oe. *hamd) = du. haam, g. 
hamen: Teut. base haman- cogn. 
w. GR. y.rjf.ioc, LAT. cdmus 'muzzle'. 

hamlet me. hamelet; formed 
with dimin. suffix -et from ofr. 
hamel {=^ Fr. hameati) : source 
a Teut. word OFRis. hdm = e. 
home (with dimin. suffix -el). 

hammer me. hamer oe. hamor 
= ON. hamarr , oSAX. hamur, 
OHG. hamar G. hammer', on. 
hamarr denotes also 'rock, 
cliflf', pointing to relationship 
with OSLOV. kamy 'stone'. 

hamper vb. me. hamper e 
hampre vb. 

hamper sb. borrowed fr. ofr. 


hand — hard 

hanapier, orig. 'a vessel to keep 
cups in' from ofr. hanap (Lat. 
type hanapus) 'goblet'. The Fr. 
hanap is of Teut. origin; cp. 
OE. hno'p, OHG. hnapf g. napf, 
MLG. DU. nap. 

hand me. oe. hand hand = 
GOTH, handus, on. hpnd, OHG. 
han^ G. OSAX. DU. hand: prob. 
derived fr. teut. goth. hinpan 
'catch' (cp. hound and hunt). 

— handle vb. me. handle oe. 
handlian = DU. handelen , on. 
hpnd/a, OHG. hantalon G. handeln : 
frequent, vb. derived fr. hand. 

— handle sb. me. handel oe. 
handle from handle vb. — hand- 
cuff 'a cuff {or the hand adopted 
fr. ME. handcops 'a handcuff' from 
oe. handcops 'a handcuff' from 
OE. hand 'hand' and cops 'a fetter'. 

— handicraft with unorig. in- 
serted / (after handiwork) from 
OE. handcrceft. — handiwork jME. 
handiwerc oe. hand-j^eweorc from 
OE. hond and "^eiveorc ident. w. 
weorc. The i is due to the prefix 
OE. le. 

handsome me. handsom prop, 
'easy to handle'. — handy me. 
hendy oe. hendi^ in listhendii ? 
Akin w. GOTH, handugs clever', 
DU. handig 'handy, expert'; perh. 
not derived fr. hand, but akin 
to GR. y.Si'TSfO 'prick, spur'; cp. 
OHG. ha n lag 'sharp. 

hang vb. me. hange oe. hangian 
= OHG. hangen G. hangen: deriv. 
of a str. vb. teut. *hanhan = 
GOTH. OHG. hdhan = oe. hp'n 
(for * hdhan) \ cp. hunger. 

hanker vb. akin to du. hunkeren 
(dial, haiikereti) long after'; prob. 
akin to hang and hunger. 

hap sb. ME. hap borrowed fr. 
SCAND. happ 'chance, good luck'; 
cp. oe. lehap 'fit'. — Hence 
happen vb. me. happene ex- 
tended for ME. happen (cp. swed. 
happa). — Cp. perhaps. 

harass vb. loanword fr. fr. 
harasser 'vex'. 

harbor sb. me. herberwe, earlier 
(i2. cent.) herberge inn, lodging, 
guest house': Scand. loanword, 
cp. ON. herberge 'inn, lodging' = 
OHG. heri-berga guest house' 
(prop, 'sheltering place for the 
army') G. herberge, du. herberg. 
The first part of the compound 
is OE. here =: OHG. osax. heri, 
GOTH, harjis 'army'. The second 
part is derived fr. a lost str. 
vb. TEUT. bergan 'shelter'. — 
harbinger me. herbergeour 'one 
who provides lodgings: deriv. 
of OFR. lurberger vb. 'lodge, 
quarter' which is a deriv. of 
OFR. herberge {= fr. aubergc). 
This is ident. w. ohg. heriberga 
(see harbor). 

hard adj. me. luird oe. heard; 
perh. the ME. phonology points 
to its being borrowed from ON. 
hardr. Cp. OSAX. DU. hard, ohg. 
herti luirl G. harl 'hard, solid, 
heavy, painful', on. hardr, sw. 
hard, dan. haard, goth. hardus 
'hard, severe': Teut. base hardu- 
= ARYAN kartu- in GR. Y.()axvi^ 
(xa'pra). — hardy adj. jvie. hardy 
borrowed fr. fr. hardi which ic 

hards — hasp 


of Teut. origin ; cp. OHG. harti 
herti under hard. 

hards sb. 'the refuse or coarse 
part of flax' me. herdes OE. 
heordan plur, 'hards of flax'; 
akin to OE. heord, on. haddr 

hare me. hare OE. hara = 
OHG. haso G. hase; for the 
rhotacism in E. cp. on. here'. 
Teut. base hasan- hazan-; an 
ARYAN kaso- is represented in 
the synon. skr. (a(a, opruss. 
sasins 'hare*. The Aryan name 
of the animal points perh. to 
the OE. adj. haso hasu gray'. 

hark vb. me. herke (oe. *hircian 
*hyrcian) from a Teut. base 
*luiuziqdn = OFRIS. hirkia, MLG. 
horken G. horchen mhg. horchen 
late OHG. horechen from *hdrah- 
hon'. derived fr. the teut. \f hauz 
in GOTH, hausjan = E. hear. — 
harken vb. me. herkne short for 
OE. hircnian hyrcnian; an E. 
derivative of the verb hear; cp. 
talk and tell, lurk and lower. 

harlot ME. harlot a disorderly 
person' (of either sex) : loan- 
word fr. OFR. luxrlot 'vagabond'. 

harm me. harm, oe. hearm = 
OSAX. harm ohg. haram 'insult, 
mortification'; cogn. w. OSLOV. 
sranui (fr. ^sormii) 'shame, dis- 

harness me. harneis; borrowed 
fr. OFR. harneis armor', whence 
also G. harnisch. 

harp ME. harpe oe. hearpe; cp. 
synon. on. harpa, du. harp, ohg. 
harp/a harfa G. harfe. The Teut. 

word occurs first in the 5'** cent, 
as LAT. harpa; fr. harpe is of 
Teut. origin. 

harpoon adopted fr. fr. harpon, 
whence also du. harpoen (g. har- 
pune). Source lat. harpago(nem). 

harrow^ sb. me. harwe (point- 
ing to oe. *hearwe or *hearge) ; 
perh. akin to the synon. G. harke, 
DU. hark, ON. hei-fi, dan. harv, 
sw. harf 'harrow'. 

harry vb. me. herie herien oe. 
heryan herigan 'overcome with 
an army' (^= goth. *harjon, on. 
herja 'go on a plundering ex- 
pedition', ohg. herion G. ver- 
heeren); derived fr. teut. harja- 
'army' under harbor. 

harsh adj. late me. harsk: a 
Scand. loanword; cp. dan. osw. 
harsk 'rancid. 

hart sb. me. hert oe. heart 
(heorot) = du. hert, ohg. hirWi^ 
hirz g. Mrs now hirsch, on. ^ 
hjgrtr, sw. hjort , DAN. hiort-. 
Teut. base *herui- from Aryan 
kerud-, cogn. with lat. cervus 
'hart* and GR. v.tQurK^ (lit. 'horned' 
from xboag 'a horn*), kymr. earw> 
hart, PRUSS. sir7vis, osi.ov. surna 

harvest me. hervest oe. h(erfest 
= DU. herfst, OHG. herhist G. 
herbst: related to lat. carpere 
'pluck', GR. 'fruit', -/.uio- 
niov 'a pruning-knife', sk.k. krpana 
'sword', LIT. kirp-ti shear'. 

hash sb. from fr. hacher vb. 
'hack' (of Teut. origin , cp. 
hack vb.). 

hasp ME. haspe oe. hcBps (for 


haste — hawk 

*hcesp) = DAN. SW. G. IVEHG. 

haspe, ON. hespa 'hasp'. 

haste vb. me, haste', loanword 
fr. OFR. /taster (fr. hater), whence 
also DU. haasten, G. hasten 'make 
haste*. The fr. vb. is prob. a 
Teut. loanword. 

hat sb. ME. hat (plur. hattes) 
OE. hcet (plur. hctttas) = ON. 
hgttr 'hood, cowl', sw. hatt, dan. 
hat 'hat' : Teut. base hattu- cogn. 
w. hood sb. and perh. also 
with LAT. cassis (for *cat-tis) 

hatch vb. me. hacche; cp. 
MHG. hecken 'produce young 
from eggs by incubation' G. 
aushecken 'hatch', sw. hdcka 
'breed', dan. hcekkebuur 'breeding 

hatch sb. 'halfdoor' me. hacche 
OE. h(BC^} cogn. w. DU. hek} 

hatchel see hackle sb. 

hatchet sb. me. hacchet: loan- 
word from FR. hachette, dimin. 
of FR. hache 'axe': source a 
TEUT. hakka cp. hack vb. 

hate vb. me. hate older hdtien 
OE. hatian = goth. hatan, du. 
haten, OSAX. haton, ohg. ha"iJon 
G. hassen. — hate sb. me. hate 
influenced by the vb. hdte\ 
earlier me. hete OE. hete = 
osAX. heti, DU. haat, ohg. haT^ 
G. hass, on. hatr, sw. hat, dan. 
had, GOTH, haiis. The teut. 
\P hat 'hate' is perh. ident. w. 
the Teut. Y" hap in OE. heado- 

war' = OHG. hadu and G. hader 

hatred me. hatride{n)'. abstr. 

noun from the vb. hate', cp. 
kindr ed. 

hauberk me. hauberk borrowed 
fr. OFR. Jiauberc; source ohg. 
halsb'erc prop, 'neck-defence'. 

haughty adj. me. hautein 'arro- 
gant' from OFR. hautain; source 
OFR. haut = LAT. a/tus 'high'. 

haul see ha/e vb. 

haunch sb. me. haunche'. loan- 
word from FR. JiancJu (ofr. hanke 
of Teut. origin ; cp. ohg. 
anka ?) . 

haunt vb. me. haunte borrowed 
fr. FR. /muter 'haunt, frequent'. 

have me. /lave OE. habban = 
OSAX. hebbian, du. /lebben, ohg. 
haben G. haben, on. hafa, goth. 
/laban: Teut. base /labai-^ ident. 
w. LAT. haberel Aryan base 
khab/icy ? 

haven me. hdven late OE. hce/ene, 
prob. a Scand. loanword; cp. 
ON. hg/n 'haven' ; perh. allied to 
OE. fuef, ON. haf 'ocean'. 

haversack borrowed fr. fr. 
havresac 'a knapsack from G. 
habcrsack /lafersack 'a sack for 

haw ME. hawe oe. haga 'an 
inclosure* = ON. hagi', cp. OHG. 
/mg 'an inclosure' G. hag 'a hedge', 
DU. haag 'a hedge, garden'. A 
corresponding Aryan \f kagh is 
evident in cymr. cae, corn, ke 
'hedge'. — Hence hawthorn 
OE. /lagu-porn. Cp. hedge. 

haw^k ME. /lauk oe. /leafoc; cp. 
OSAX. *habuc in the proper name 
Habuc-horst , DU. havik , ohg. 
habuh G. habicht with secondary 

hawser — heart 


/, ON. haukr (for hgdukr) , sw. 
Aok, DAN. /log; GOTH. *habuks 
with formative -ka- as in ahaks 
'dove'. The \r haf is seen in 
Q^. hebban E. heave orig. 'take, 
seize' as in lat. capere. 

ha^vse^ 'a tow-rope' borrowed 
fr. the OFR. vb. haulser 'raise, 
tow a boat* (Lat. type altiare 
'elevate, raise'). 

hay ]ME. hey OE. he^ hii : Teut, 
base hauja- = goth. hawi 
(gen. haiijis) 'hay, grass', ohg. 
hemi houwi G. heu, ON. hey, sw. 
DAN. ho, DU. hooi; orig. verbal 
adj. of the Teut. verbal v^^«« seen 
in hew. Hence hay 'grass to be 
hewn' (orig. hauja- sc. grasa-^. 

hazel ME. hdsel oe. h(Bsel = 
DU. hazel, OHG. hasala G. hasel, 
ON. hasl: from pre-TEUT. koslo-, 
hence in Lat. with rhotacism 
coruliis for *cosulus 'hazel' ; op. 
also oiR. coll 'hazel' for *cosll 

he ME. OE. he = osax. hi. 

head short for me. he'd fuller 
form h^edo^. h(afod^= ON. haufup 
{hgfup~), GOTH, haubip , osax. 
hobid, DU. hoofd, OHG. houbit G. 
haupt: Teut. base haubida- hau- 
buda- is closely allied to oe. hufe, 
OHG. huba G. haube 'cap, hood'. 
This «-root (aryan kdp-T) may 
be connected with lat. caput, 
if this is traceable to an hypo- 
thetical *cauput *cdput. — head 
var. suffix of -hood. 

heal vb. me. hcle oe. hcelan; 
cp. the synon. osax. helian, du. 
heelen, ohg. heilan G. heilen, on. 
hcila, GOTH, hailjan 'heal': deriv. 

of the Teut. adj. haila- = e. 
whole (cp. also hail adj. — hale 
adj.). — health me. helthe oe. 
hcklp 'healing, cure' = ohg. 
heilida: an abstract formation 
from the adj. hdl 'whole, hale' 
(see whole). 

heap ME. h§p oe. heap 'heap, 
troop, crowd' = oSAX. hop, du. 
hoop, OHG. houf 'crowd, troop' 
G. haufe 'crowd , troop , pile' 
{GO'V'B..*haups). OSLOV. kupil and 
LiTH. kaupas 'heap' are prob. 

hear vb. me. here oe. her an 
(wEST-SAX. hyrari) = osax. 
hbrian, du. hooren, ohg. horan 
G. h'&ren, on. heyra, sw. hora, 
dan. hore: all with rhotacism 
versus goth. hausjan 'hear' (cp. 
har k Bxvd hearken). The teut. 
yfhauz = ARYAN kous may 
be connected with gr. a-xovM 
for a.-/.oh6(o (with prefix a- = 
SKR. sam) and with teut. auso 
'ear' = ear. 

hearken var. of hark en] cp. 

hearse sb. me. herse herfe orig. 
'a triangular harrow' , then a 
carriage for a dead body': 
adopted fr. ofr. herce 'a harrow'- 
= FR. herse 'a harrow'. Source 
LAT. hirpex — hirpicem 'a harrow'. 

heart me. herte oe. heorte; 
equivalent to oSAX. hcria, on. 
hjarta, goth. hairto (ohg. herza 
G. herz by the second sound- 
shifting): Teut. base herton- or 
hertan- = Aryan base kerd krd 
in LAT. cor cordis, GR. -/.aodia 


hearth — heel 

and xfjp for ^xijpd, IR. cride, 
OSLOV. sridice 'heart'. 

hearth ihe. herth oe. heorp = 
DU. heerdy OSAX. h'erth, G. herd'. 
a TEUT. \f her 'bum' (cp. lat. 
cre-mare 'burn'?) may be as- 
sumed as the base of E. hearth 
and GOTH, hauri 'coal' plur. haurja 
'fire', ON. hyrr 'fire'. 

heat sb. ME. hete OE. hikto, the 
abstract sb. from the adj. OE. 
hat (= E. hoi) formed by vowel 
mutation (goth. *haitei f. heat'). 
— heat vb. jme. hete oe. hcetan: 
a factitive vb. from the adj. oe. 
hdt = E. hot (goth. *haitjati 
from *haits)\ cp. G. heizen. 

heath me. h(th oe. hekp = 
OHG. heida g. /^^?V/f 'heath', 
GOTH, haipi 'a waste', on. >^«V/r. 
Hence heathen me. h(then oe. 
hdden corresponding to ON. 
heidinn, DU. :mhg. hciden G. ^^^/r. 
.In GOTH, we find only a femi- 
nine haipno 'a heathen woman', 
whereby the existence of the 
common Teut. masculine haifina 
is secured for the fourth cen- 
tury. It seems to be a trans- 
lation of the synon. lat. paganus 
.occurring in the latter half of 
the fourth century of the Chris- 
tian era. 

heave vb. me. h(ve earlier 
hebbe oe. hebban str. vb. == ON. 
hefja, OSAX. hebbian, DU. heffen, 
OHG. heffan hevan G. heben, 
GOTH. ha/Jan 'lift, raise': ARYAN. 
y/^kap in LAT. capio seize'. See 

heaven me. hfven oe. heofon 
= OSAX. heban (lg. hievefi) with 
a by-form himil, OHG. Jmnil, du. 
hemel, G. sw. dan. himmel: the 
/-suffix stands by dissimilation 
for the older w-suffix after goth. 
himins, on. himinn, whilst in the 
Saxon forms the orig. m is dis- 
similated to b. The common 
Teut. word is prob. a deriv. of 
a more primit. teut. hiuman- 
'clearness , brightness' (ofris. 
hamlicht 'bright as the sky'): 
TEUT. \f Jiai in G. heiter, OE. 
hd-dor 'serene'. Cp. hoar. 

heavy me. hevy oe. hepii = 
OHG. hcbig, ON. hgfugr 'heavy': 
deriv. of the teut. \'^ haf in 

hedge iiE. hegge oe. hedg (oe. 
also hey: me. heye haye): Teut. 
base hagja-; cp. ohg. hecka G. 
hecke, DU. hegge heg. Cp. haw. 

heed vb. me. hede oe. hedan 
= OSAX. hodicin, OHG. huoten G. 
hiiten, du. hoeden. The teut. 
yfhbd from ARYAN ^a^>^ (kodhl) 
or i(// is regarded as orig. cogn. 
w. LAT. cassis (for *cat-tts) 'hel- 
met'; cp. hood sb. 

heel sb. me. ^^7<? oe. hela hcela 
shortened from *h(ihila = east- 
FRis. hela (whence DU. hiel^ 
dimin. of OE. hoh 'heel"; a Teut. 
base hanha- cp. in on. hihll 'heel', 
DAN. hcel^ SW. hiil, and in E. hough. 

heel vb. 'incline' shortened 
from ME. helde oe. hildan hyldan 
= OHG. heldan w. vb. 'incline': 
Teut. base halpjan derived fr. 
the Teut. adj. halpa- 'inclined' 

heifer — hen 


in OE. niderheald 'bent down- 

heifer me. haifer (Jieckfre) OE. 
heahfore heahfre {^ hiegfreT) 'a 
young cow': apparently a com- 
pound, but of obscure elements, 
the first element seems to be 
heah- hcei- = teut. haha- haga- 
cp. G. dial, hagen hegel bull, ox'; 
the second element is perh. OE. 
fearr 'bull, ox' (gr. noinc, heifer). 

height ws^Jieghte earlier heghthe 
OE. Mhpo hyhpo = goth. hau- 
hipa 'height', on. had: abstr. 
formation from the teut. adj. 
hauha- = high formed with suff. 
-ipa (cf. length, strength^. 

heinous jnie. heinous from ofr. 
hdinos = fr. haineux 'hateful'. 

heir me. heir eir from ofr. heir 
eir = LAT. heres 'an heir'. 

hell ME. he//e oe. he//; cp. 
GOTH, halja, OSAX. /lel/ — he/lia, 
OUG. he/la G./iol/e: common Teut. 
Christian name for 'Hades, in- 
femum'; on. he/ shows that the 
older orig. word was also used 
in pre-Christian times for heathen 
'infernum'. Cp. also on. He/ 
'goddess of death'. Usually con- 
nected with y^ he/ ha/ conceal' 
(cp. ha//^, hence he// 'the hid- 
ing place, the unseen place". 

helm sb. me. he/me oe. he/ma\ 
cp. on. hja/7n 'a rudder'. 

helmet dimin. of me. oe. h'e/jn. 
In the form h'ehna- 'helmet' com- 
mon to the Teut. langs.; cp. 
GOTH, hi/ms, ON. hja/inr, sw. DAN. 
hje/fn, OSAX. DU. G. he/m with 
the same meaning that may be 

derived fr. the verbal \f/ie/ in 
OE. OHG. he/an, goth. hi/an 'hide, 
conceal' (aryan \flie/ in lat. 
ce/are , occulere , skr. (arman 

help vb. ME. he/pe oe. he^an 
= GOTH, hi/pan, on. hja/pa, sw. 
hje/pa, DAN. hjce/pe, oSAX. he/pan, 
DU. LG. he/pen, ohg. he/fan G. 
he/fen. teut. \f^ h'e/p from pre- 
TEUT. sf lie/h- (lith. szelpti vb. 
pasza/pa 'help' pointing to an 
ARYAN yflie/p^. 

helve sb. me. fie/ve OE. he/f 
hy/f: Teut. base ha/bi-; cp. mlg. 
MDU. he/ve, ohg. }ia/ba he/ba mho. 
]ie/p ha/p 'a handle. See. ha/ter. 

hem sb. ME. hem (plur. hemmes) 
OE. hem (plur. }ummas)\ Teut. 
base Jiamja-. 

hemlock me. /i€m/ok hum/o/i 
OE. hejn/ic hym/ec\ the second 
part of the compound seems to 
be explanatory (cp. /ee/i), the 
first part points to a Teut. base 
'^haumi- ? 

hemp ME. hemp oe. hcenep; cp. 
ON. hampr, DU. hennep, OHG. hanaf 
G. hanf: ident. w. the synon. 
LAT. cannabis, GR. y.dvvafiig- The 
Teut. word cannot be borrowed 
from GR. or lat. Perh. the 
Teutons adopted the word and 
the thing from the Scythians 
whence the word came also to 

hen ME. OE. /len (stem henn-): 
the fem. of oe. hana 'cock' = 
OHG. henna G. henne (goth. 
*hanjd-^ derived fr. hana m. 
'cock'). ON. /id'na (sw. hona 


hence — hide* 

'hen') points to goth. *honJd. 
The common teut. masc. hanan- 
(goth. oe. hana, ohg. hand) 
orig. meant 'singer', primit. re- 
lated to LAT. carter e 'sing'. 

hence me. hennes with secon- 
dary -s (as in thence, once) for 
an earlier henne, which by syn- 
cope stands for late oe. heonane 
mostly OE. heonan = OSAX. ohg. 
hindn (g. von hiiwen). An origi- 
nal stem hi- 'this' is evident 
also in here and hither. 

herald me. herald {heraud~)\ 
borrowed fr. FR. Mraut (lat. 
type heraldus), which is of Teut. 
origin [heri-wald}). 

herb me. herbe adopted fr. fr. 
herbe: source lat. herba 'grass'. 

herd' 'a flock' short for me. 
Jierde oe. heord = goth, halrda, 
on. hjgrd, sw. dan. hjord ohg. 
herta G. herde, teut. herdo- from 
ARYAN kerdhd is cogn. w. skr. 
fdrdhas fdrdha-s 'troop'; also 
OSLOV. creda 'herd, flock', LITH. 
kerdzus 'shepherd'. See herd^. 
— herd^ 'shepherd' now usually 
compounded {shep-, cow-, swine-,) 
ME. herde oe. hyrde (Jiiorde), 
GOTH, hairdeis, on. hirdir, ohg. 
hirti G. hirte'. with formative ja- 
from TEUT. herdo- 'herd, flock'. 

here me. here oe. her = goth. 
ON. OSAX. her ohg. hiar g. hier: 
adv. of place (formed like goth. 
aljar 'elsewhere', par 'there' cp. 
there) from the pronom. stem 
hi- in GOTH, hi-mma daga 'to- 
day' und hi-na dag 'till to-day 
(cp. hence and hither). The 

stem hi- is cogn. w. lith. szis, 
OSLOV. si 'this one', lat. ci-s 
ci-tra 'on this side'. 

heron me. heiroun from ofr. 
hairon = fr. hiron. 

herring me. hering oe. hearing 
= ohg. hdring mhg. hcerinc G. 
hering, DU. haring. westteut. 
hdrifig is the source of fr. 

hest 'a command' me. Mste 
hist with inorganic / frpm OE. 
h(ss 'a command' == teut. haisi- 
orig. hait-ti : teut. ^f hait in 
OE. hdtan 'command'. See behest 
and hight. 

hew vb. ME. hewe OE. h(awan 
= OSAX. hauwan, ohg. houwan 
G. hauen, DU. houwen ; on. hgggva 
points to GOTH. *haggivan in 
place of TEUT. hawwan. The 
verbal \f haww haw (cp. ^^7) 
is allied to the Aryan \f kow in 
OSLOV. /^(^f/a — kovati 'forge', lith. 
kduju 'I strike' — kiijis 'hammer'. 

heyday orig. hey day = E. 
high day. 

hiccough hiccup, also hick-et 
looks like a dimin. of hick or 
hik 'a catch in the voice', imi- 
tative of sound? 

hide^ sb. me. hide oe. hyd (by- 
vowel mutation fr. aTeut. base hii- 
di-); synon. in all Teut. languages 
except Goth.; cp. ohg. hiit G. 
haut, ON. hud, dan. sw. hud, 
DU. huid. ARYAN kuti-s answers 
to LAT. cutis 'skin'; cp. gr. y.vrog 
'skin, hide'. The yj^ku appears 
in LAT. scu-tum 'shield', gr. 
(Jxv-Tog 'skin, hide' with a prefix s. 

hide' — hip* 


hide- sb. 'a measure of land' 
OE. hid coT\\x. of OE. ^/^zV/ 'enough 
land for a household'; prop. 
*hhvida- 'family* allied to hind^. 

hide vb. ME. hide oe. hydan: 
Taut, base hiidjan, perh. cogn. 
w. c\yiK.cudd'\iiddtn, concealed' 
and GR. y.ttd^o) 'hide': ARYAN 

hideous by change of suffix for 
ME. hidous adopted fr. OFR. hidous 
= FR. hideux: source a lat. type 
hispidosus, extension of lat. hispi- 
dus 'rough, shaggy, bristly'. 

hie vb. 'hasten' me. hie earlier 
hiie higen oe. higian. Teut. base 
M-gai- perh. a reduplication of 
an ARYAN \fkt in lat. ci-to 
'quickly', GR.x/*!!/ 'go'? Or cogn. 
w. SKR. (ighra 'quick'? 

high adj. me. heigh earlier heh 
OE. h(ah = GOTH, hduhs, ON. 
hdr, DU. hoog, OSAX. ohg. hoh, 
G. hoch: TEUT. hauha- from an 
ARYAN kouko-. OTEUT. possessed 
a sb. formed from the adj. 
meaning 'hill' (base koukd-s)\ 
cp. ON. haugr 'hill' (whence E. 
how in proper names) and with 
ablaut g. hilgel; cp. lith. kau- 
kara 'hill'. 

hight vb. ME. highte heghte OE. 
heht {MhtT) 'was called : pret. 
to OE. hdtan =r goth. haitan, 
G. heissen. 

hill ME. hil (plur. Miles) OE. 
hyll (plur. hyllas) : Teut. base 
kulli- or hulja- cogn. w. goth. 
hallus 'rock' and ON. hallr 'hill'; 
an ARYAN \Pkol cp. in lat. collis 

'a hiir, culmen 'a top', lith. katnas 
kalva hill', GR. xoAdn'o?. 

hilt ME. OE. hilt = ON. hjalt, 
OHG. helza 'a sword-hilt'. 

hind^ ME. hinde OE. hind = 
ON. DAN. sw. hind, DU. hinde, 
OHG. hinla G. hindin. goth. *hindi 
(gen. *hindjos) is perh. connected 
with GR. Kfu-dq 'youngdeer'. 

hind^ 'a peasant' me. hine oe. 
hina 'a domestic'. Cp. hide^. 
There is a Teut. base hiwa- in 
goth. heiwa-frauja 'husband', 
oe. hiwrdden 'family, household' 
=r OHG. hirdt 'marriage' G. heirat. 

hind in behind and hind-feet 
akin to the oe. adv. hindan 'at 
the back of — hinder 'backwards' 
^^ GOTH, hindar prep, 'behind', 
G. hinter prep, 'behind'. — hin- 
der vb. ME. hindre oe. hinderian 
= ON. hindra ohg. hintiren hin- 
taron G. hindern. — hindmost 
corrupted fr. hindmest (confused 
witVi 7nosi) = GOTH, hindumists 

hinge me. henge\ oe. *hencge 
(for TEUT. *hangjdn-') is not re- 
corded: deriv. of the teut. 
\f hanh hang (see hang); cp. 
MLG. MDU. henge 'rack for hang- 
ing up things'. 

hint sb. shortened fr. ME. 
hinted part, of hinte Qiente) = 
OE. hentan 'seize, hunt after' 
ixovasfhinp seen in huntl 

hip^ sb. ME. hipe oe. hype; cp. 
GOTH, hiips (nom. plur. hUpeis), 
DU. heup, G. hiifte ivfflG. huf (plur. 
hilffe) OHG. huf (plur. huffi): 
TEUT. hiipi- from ARYAN kiibi-. 


hip* — hog 

hip- sb. 'the fruit of the dog- 
rose' ME. hepe OE. heope = OSAX. 
hiopa, OHG. hiufo ivihg. hiefe. 

hip vb. ME. hippe OE. *hyppan 
= ]MHG. hup fen fmpfen G. hiipfen; 
allied to OE. hoppian = E. hop 
vb.; OE. hoppettan, g. hopfen, on. 

hire vb. me. /^/r^ oe. hyrian 
vb. = DU. huren, OFRis. ^(^ra, 
sw. ^^'rrtr, DAN. ^jr^ mlg. hiiren, 
G.heuern 'hire, rent': West-Teut. 
base hurjon. 

hiss vb. me. hisse: prob. an 
onomatopoetic word as ODU. 
hisschen 'to hiss'. 

hit vb. me. hitte'. adopted fr. 
ON. hitta, DAN. hitte; perh. cog. 
w. GOTH, hinpan 'catch'. 

hitch vb. me. hicche 'move'; 
OE. *hyccanl 

hither me. oe. hider: derived 
from a Teut. pronoun hi- 'this' 
in here and hence', cp. goth. 
hidrc, ON. hedra 'on this side ; 
cogn. with LAT. ci-tra 'on this 
side'. For the suffix cp. thither. 

hive ME. hive oe. hyf: Teut. 
base hubi- in MLG. huve 'hive', 
DU. huif; cogn. w. lat. cupa 

hoar adj. me. hgr oe. hdr = 
GOTH. *haira-, ON. hdrr 'hoary', 
osAX. OHG. her g. hehr 'distingui- 
shed', also 'venerable'. The orig. 
meaning of the adj. was prob. 
'venerable', on. and E. have the 
meaning 'gray with age'. A teut. 
\P hai 'glitter, shine' is supported 
by heaven and ON. ^/V/'cleamess 
of the sky' ; teut. hai from aryan 

koi is cogn. with skr. kc-tii-s 
'light, lustre, torch'. 

hoard i*ie. oe. hord = osax. 
hord (horth), goth. huzd, on. 
hvdd n. — ^ddr m., ohg. g. hort. 
TEUT. hozda- from aryan kuzdho- 
for kudhto- part, 'that which is 
hidden'; cp. gr. xevi^o) under 
hide vb. 

hoarhound me. hgrhoune oe. 
sio hare hune 'the hoar hound' ; 
OE. hiine is a plant-name. 

hoarse me. horse prop, hps, oe. 
has pointing to goth. *haisa- = 
OHG. heis heisi mhg. heis heise\ 
the r of MHG. G. heiser seems to 
be the same r as in e. hoarse 
= MDU. heersch (mod. DU. heesch) ; 
perh. originating from the OE. 
dat. hdsre {mid hdsre stefne) 
transposed to hdrse = aie. horse} 

hobble vb. me. /ivble for *Iwpple\ 
frequent, of hop vb. 

hobby sb. 'a toy like a horse, 
ambling nag, a favorite pursuit'; 
me. hobln 'a nag': borrowed fr. 
OFR. hobin 'a little horse'? 

hock corruption of Hochheim'. 
the name of a German town on 
the river Main, famous for wine. 

hoe sb. from fr. hmie 'a hoe': 
source OHG. houwa = G. haue 

hog ME. hog (plur. hogges') OE. 
hocg (plur. hvggas): a Welsh 
loanword, cp. w. hwch a sow' 
(bret. CORN, hoch pig'). — hogs- 
head cp. the cquiv. ]MLG. hukes- 
hovet huxhovet du. okshoofd (earlier 
also hokshoofd) G. oxhoft, sw. 
oxhufvud, dan. oxehoz'ed: origin 

hoist — hood 


and history of this compound 
are unauthorized. 

hoist vb. earlier hoise akin to 
the equivalent lg. hissen, du. 
hijscfun, DAN. heise, sw. hissa, 
G. hissen, fr. hisser, it. issare. 

hold vb. ME. hglde oe. hdldan 
{hcaldati) = OHG. haltan {halt/iati) 
G. halten , OSAX. goth. haldan, 
DU. houden, on. /^a'A/a : a common 
TEUT. vb. Cp. behold. 

hold sb. (the hold of a ship) 
prop. /i<^/^: ident. w. hollow and 
hollo7i) ; cp. DU. ^(?/ 'a hole, cave'. 
— hole sb. ME. hole hoi oe. hoi 
'a cave' = on. holr, OHG. mhg. 
hoi G. ^A/, DU. hol\ the E. me. 
OE. OHG. MHG. adjectives are 
used as substantives : teut. 
"sfhel 'conceal' in OE. helan, G. 
hehlen. — hollow ME. holwe oe. 
hoik (gen. liolwes); cogn. with 
equival. ohg. mhg. hoi, on. holr: 
teut. \/^*hul connected with 
the teut. \fhel in oe. ohg. helan 
'hide, conceal' (c^.hell, helmet). 

holiday prop, holy day. 

holly :me. holln oe. holein; akin 
to the equivalent du. g. hulst 
MHG. huls, ohg. hulls, whence fr. 
houx\ pre-TEUT. \f kel- in w. 
celyn , corn, celin , bret. kelen, 
IR. cuileann 'holly'. 

hollyhock for me. hglihoc prop, 
'holy hock': oe. hocc means 

holster borrowed fr. DU. holster 
'a case for a pistol' {g. pisiolen- 
holfttr) ; ident. w. on. hulstr 'a 
case, a sheath', goth. hulistr 'a 

veil'; from teut. huljan and 
suflF. -stra fr. -s-tra (oe. heolstor). 

holy me. holy OE. hdlii earlier 
hdlei = OSAX. helag, ohg. heilag 
G. DU. heilig , ON. heilagr , dan. 
hellig , sw. helig (goth. hailag 
in a Goth, runic inscription). 
Common teut. hailaga- from 
common teut. haila- cp. whole 
and hale. 

homage me. homdge : borrowed 
fr. OFR. homage = fr. hommage; 
source a lat. type homaticutn the 
service of a vassal or man' (lat. 
homo 'man'). 

home ME. hgm oe. ham = osAX. 
han, ON. heimr, ohg. g. du. heim 
'home ; goth. Jiaims 'a village'. 
Teut. base haitno- (haimi-) from 
a pre-TEUT. kaimd- (kaimi-) = 
lith. kemas — pruss. cay mis 'a 
village', gr. xw'/^t; 'village . 

hone ME. hone OE. hdn: Teut. 
base haino- = on. hein, sw. hen 
'hone'. Cp. OE. hdnan to stone', 

honey me. hunt oe. hunii hunei : 
Teut. base hunang = on. 
hunang, DU. hotline, OHG. honang 
G. honig 'honey. Origin un- 
certain; perh. cogn. w. OR. xor/c 

-hood a suff. used to form 
abstract nouns; orig. an in- 
dependent sb. dying out in me. : 
OE. hdd 'state, quality' = goth. 
haidus, ohg. mhg. heit 'manner 
(g. -heit only suffix). Cp. its var. 

hood sb. 'covering' me. oe. 
hod = DU. hoed, ohg. huot g. 
hut. Closely allied to hat and 


hoof — host* 

to the TEUT. \f had hod \x\. heed. 

hoof ME. OE. hpf = OSAX. hof, 

DU. hoef, ON. hofr, ohg. huof G. 
huf: Teut. base hof a- from Aryan 
*kdpo-, whence osLov. kopyto 
'hoof'. Others derive teut. hofa- 
from Aryan kdpho and compare 
it with SKR. (afihd, avest. sa/a 

hook ME. OE. hoc = MDU. hoek 
'hook'. The kindred forms have 
a difF. vowel and answer to OE. 
haca, ON. haki, ohg. hd{c)ko G. 
hake. OHG. Mg(g)o points to 
GOTH. *h£g(g)a 'hook'. G. haken 
being 'a kind of plough', goth. 
hoha 'plough' may also be com- 
pared, so that the stem may be 
hoh hig hak. 

hoop sb. ME. OE. hop = DU. 
hoep, OFRis. hop, north-fris. hup 
'hoop', MLG. hop; TEUT. base 

hoop vb. ME. houpe adopted fr. 
FR. houper 'hoop unto' ; of Teut. 
origin, cp. OE. hwopan = goth. 
hwopan vb. 'boast, glory'. 

hoot vb. ME. haute borrowed 
fr. osw. hUta 'hoot'. 

hop vb. ME. hoppe oe. hoppian 
= DU. hoppen, on. sw. hoppa 
DAN. hoppe, G. MHG. hopfen. Cogn. 
w. hip vb. 

hop sb. ME. hoppe = du. 
hop, G. hopfen late ohg. hopfo, 
med.-lat. hupa (for *huppd). 
Its origin is obscure. 

hope vb. me. hope oe. hopian 
= MDU. hopen, MHG. G. hoffen. 
The labial in OE. hopian (goth. 
*hupdn) is a substitute for a 

guttural (base *huqd?t) as shown 
by the OE. abstract noun hyht 
'hope' (base huh-ti-s) : teut. 
\f huq hup. — hope sb. me. hSpe 
for oe. td-hopa = oSAX. to-hopo 
sb. 'hope'. 

horn ME. OE. horn = on. 
ohg. g. du. horn, goth. haurn: 
common Teut. (in a runic 
inscription) horna 'horn' cogn. 
w. LAT. cornu and m. cymr. 
corn, with other suffix GR. y.s()-ag 
horn'; cp. also e. hart prop, 
'horned' and SKlR. crn-ga 'horn'. 

hornet oe. hymet = ohg. 
horna":, hurnur g. hornisse. The 
synon. Slav, and Lat. words 
for 'hornet point to goth. 
*haurznuts with an ARYAN. \f krs 
(iND. (rf) : LAT. crdbro 'hornet' 
for *crdsro, osLOV. srUseni, lith. 
szirszone 'hornet'. The Aryan 
stem is krs for 'hornet', cp. 
OSLOV. sriisa, lith. szirszii. Du. 
preserves a trace of this inner 
s in horzel 'hornet' (goth. '^haiir- 
suls) — horzelen vb. 'hum'. 

horse me. oe. hors = osax. 
hors — hers, du. ros, ohg. ros (gen. 
rosses) G. ross (whence it. rozza, 
FR. rosse a jade'), ON. hross, 
also hors, sw. dan. dial, hors 
'a horse' : Teut. base hrossa-. 

hose me. hose oe. hosu = 
DAN. G. hose, DU. hoos, OHG. 

on. hosa (goth. *huso). The 
Teut. words found their way 
into Celt. (corn, hos 'ocrea, 
cuisses') and into Rom. (ofr. 

host^ sb. 'armv' me. host osi: 




loanword fr. ofr. hoste 'army' 
(source lat. hostis — hosteni). 

host^ sb. 'entertainer me. hgste\ 
loanword fr. ofr. hostc (= lat. 
hospitetri). Hence hostess me. 
hgstesse from ofr. hostesse and 
hostler me. hostler 'innkeeper' 
from OFR. hosteller 'innkeeper. 

host^ sb. (in the mass) me. 
hgste oste : source lat. hostia, 
FR. hostle. 

hot adj. ME. hot OE. hat: Teut. 
base halta- = on. heltr, DU. 
heetf OSAX. het^ ohg. Jieli^ G. helss 
'hot'; the TEUT. yf hit cp. in 
GOTH, helto 'fever' and in on. 
hitl, OSAX. hlttia, G. httze 'heat'; 
cp. heat sb. 

hough sb. ME. hough {ho) oe. 
hgh 'the heel'; hence the dimin. 
heel. Teut. base hanha- in ON. 
hxkll 'heel'. 

hound ME. hound oe. hund 
hund = GOTH, hunds, on. hundr, 
DAN. SWED. hund, DU. hond, 
OSAX. G. hund ohg. hunt: Teut. 
base hunda- prop, 'the hunter', 
derived fr. the teut.-GOTH. vb. 
hinpan 'seize, capture' (oe. hup 
'booty'); see hunt. 

hour ME. houre oure borrowed 
fr. OFR. (h)ure (h)ore (= fr. 
heur), whence also DU. tmr, G. 
uhr (dial. auer). Source lat. 

house ME. hous oe. hus: Teut. 
base husa- in goth. gud-hus 
'house of God', osAX. ohg. 
hus g. hdus, DU. huis, on. hus. 

housings earlier houss (of a 
horse), borrowed fr. fr. housse'i 

hovel ME. hoz'el 'small hut': 
dimin. with suffix -el from oe. 
hof r= on. ho/ 'a temple, a 
hall'; cp. G. ho/ 'a yard'. — 
hover vb. intensive derivative 
of ME. hpve vb. 'tarry, wait'; cp. 
OFRis. hovia 'receive in one's 
house ; derived fr. teut. ho/a- 
'hall, yard'. 

ho'W ME. how OE. hii (for 
*hwu *hwo) : Teut. form hivo in 
OSAX. hwo how', ohg. wuo; du. 
hoe for hwb, OFRIS. hu: formed 
from the Teut. stem hwa- in 

who\ cp. GR. TKiiqr 

how in local names cp. 

howl vb. ME. houle; cp. du. 
huilen, G. heulen. 

huckster me. huckstire (oe. 
*huccestre); orig. 'a female re- 
tailer' ; akin to mhg. hucke hocke 
'a retailer'; derived from mhg. 
hocken vb. 'squat', on. hokkinn 
'bowed, bent. Cp. du. heuken 
vb. 'huckster, retail' — heuker 
huckster, retailer'. 

hue ^ sb. ME. hewe hew oe. 
heow 'appearance': ident. w. 
GOTH, hiwi (g. hiujis) 'form, 
appearance', sw. hy 'skin, com- 

hue 2 sb. 'outcry' ME. hu derived 
fr. FR. huer 'hoot, hiss'. 

huge adj. me. hiige (houge)'. 
loanword fr. ofr. ahuge 'huge'. 

hull husk' me. hule oe. hulu 
'hull, husk'; cp. synon. G. hulse 
OHG. hulsa for *hulisa (goth. 
*hulisi or *huluzi) : formed from 
the \fhel hul (g. hiille) under 


humble — hutch 

hell, hollow and holster. — 
hull 'body of a ship' ident. w. 
hold sb. 

humble adj. atE. humble bor- 
rowed fr. FR. humble (= lat. 
humilis) . 

humblebee sb. me. hombel-be\ 
an equivalent oe. '^humbol is to 
be assumed for OHG. humbal 
G. hutnmel, DU. hvmmel 'humble- 

humor jme. humour from ofr. 
humor = fr. humeur. 

hundred ivie. oe. hundred 
{himdrep), ident. w. OSAX. hun- 
darod, o. hundert, on. hundrad; 
the word is appar. a comp., the 
second part of which belongs 
to GOTH, rapjan vb. 'count'; the 
first part GOTH. oe. hund is 
cogn. w. LAT. centum, GR. f xard v, 
SKR. gatdm. 

hunger isie. hunger honger oe. 
hungor; cp. synon. osAX. ohg. 
hungar G. hunger, on. hungr; 
GOTH, huhrtis (for *hunhrus) 
'hunger' with the derived hug- 
grjan 'hunger' : common teut. 
hunhru~ hungru- hunger' from 
ARYAN, kdnkru- ? cp. LITH. kanka 
'torture' with ON. hd vb. 'torture' 
(from TEUT. *hanhon). 

hunt vb. ME. hunte oe. huntian: 
a secondary verb from a primit. 
vb. shown in goth. frahinpan 
'take prisoner. From the same 
root E. hound and hand. 

hurdle me. hirdel oe. hyrdel, 
dimin. of an oe. *hyrd = ohg. 

hurt (plur. hurtt) G. hiirde; cp. 
on. hurd 'door*, goth. hatirds 
'door'. The meaning door' is 
developed from the common 
meaning 'wickerwork'. Teut. 
base hurdi- = aryan krti in 
LAT. crates, GR. yvgrt] 'a fishing- 
basket' — )id()raXng 'a (woven) 
basket'; cp. skr. krt 'spin' — 
crt 'bind, connect'. 

hurl vb. me. hurle earlier 
hurtle vb. 

hurricane sb. akin to the 
synon. du. orkaan, dan. sw. g. 
orkan, FR. ouragan, IT. uracano, 
span, huracan a hurricane' ; after 
tMe discovery of Americaadopted 
fr. Caribbean hurakan 'a hurri- 

hurry vb. me. hurie horie vb. 

hurt vb. me. hurte hirte vb. 
'off"end' borrowed fr. ofr. hurter 
(fr. heurter^. 

husband sb. me. husbonde oe. 
(about \o^o) husbotida'. 2L.'$iCZXiA.. 
loanword, cp. on. husbondi, sw. 
DAN. husbonde from hiis 'house' 
and ON. bondi biindi 'husband . 

husk ME. huske oe. *huscca 'a 
small house' (?) ; cp. G. gehduse. 

hussy short for housewife. 

hut ME. hutte from fr. hutte. 
Source ohg. hutta = G. hiitte. 

hutch sb. 'a box' me. hucche 
prop. hucche (whence me. 
whicche) '. loanword fr. fr. huche 
'trough, bin'. 

I — inquest 


I ME. / earlier ich ic OE. id = { 
DU. ik, OSAX. k, OHG. i/i G. ich, I 
GOTH, ik : common teut. ik ek j 
from ARYAN. egom\ cp. lat. ego, i 
OR. f ya, SKR. ahdm, aslov. azu, \ 
lAT' The oblique cases were 
formed in all Aryan languages 
alike from a stem 7ne-\ cp. me\ 
and mine. t 

ice ME. OE. is =: OHG. IS G. , 

eis, ON. iss, DU. (/> (goth. *eisa-) : \ 
a common Teut. word, not 
found elsewhere. — icicle ^ 
ME. isike/: prop, a compound, 
OE. is-pcei (Isespce/); pee/ is 
dimin. 'a small piece of ice' 
(cp. mlg. isjokel 'icicle', on. 

idol ME. id^le borrowed fr. fr. 
idole (lat. idolum, gr. uSvoXqv 
'an image, likeness'). 

idle adj. me. oe. idel 'empty, ; 
vain, useless' = osAX. tdal\ 
'empty, useless', ohg. iial 'empty, 
vain, boastful' G. eitel 'vain', DU. 
ijdel 'empty'. I 

if me. if OE. -pf = OSAX. e/ 
of, DU. of if 'whether, but', 
OHG. oba with the older by-form 
ibu 'if, whether' G. ob 'if, as if, 
even if, whether', on. if ef 'if, 
GOTH. iba{i) 'whether, perhaps'. 
Prop. dat. instr. of on. if. efi 
m. and if ef n. 'doubt', ohg. 
iba f. 'doubt, condition'. 

ill ME. /// ilk: Scand. loan- 
word from ON. illr; the native 
E. synon. is evil (oE. yfef). 

imp sb. ME. OE. impe 'graft, 
scion' with the vb. ME. impe 
OE. impian 'graft'; cp. OHG. 
impfon G. impfen, DAN. ympe, 
sw. ytnpa. . Source a lat. type 
impuiare, whence also fr. enter, 
DU. enten vb. 'graft'. 

impair vb. me. empeire bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. enipeirer == fr. 
empirer (lat. type impeiorare 
'make worse'). 

impeach vb. prop, 'hinder' 
for ME. apeche vb. 'hinder bor- 
rowed fr. FR. evipecher (lat. 
type impedicare 'fetter* irova. pedica 
sb. 'fetter'). 

imply cp. ply. 

in prep. me. in oe. in = 

OSAX. G. DU. GOTH, in, ON. /, 

SW. DAN. /. Orig. related to 
lat. in, GR. sv{i), LITH. i, 
LETT. e. 

' inch sb. me. inche oe. ynce : 
early loanword from lat. uncia 
'an inch', also an 'ounce'. 

ingot ME. ingot = FR. lingot 
ingot} Source and history doubt- 

ink ME. enke from ofr. engue 
(fr. encre, DU. inkt, LG. inket) : 
source lat. encaustum 'the purple 
red ink'. 

inkling sb. from the vb. ME. 
inkle 'hint. 

inn ME. OE. in inn sb. 'house, 
lodging - house' = on. inni 

inquest me. enqu{ste from ofr. 


ire — jail 

enqueste {= fr. enquete). Akin 
to inquire vb. me. enquere from 
OFR. enquerrer (== fr. enquirir 
'inquire') ; source lat. inquirere. 

ire ME. ire 'anger' from OFR. 
ire (lat. ird). 

irk vb. ME. irke 'tire' with the 
adj. irksome extended fr. me. 
irk 'distasteful'. 

iron ME. OE. iren oldest OE. form 
Isern = goth. eisarn, OSAX. ohg. 
isarn G. eisen, DU. ijzer, on. isarn 
(Jarn): Teut. base tsarna- perh. 
borrowed fr. a Celt, isarno- (=• 
oiR. larn 'iron'); gall. Isarno- 
dorum a placename. 

island me. ilond oe. iilond 
(iy,and) 'island'; the first part 
of the compound represents 
the OE. /j ii 'isle' (cp. on. eyland, 
OFRis. DU. f//<a;//</'island'), blended 
w. OFR. isle. The word starts 
from a TEXiT.aujo- {hxScandin-avia 
Bat-avid), which is a derivative 
of TEUT.-GOTH. a/iwa 'stream^ 
flowing water' ohg. aha = oe. da 
= LAT. aqua 'water'. 

isle me. tie borrowed fr. fr. 

tie (source lat. insula) 'an isle'. 
Cp. island. 

issue ME. issue from ofr. issue 
'end, event' (derived fr. issir = 
LAT. exire). 

it ME. it earlier me. oe. hit 
neuter to E. he (oE. me. he). 

itch vb. me. icche for y^cche oe. 
lyc^an : Teut. base jukjan = 
DU. j'euken, oSAX. Jukkian , ohg. 
juckan G. jucken. teut. \f juk. 

ivory 'ME.ivdry (ivoire) borrowed 
fr. OFR. ivorie — fr. ivoire, whence 
also nv.ivoor. Source i.AT.el'oreus 
'made of ivory' — el>ur 'ivory'. 

ivy ME. iz^y OE. ^j short for 

*if-hii if-he^ = OHG. eba-hewi 
MHG. ep-Iwu (g. epheu) with the 
by-form ohg. ebah: perli. akin 
to GOTH, ibuks 'backwards' ? It 
is uncertain, whether the 2°** ele- 
ment of OHG. eba-hewi = OE. ifii 
is ident. w. hay. 

iv^is 'certainly' me. iwis OE. 
lewiss = OHG. gi7vis G. gewiss, 

I DU. gewis : Teut. base ga-wissa- 
prop. part, of the Teut. vb. 

I witan 'know' (cp. wot). 

jabber variant of E. gabber. 

jacket from fr. jaquet; cp. 
me. jakke r= OFR. jaque (g. 

jade ^\^.jdde old horse'. Source 
and history unknown. 

jail with the by-form gaol 
ME. gail jaiole gaihol borrowed fr. 
OFR. gaiole gaole (fr. geole) 'a 
prison, bird-cage'. Source lat. 
caveola from cavea (= E. cage, 
G. kdfig). 

jamb — journal 


jamb from fr. jambe ^a leg', 
also 'a jamb' (source lat. 

jar sb. 'an earthen pot' from 
FR. Jarre. 

I&.\xn6.ic& ^m. jaundis jaunis from 
FR. jaunisse prop, 'yellowness'; 
source FR. jaune 'yellow' = 
LAT. galbinus 'greenish yellow'. 

javelin sb. from fr. javelin: 
of Celt, origin , cp. cymr. ga- 
flach (whence OE. gafeloc) 'spear'. 

jaw ME. chaul {choul) earlier 
chavel oe. (plur.) cedflas; akin to 
OSAX. kaflos plur. 'jaw' and with 
other formatives on. kjaptr, G. 
kiefer 'jaw' : teut. \f kef kef fr. 
an ARYAN geph, perh. cogn. w. 
AVEST. zafra 'mouth, jaw'. 

jay ME. jai from fr. geai (ofr. 
jai gai). 

jealous ME. jelous geloiis from 
OFR. gelous (fr. jaloux, whence 
nxi. j aloes). 

jelly sb. late me. gelU from 
FR. gelee. 

jeopardy sb. me. jilperdi orig. 
juparti 'hazard, hazardous feat' 
borrowed fr. FR. jeu parti 'risk, 
hazard' (orig. 'a game, in which 
the chances are equally divi- 

jest prop, 'a merry tale' me. 
geste (also g(stc) 'a story' from 
OFR. geste 'romance'. 

jet sb. (a mineral) short for 
me. git contracted fr. geyit: 
loanword from ofr. gaiet (Jaet 
jet) '. source lat. gagdtes. 

je\v me. jew earlier giw bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. Giu Jui: source 

English Etymology. 

LAT. Judaeus. In oe. we find 
Judeas plur. 'the Jews' from the 

jewel ME. jouel juel from ofr. 
jouel (whence G. juwel, DU. 
juweef) = FR. joy ail. Source 
a LAT. type gaudiale from gau- 

jig sb. MS..gigge 'a fiddle' from 
OFR. gige (= MHG. gtge G. geige) 
'a fiddle'. 

jingle ME. gingle. 

job sb. cp. ME. gobet 'small 
piece' and ofr. gob a mouth- 

jockey ident. w. Jackey. dimin. 
of Jack. 

jog vb. ME. jogge vb. *go 

join vb. ME. joine borrowed fr. 
FR. joimire {= lat. jungere). 
— Hence e. me. joint sb. from 
FR. joint. 

joist sb. me. giste 'joist' from 
0¥Vi. giste (= VK.gtte} derivative 
of FR. gisir 'lie'). 

jolly me. joll earlier jolif: 
loanword from FR. joli (oFR. 

jostle justle vb. intensive for- 
mation from me. jouste 'tilt' = 
OFR. jouster (me. jouste 'tour- 
nament' fr. OFR. jouste = MHG. 

journal from fr. journal. — 
journey me. journe journie 'a 
day's travel, a day's work' from 
FR. journie 'a day, a day's work' 
(it. giornata, lat. type diur- 



joy — kettle 

joy ME.Joze from FK.Jote (source 
LAT. gaudia = gaudiufn). 

judge sb. short me. jiige from 
FR. Juge (source lat. Judex — 
judiceffi) a judge'. — judge 
vb. ME. Jifge from fr. juger = 
LAT. jiidicare. 

juice ME. jiise jil(e from fr. 
jus (source lat. jus) 'juice*. 

July 'b.iE.. jilli from lat. Julius. 

— June ME. jiine earlier jilnie 
from ofr. guniel (fr. Juin) = 
LAT. Junius. 

just ME. jiist (short for jiistl) 
from fr. juste {= lat. Justus). 

— justice iviE. justice orig. jiistife 
^= "EV.. justice: source ^^.i.justitia. 

— justify vb. ME. justifie from 
fr. justifier. 


keel sb. ident. w. on. kjglr 
(Teut. base kelu-) keel of the 
ship' = synon. dan. kjol, sw. 
kol, G. DU. kiel. Source and 
history unknown. 

keel vb. 'cool' me. k^le oe. 
celan: Teut. base koljan derived 
fr. the adj. teut. kblu- = e. 

keen adj. me. kene 'sharp, bold, 
brave' OE. cene orig. cani 'bold, 
brave, wise' : Teut. base koni- 
= OHG. kuo7ii G. kilhn, DU. koen 
'bold , daring' ; the original 
meaning is evident in on. kcenr 
'wise', which points to the teut. 
\f kan 'know' in can, ken and 

keep ME. kepe oe. cepan ccepan 
'keep': from a Teut. base kop- 
jan\ no \f kop exists in the 
other Teut. languages. 

keg sb. Scand. loanword : on. 
kaggi 'a keg'. 

ken vb. 'know' me. kenne bor- 

rowed fr. ON. kenna vb. 'know' 
= G. kennen, goth. kannjan ; 
causative of TEUT. kunnan 'know'. 
Cp. can vb. 

kennel 'a house for dogs' 
ME. kenel: adopted fr. onfr. kenil 
(chenil)', source onfr. ken (fr. 
chieri) 'dog' with suff. -il (lat. 
type *canile from canis 'dog'). 

kerchief sb. earlier spelling 
curchief me. coverchef'. borrowed 
fr. OFR. covrechef lit. 'a head- 
covering', ofr. covrir (= fr. 
couv7-ir) 'cover and chef 'head'. 

kernel me. kirnel oe. cyrnel 
(Teut. base kurnila-) : dimin. of 
corn (with the Teut. dimin. suff. 

kettle me. ketel borrowed fr. 
on. ketill = GOTH, katils, ohg. 
kei^ifl G. kessel, du. ketel; corre- 
sponding to OE. Mel me. chetel, 
which was superseded by on. 
ketill. The Teut. word was 

key — kitchen 


early borrowed fr. lat. catinus 
'kettle', whence also OHG. kei^y.n. 

key sb. me. keie oe. caj^ cce^e 
= OFRis. kSi a key': Teut. base 

kid sb. ME. kid borrowed fr. 
ON. kid; cogn. w. ohg. kizzin 
chizzt G. kitze 'a young goat' ; a 
native E. word cogn. w. scand. 
kid would begin with ch. 

kidney sb. me. kid-nere (oe. 
^cydeneore *cydneoraT)\ the 
second part of the compound 
is ME. nere (= on. nyra, DU. 
nier, ohg. nioro g. niere 'kid- 
ney'). The first part is ob- 

kill vb. ME. ki/ie; a corresp. 
OE. *cyllan is wanting: Teut. 
base kuljan akin to oe. cwellan 
= ME. fue//e vb. 'kill', ON. 
kz'e/Ja, OSAX. quellian. There 
was a primit. str. vb. OE. cw'elan 
'die', OSAX. OHG. quelan 'smart' ; 
cp. G. qual. 

kiln sb. ME. kilne oe. cyln = 
older cylene cyline 'furnace': early 
loanword fr. lat. culina 'kitchen', 
whence also OIR. cuile 'kitchen'. 
ON. kylna 'kiln' is an oe. loan- 

kin sb. ME. kin oe. cynn orig. 
'a tribe': Teut. base kunja- = 
ON. kyn, OSAX. kunni, ohg. 
chunni mhg. kUnne race', goth. 
kuni\ deriv. fr. the teut. \fken 
'produce' in ohg. g. kind 'child', 
OE. cennan vb. 'produce', answe- 
ring to an ARYAN \f gen in lat. 
genus, gens-gentiSf GR. yivog — yovrj 
— yiyi'Oiiai, SKR. \/^jan. Cp. kind, 

I kindred and mankind. — 
I kind adj. 'natural, loving' me. 
kinde OE. lecynde 'natural, in- 
born' : derived fr. kind sb. — 
kind sb. 'nature, sort' me. 
kinde OE. le-cynd 'nature'. 

kindle vb. me. kindle: derived 
with intensive -/ from on. kynda 
vb. 'kindle' ? (on. kyndill *a 
torch' ?) 

kindred me. kinride (Oe. *cyn- 
rckden) : composed of kin = 
OE. cynn 'kin' and OE. rckden (= 
GOin. garaideins) a suffix meaning 
'state, condition (cp. hatred). 

king me. late oe. king oe. cyng 
a late shortening for the common 
oe. cyning : Teut. base kuninga- ^ 
OSAX. OHG. kuning G. konig, DU. 
koning; cp. on. konungr (but 
GOTH, reiks 'king'). 

kirtle sb. me. kirtel oe. cyrtel 
from a teut. base *kurtil (= on. 
kyrtilt) : prop, 'a short under- 
garment' from LAT. curius 'short' 
(cp. 0. kurz and see short and 

kiss sb. me. kiss with the 
vowel accommodated to the vb. 
kiss for OE. coss = osAX. kus 

cos, DU. kus, OHG. kus G. kuss, 
ON. koSS, DAN. kys, SW. kysS, GOTH. 

*kussus. — kiss vb. me. kisse 
OE. cyssan ^= OS ax. kussian, 
DU. OHG. kussen g. kiissen, ON. 
sw. kyssa, dan. kysse. 

kitchen sb. me. kicchen oe. 
cycene from a west-teut. base 
kukina = DU. keuken , ohg. 
kuchina c/iuhhina G. kiiche: an 
early West-Teut. loanword from 



late LAX. coquina (class, culina 
see under kilri) or rather from 
a common Rom. and vulg. lat. 
cocina 'kitchen' (cp. fr. cuisine, 
IT. cucina, span, cocina). Cp. 

kite sb. ME. kite oe. cyta 'a 
kite' : Teut. base kutjan-. 

kitten me. kitoun answers to 
the synon. fr. chatton 'a young 
cat' (perh. the E. word points 
to ONFR. *keionl) 

knave me. knave oe. cnafa = 
OHG. knabo G. knabe 'boy'; iden- 
tical with OE. cnapa me. kndpe 
'boy' = osax. knapo, OFRis. 
knapa, on. knapi 'boy', germ. 
knappe points to a teut. knab- 
ban-. Perh. cogn. w. knight} 
or. w. GALL, gnabat 'son'? 

knead vb. me. kn{de oe. cn'edan 
= MLG. DU. kneden, ohg. knetan 
G. kneten: teut. y^ kned = 
ARYAN \f gnet in russ. gnetate 

knee vb. me. kneoY.. cneo r=: osax. 
knio, DU. G. knie ohg. chniu kneo, 
GOTH, kniu (gen. kniwis): Teut. 
base kneiva-, cogn. w. the synon. 
LAT. genu, gr. yovv, skr. j^nu 
'knee'. — kneel vb. me. cnele oe. 
*cniowlian = DU. knielen mlg. 
knHen, sw. chnUle 'kneel', dan. 
kncele ? 

knell vb. me. knille oe. cnyllan; 
cogn. w. MHG. knellen in er-, G. 

knife sb. me. -^«^ oe. (about 
looo) cnif. The occurrence in 
late oe. favors Scand. origin: 
on. knifr. On the continent, 

there is an equivalent DU. knijf, 
LG. knif, G. dial, kneif. 

knight sb. me. knight oe. cniht: 
Teut. base kn'ehta- ^^ du. g. 
knecht ohg. kn'eht, OFRIS. kniuht', 
cogn. w. knave} 

knit vb. ME. knitte oe. cnyttan : 
deriv. of OE. cnotta (by vowel- 
mutation) {= on. kmitr) = 
E. knot', oe. cnyttan is ident. 
w. LG. kniltten} 

knob sb. me. knobbe; allied to 
MHG. kniibel 'knuckle', DU. knobbel 
'knot, lump, callosity', o. knopf 
'button, bud', on. knappr, 

knock vb. me. knocke oe. 
*cnoccian; ident. w. oe. ctiucian, 
on. knoka: a sound imitation, 
closely allied to knack. 

knoll sb. me. knol oe. cnoll = 
DU. knot 'a turnip', G. knollen. 

knot sb. ME. knotte oe. cnotta' 
= MHG. knotze, DU. knot; cogn. 
w. OHG. knodo knoto G. knoten 
and ON. kniitr 'a knot' — kniita 
f. 'dice' — kngttr (goth. 
*knattus) m. 'ball'. 

knew vb. ME. kn&ive OE. cmiwan 
str. vb. = OHG. chndan 'know', 
on. knd vb. 'know how to do': 
TEUT. \f kni kno (akin to can 
and keen) = ARYAN y^ gen 
gno in LAT. gignosco ignotus 
ignavus ignarus , GR. yiyv(voy.(0, 
SKR. \fjnd. — knowledge sb. 
ME. kn&ivUche derived fr, the 
vb. ME. kn&iiiliche, intensive for- 
mation of ME. kngwe = E. 
know (oe. *iecndwlc^(!an is 

knuckle sb. me. knokel oe. 




*cnucel\ cogn, w. G. knochel, 
OFRis. knokle, DU. knokkel, >ILG. 
knokel, DAN. knogle knokkel: 

dimin. of a simple word, seen. ! 
in G. knochen 'a bone', du. knok \ 
'a knuckle, a bone'. \ 

labor sb. me. Idbotir adopted 
fr. FR. labour = lat. labor (em) 

lace sb. me. Ids : borrowed fr. 
FR. lace — OFR. las (lags) : source 
LAT. laqueus 'noose, snare' (= 
IT. laccio). See latchet. 

lack sb. ME. lak oe. *A?r = 
ODU. lac DU. lak 'blemish, stain, 
lack*. — lack vb. me. lacke 
from the sb., but earlier me. 
hike (oe. *lacian) = odu. laken 
'be wanting', ofris. lakia. Teut. 
\^ lek in leak. 

lacquer lacker sb. adopted 
fr. FR. laque 'varnish' ? cp. G. 
lack, IT. lacca. 

lad ME. ladde borrowed fr. IR. 
lath 'a youth, champion'; cp. 

ladder me. Idddre short for OE. 
hlcedder: Teut. base hlaidrjo- = 
DU. ladder leer, OHG. leitara G. 
letter ; goth. ^hlai-dri (gen. 
*hlai-drjds)'. teut. \f hlai hli in 
lean vb., ARYAN V~ kli in gr. 
y.kT-jiiu^ 'ladder'. The Teut. 
suffix -dr- in ladder answers to 
a GR. -voiu. 

lade sb. me. Idde oe. hladan 
= OSAX. hladan, du. g. laden 
OHG. (h)ladan, on. hlada, goth. 

hladan 'load, lade': teut. \^hlad 
hlap from an Aryan \P klat\ perh. 
cogn. w. \f klad in OSLOV, kladq 
I lay'. — The vb. OE. hladan 
ME. lade signifies also 'draw 
water', hence E. ladle me. Iddel 
OE. hlcedel. 

lady ME. lady earlier lafdi 
Id/dii OE. hlcefdiie 'a lady, 
mistress'; cogn. w. lord OE. 
hldford. The first part of both 
words is OE. hldf = e. loaf , 
the second part in oe. hldf- 
di^e is connected with goth. 
deigan vb. 'knead' (see dough). 
\ Therefore oe. hldfdiie (teut. 
j * hlaiba-digjo-) meant orig. 'the 
kneader of bread'. 

lair ME. letr oe. le^er 'lair, 
couch, bed' = OSAX. legar 
'couch, sick-bed', du. leger 'a 
couch, bed, lair', ohg. legar G. 
lager (for leger) 'a couch, bed, 
place of lying, storehouse', 
GOTH, ligrs 'a couch': Teut. 
base I'egra- from V" ^<^ i^ ^^^ 
and lay. 

laity sb. from the adj. lay. 

lake ME. Idke 'lake' oe. lacu 
'lake' and 'stream': early loan- 
word fr. LAT. lacus 'a lake, 
pool'. OE. lagu 'sea, ocean' is 


lamb — lap 

the genuine E. correspondence 
of the LAT. word and of IR. 
loch 'lake'; cp. loch. 

lamb sb. ime. oe. lamb Igmb 
= OSAX. lamb, DU. lam, OHG. 
lamb G. lamm, goth. on. lamb: 
Teut. base lajnba- (Jambaz- in 
the plur. OE. lombru me. lombren, 
lambiz- in the plur. OHG. lembir 
G. Idmmer) . 

lame adj. me. lame oe. lama 
=^ OSAX. lamo, du. lam, OHG. 
MHG. lam (gen. lames) G. /or-^w, 
ON. lami, sw. dan. /aw^. The 
commoner meaning bruised, 
maimed' is prob. the orig. one, 
though the meaning 'lame' is 
very old (goth. used halts cp. 
halt). Cp. OSLOV. lomiti vb. 
'break, bruise', on. lama 'bruise' ? 

lammas me. lammasse shortened 
fr. late oe. hldmmasse, commonly 
OE. hldf-mcBsse: lit. 'loaf-mass' 
from hid/ 'loaf, bread' and 
mcesse 'mass'. See loaf. 

lamp short for me. latonpe 
adopted fr. fr. lampe, whence 
also DU. laftip, DAN. G. lampe, sw. 
lampa. Source lat.-GR. lajnpas 
'a torch, lamp' (= IT. lampa). 

lamprey sb. me. laumpreie bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. lafftpteie (= fr. 
lamproie), whence also DU. lam- 
prei. Source lat. lampetra 
'lamprey' in a vulgar form lam- 
preda (= it. lampredd), whence 
also OE. lejfipedii lampreta* and 
perh. the synon. pride (oE. 
*prlde short for *lamprideT). 

lance :me. launfe borrowed fr. 
FR. lance, whence also DU. lans, 

G. lanze. Source lat. lancea 
{= IT. lancia); cp. launch. 
land sb. ime. oe. land {Ignd) 

= OSAX. DU. G. ON. sw. DAN. 

land from a Teut. base landa-; 
cogn. w. IR. land lann, cymr. 
llan, CORN. Ian (from *landhd) 
'open space, surface', BRET. Ian 
'heath*, oSLOV. ledina 'heath, 
untilled land' (russ. Ijada Ija- 
dind). — land vb. me. lande = 
DU. G. landen, dan. lande, SAV. 
landa from land sb. — land- 
scape borrowed fr. du. land- 
schap 'a landscape'. 

lane sb. me. oe. lane {lone) = 
OFRIS. lona lana, du. laan a 
lane, a narrow passage': Teut. 
base lanon-. 

language me. langdge adopted 
from FR. langage: deriv. of 
FR. langtie = lat. lingua 'tongue, 

languish vb. me. languisshe 
from FR. languiss- stem of languir 
'languish (lat. languere 'be 

lank adj. me. lank oe. hlanc; 
perh. cogn. w. G. schlank, which 
points to a teut. slanka- : aryan 
klang- s{k)latig ? 

lantern me. lanterne launterne 
borrowed from FR. laftterne'. 
source lat. laterna lanterna, 
whence also G. laterne. 

lap sb. ME. lappe 'lap, border' 
OE. IcBppa a loosely hanging 
portion'; cogn. w. du. lap, ofris. 
OHG. lappa G. lappen 'rag, tatter' 
and LITH. lopas 'patch' (lat. labare 
'hang down, fall'). See limp adj. 

lapwing — lath 


lapwing vb. accommodated to 

wing for me. lapunnke, shortened 
fr. OE. hl(apwince lit. 'the bird 
which turns about in running'; 
cp. leap for oe. hl(apan 'run' 
and wink. 

larboard earlier Icrboard and 
leerboard (cp. star boar d)\ perh. 
from ME. ler 'cheek'? In Scand. 
the planks in a ship's side have 
different names as aur-, skaut-, 

larch sb. me. *lerch oe. *lerc 
*leric = MHG. lerche G. Idrche. 
Source LAT. larix (laricetn). 

lard late me. lard from the sy- 
non. FR. lard ^= lat. larda 
{Idridus adj. 'fat). 

large me. large large, wide, 
liberal, generous' from fr. large 
= LAT. Idrgus. 

lark me. larke contracted fr. 
OE. Idwerce earliest form Idwrica;: 
Teut. base laiwrakon- = ohg. 
l^rahha (from *lewrahhd) G. lerche, 
DU. leeuwerick , mlg. lewerke. 
Formation and origin quite ob- 

lash sb. me. lasshe 'the string 
of a whip' oe. Icesce = DU. lasch, 
MLG. lasche 'a stripe'. 

lass ME. lasse: perh. for *ladse 
and cogn. w. lad me. laddel 

last adj. me. last(e) earlier 
latst(e) shortened for oe. latost 
'latest': superl. of oe. lat = late. 

last sb. the shoemaker's woo- 
den mould of the foot' ident. 
w, OE. last sb. foot-track, foot- 
print'; the E. meaning agrees w. 
G. leisten, du. leest, sw. last, dan. 

IcBSt 'the shoemaker's last'. The 
orig. meaning is evident in on. 
leistr 'foot below the ankle, a 
short sock'. Cp. the Aryan 
\Plts lais 'go' in lat. delirare 

go mad'. 

last vb. ME. Idste short for OE. 
Ickstan 'perform, stand by, carry 
out' = osax. lestian, ohg. G. 
leisten, GOTH, laistjan: derived 
fr. a TEUT. laista- 'foot-mark' 
under last sb. 

latch vb. ME. lacche oe. Iceddan 
le-lcecdan 'seize, catch hold of. 
— Hence latch sb. me. lacche 
'a catch, fastening'. 

latchet sb. me. lacchet from 
ONFR. *lachet = fr. lacet a dimin. 
oi YV.. lacs 'a snare, noose'; see 

late adj. me. lat {late adv.) 
OE. Icet 'slow, late' = oSAX. lat, 
(lg. late adv. 'late'), du. laat, 
OHG. laz^ (^5) G. lass, on. latr, 
GOTH, lats 'slow, slothful': an 
OTEUT. adj. -stem /(i/a-, belonging 
to the ARYAN ^f lad in lat. 
lassiis (from *ladtus, an old part.) 
'weary'. Cp. let vb. and last 

lath ME. lappe OE. la;tta {Iceppa) 
= OHG. latta G. latte, DU. lat. 
Though OE. // corresponds here 
to OHG. // (regularly oe. // =: 
OHG. //); the word is still ge- 
nuine Teut., since it is allied w. 
G. laden board, plank, lash, 
shutter', whence fr. latte (= 
SPAN, lata, IT. lattd) ; akin to av. 
Hath 'a rod, staff', IR. slat, BRET. 
laz 'rod, lath' (Celt, base slattd-). 




lather ]me. lather short for oe. 
liador = on. laudr (mod. icel. 
Ipdr) 'froth, foam: Teut. base 
lau-pra- derived from the ARYAN 
\flaw in LAT. lavare\ as for the 
Teut. suffix cp. GR. Xovxoov 
'bath' and GALL, lautrum 'bal- 

Latin adj. me. Latin adopt, 
fr. FR. latin (= SPAN. IT. latino, 
DU. latijn, G. latein)\ source LAT. 
Latinus, whence also OE. Iceden 

latten sb. 'a kind of brass or 
bronze' ME. latoun borrowed fr. 
the synon. ofr. laton = fr. 
laiton, SPAN, laton. 

lattice sb. :me. latis adopted fr. 
FR. lattis 'lathwork, lattice-work' 
formed from fr. latte 'a lath'; 
see lath. 

laugh vb. ME. laghe laughe 
earlier lahhe oe. hlehhan hlyhhan ■= 
OSAX. hlehhian, DU. G. lachen OHG. 
lahhen {h)lahhan, on. hlceja (for 
*hlahja), goth. hlahjan 'laugh'. 
teut. \fhlah = aryan kldk, prob. 
onomatopoetic. — laughter sb. 
ME. laughter OE. hleahtor = OHG. 
hlahtar G. geldchter, on. hldtr 
from the teut. yf^hlah with the 
suffix pra- tra-. 

launch vb. me. launche com- 
monly launce: adopted fr. onfr. 
(Picard.) lancher = fr. lancer 
'hurl, cast, dart, thrust'; deriv. 
of fr. lance = E. lance. 

laundress extended with suffix 
-ess fr. ME. laundir lavendire from 
ofr. lavandiere 'washer woman' 
fr. lavandiere 'laundry - maid". 

Source lat. lavandus 'to be 
washed' (it. lavanda 'a washing'). 

laurel me. laurir (with the by- 
forms lorir lor if) from fr. lauricr'. 
source LAT. laurus 'a laurel tree'. 

lave vb. me. Idve oe. jjelafian 
= OHG. labon G. laben 'refresh*. 
The WEST-TEUT. labon is perh. 
a loanword fr. lat. lavare (= 
fr. laver^. 

lavender me. lavendre (with an 
inserted E. r) borrowed from 
FR. lavande = it. lavanda lav en- 
tola, whence DU. G. lavendel. 
Source LAT. lavare wash' (la- 
vender was laid in freshly washed 

law ME. lawe OE. lagu 'law', 
which about 900 was borrowed 1 
fr. an early SCASD.*lagu = on. 
log nom. plur. 'law' (sw. lag, DAN. 
hw 'law). Cogn. w. lat. lex — 
legem fr. ARYAN \/^legh 'lie'; cp. 
G. gesetz, satzimg for the meaning. 
The genuine e. word for 'law' 
was OE. CB = OHG. hoa. 

lawn^ sb. 'a grass plot' me. 
launde lande: borrowed from fr. 
lande 'a grassy plain', which is 
of Celt, origin (cp. IR. lann 
under land^. 

la'wn- sb. 'fine linen' orig. 
'lawn linen": so called from fr. 
Laon a city N. W. of Rheims; 
cp. Arras and Cambric. 

lay vb. me. leie lein earlier 
legge OE. lecgan wk. vb. (3 sing. 
OE. le^ AIE. lei-tH)'. Teut. base 
lag j an = goth. lagjan, OS AX. 
leggian, ohg. leckan G. legen, DU. 
leggen, on. leggja'. causative for- 

lay — learn 


mation of the s/^leg 'lie' in lie; 
hence lay 'cause to lie down'. 

lay sb. 'a song' me. lai from 
OFR. FR. lai. 

lay adj. me. lai from ofr. fr. 
lai 'secular, belonging to the 
laity'. Source lat. Idicus, whence 
also OE. IcBU'ed (g. laie 'a lay- 
man). See lewd. 

lazar sb. me. Idzar fr. ofr. 
lazarel Source the biblical prop, 
n. Lazarus', 'the lazar-house' is 
in G. lazaret = IT. lazzaretto, fr. 

lazy from fr. las = lat. lassus. 

lead vb. me. l^'de {lede) oe. Ickdan : 
Teut. base laidjan = OSAX. 
lidian, DU. leiden, G. leiten, on. 
leida 'lead': prop, factitive of the 
str. vb. teut. lipan = oe. lidan 
'go, travel', osax. lithan, goth. 
leipan: teut. sf lip under lode- 

lead sb. short for me. l^d oe. 
lead = DU. lood 'lead a weight', 
G. lot 'a lead-weight': Teut. base 
*lauda- cogn. w. synon. OIR. 
liidide (base laudio-^. 

leaf ME. Icf OE. l(af = osax. 
lof, DU. loo/ 'foliage', ohg. loub 
G. laub 'leaves, foliage', ON. lauf 
'leaf, GOTH, lau/s (plur. laubos) 
'leaf; Teut. base lauba- orig. 
the single leaf (used as a col- 
lective sb. 'the foliage'). 

league sb. 'an alliance' adopted 
from FR. ligue 'a league': source 
LAT. ligare 'bind'. 

league sb. 'about three miles' 
late ME. lege borrowed fr. ofr. 

legue = FR. lieu: source a lat.- 
GALL. leuga leuca a Gallic mile', 
whence also late oe. leowe 'leuga'. 
GALL, leuga corresponds to bret. 
lea, IR. leige 'a league'. 

leak vb. me. l{ke oe. lecan (the 
factitive leccan 'wet' from a base 

j lakjari) = on. leka drip, leak 

I as a ship', DU. lekken, ohg. 

j lechan G. lecken vb. — leek adj. 

j 'leaky'. — teut. \f lek lak see 
under lack vb. 

lean adj. me. l{ne oe. hldne 
from a Teut. base hlai-ni 'lean' 
(with suffix -7ii as in clean, 

lean vb. me. lene oe. hleknan 
'cause to lean': Teut. base hlain- 

jan = ohg. leinan'. factitive of 
OE. hlionian 'lean' = osax. hlinon, 
OHG. hlinen 'lean'; cp. G. lehnen, 
DU. leunen. The teut.v^M (cp. 
ladder) corresponds to an 
ARYAN s/^kli; cp. LAT. inclinare 
'incline', GR. •AkivfH I lean' — xX/- 

Tl'C 'hiir, LAT. cll-VUS 'hill', GOTH. 

hlai-w (oe. hldjv) 'mound'. • 

leap vb. me. l(pe oe. hleapan 
str. vb. 'leap, run' = DU. loopen, 
osax. hlopan, ohg. louffan G. 
lauf en, on. hlaupa, GOTH, hlanpan 
'leap, run': T^w.y/^hlaup, perh. 
cogn. w. LITH. klupati vb. 'stag- 
ger, stumble'. 

learn vb. short for me. lerne 
oe. leornian: from a base lernon 
TEUT. liznon = ohg. lirnen lernon 
G. lernen 'learn'; cp. osax. linon 
from a base liznon. Akin to 
the primit. str. vb. goth. lais 
'I know' and the deriv. OE. OHG. 




lis-t, GOTH, lis-ts 'art, cunning'. 
See lore for the TEUT.y/rt'/^ Hz. 

lease ^ vb. 'let tenements' bor- 
rowed from FR. laisser, 

lease 2 vb. 'gather, pick, glean' 
ME. l^se OE. I'esan 'gather' = OSAX. 
lesan, DU. lezen 'gather, read', 
OHG. lesan g. leseti 'gather, 
read', on. lesa 'gather, pick', 
GOTH, lisan 'gather'; cogn. w. 
LITH. lesti 'pick up'. 

least ME. l(st OE. Icest shor- 
tened fr. IcBsest (by-form Iceresi): 
Teut. base laisista- superl. to 
the compar. teut. laisiza- = 

leather me. lether oe. leder = 
ON. ledr, DU. leder, ohg. ledar 
G. leder 'leather': Teut. base 
lepra- = pre-TEUT. letro- in ir. 
leihar, cymr. lledr, bret. lezr 

leave vb. me. Ic've oe. lcefa?i 
tr. 'leave' — intr. 'remain': Teut. 
base laibjan; cp. osAX. far- 
lidian 'remain', ohg. mhg. leiben 
'leave', ON. lei/a 'leave : causat. 
of a str. vb. liban in oe. bellfan 
me. belive , oSAX. biliban, DU. 
blijven , ohg. biliban g. bleiben, 
ON. Ufa (orig. str.), goth. bi- 
leihan 'remain'. For the root 
see live. 

leave sb. me. l(ve (Jeve) 'per- 
mission' OE. leaf 'permission'; 
cp. OE. dlyfan dlefan 'permit', 
OHG. irlouben G. erlauben. 

leaven me. levain from fr. 
levain ferment'. Source lat. 

lee me. le from on. hid (»sigla 

a hl6« 'to stand to leeward')' 
prop, 'shelter, protection' (oe. 
hleo, OSAX. hleo 'shelter'). Cogn. 
w. ON. hly 'warmth' — hlyr 'warm; 
and G. lau ohg. hlao] cp. luke- 

leech 1 'physician' (Shakesp.) 
ME. leche OE. lece Icece 'physician' 
= GOTH, lekeis, ohg. lahhi 'phy- 
sician': Teut. base lekja- lakja-. 
Perh. allied to oiR. liaig (gen. 
ligd) 'physician'. 

leech '^ 'hirudo' me. "^Uche (not 
recorded) OE. Ickde hirudo*: prop. 

physician' and ident. w. leechK 
Cp. ODU. lake 'leech'? 

leek ME. lek oe. If'ac = du. 
look, ohg. louk G. lauch, on. 
laukr leek': Teut. base lauka- 
pre-TEUT. lougo-. - , 

leer me. ler oe. /ile'or 'cheek 
= OSAX. Mor, ON. Alyr 'cheek': 
Teut. base hleuza-. If the orig. 
meaning was 'ear', listen might 
be allied. 

lees 'dregs of wine' from fr. lie 
'lees : base a late Gallo-Latin 
lia for *liga 'sediment' (aryan 
s/^legh in /?>). 

left ME. left lift allied to the 
synon. ODU. lucht luft, lg. lucht, 
NFRis. leeft; the orig. meaning 
was perh. 'faint, weak' in oe. 
lyft 'inanis': Teut. base lufti-t 
lumfti-1 perh. allied to ohg. 
lenka 'the left hand' G. links 'left'? 

legend me. legende from ofr. 

leisure me. Usilre (commonly 
leisdr) fr. ofr. leisir = fr. loisir. 
Source lat. licire. 

lemman - 



lemman 'sweetheart' me. lemman 
shortened fr. an earlier lefman: 
prop. »lief man«. 

lemon from fr. limon; cp. 

lend vb. me. line oe. Idnan 
vb. 'lend' from oe. Ian 'a loan'; 
cp. loan. 

length ME. lengthe oe. lengp 
from a Teut. base langipo- = 
ON. lengd: abstract formation of 
TEUT. langa- \ cp. long. 

lent ME. lente lenten oe. lenpen 
'spring' = OHG. lenzin with the 
by-form lengiyn lengizo lenzo G. 
lenz 'spring', DU. lente. OHG. lenzin 
(= OE. lenpen) points to a teut. 
langa-ttna- 'the long day'; for 
the second element cp. goth. 
sin-teins 'daily', SLOV. dint, skr. 
dina 'day'. 

lentil ME. lentil fr. fr. lentille', 
source the synon. lat. lenticula 
(Jens — lentis lentil). 

leper me. lepre 'leprosy' fr. fr. 
lepre 'leprosy' (lat. lepra). 

less me. lesse lasse oe. Idssa 
'smaller* fr. a Teut. base laisizan- 
= ofris. lessa; the adv. e. less 
me. les oe. Ices answers to OSAX. 
Ih (teut. laisiz). For the superl. 
cp. least. A primitive adj. laisa- 
is LITH. lesas little, small'. 

-less suffix = me. -l^s OE. -l(as\ 
prop. adj. meaning loose. 

lesson ME. lessoun fr. fr. kfon: 
source lat. lectio{nem). 

lest that not me. leste shor- 
tened for the list the oe. Py Ids 
pe 'for the reason less that'; 
for oe. Ids r= ME. les cp. less. 

\ let' vb. ME. lite OE. Utan Icktan 
str. vb. = GOTH, letan, ON. Idta, 
OSAX. latan, OHG. la-^yin G. lassen, 
DU. laten: ■^YXl.yf let lat 'permit'. 

let 2 vb. 'hinder' ME. lette oe. 
lettan fr. a base latjan 'to make 
slow' (teut. lata- 'slow' see un- 
der late) = GOTH, latjan tarry* 
ON. letja, OSAX. lettian, org. 
lezzan (g. verletzeti), DU. letten. 

letter me. lettre fr. fr. lettre 
(lat. litter d). 

lettuce late me. letii(e; allied 
to FR. laitue = lat. lactuca 
(whence OHG. lattuH). 

levy fr. FR. Iev6e (fr. lever = 
LAT. levari). 

lewd ME. Uwed oe. Ichned 'un- 
learned' fr. LAT. Idicus cp. lay'^. 

lick vb. 3biE. //>^^^ OE. liccian = 
OSAX. likkon y OHG. I'eckbn G. 
Iccken, GOTH. * likkon. teut. likkon 
belongs to the Aryan \f Ugh 
'lick' in GOTH, laigon, gr. Af//ft> 
'lick' — Xi/vi^vm 'taste secretly', 
skr. '\^rih lih lick', OSLOV. /isa 
{lizatt) and lith. /m« 'lick', lat. 
/?«^<? and perhaps lat. lingua 
LITH. leziwis 'tongue', OIR. /(f/w 

lid sb. {eye-lid) me. //</ oe. hlid 
'cover, lid' :^ DU. lid lid, cover', 
OHG. //'/ (older hlit) G. //V/ (in 
augenlid 'eyelid'), ON. lid 'cover, 
gate'. Cp. the teut. \fhlid in 
the str. vb. oe. osax. hlidan 

lie' vb. 'speak falsely' me. lie 
earlier lie lij^e oe. leogan = 
OSAX. OHG. liogan, DU. liegen, G. 
liigen, on. Ijuga, GOTH, liugan 


lie' — like 

str. vb. 'tell a falsehood'. The 
TEUT. \fleug answers to an Aryan 
\fleugh - lugh in OSLOV. lidq 
{lugati) vb. 'lie' — luza sb. 'lie'. 

lie^ vb. 'rest, repose' I^IE. lie 
lift OE. licgan = OSAX. liggian, 
DU. liggen, OHG. licken G. liegen, 
ON. liggja, GOTH, ligan str. vb. 
'lie'. The str. vb. TEUT. Ugjan 
is derived fr. the Aryan \flegh 
in GR. \iv.xQOv Xtxog 'bed' — 
a)MXO(; 'wife' — Xi/(0 'bedridden 
woman' — Xoxsw 'bear' — Ao^oc 
'ambush, lair', lat. /ec/us 'bed', 
OSLOV. /egq (Jezatt) 'lie'. Cp. lay 
and lair. 

lief adj. me. le/ oe. leaf (cp. 
I e mm an) = osAX. liof, DU. lief, 
OHG. //(?(^ (liub^ G. /i;'^<^ 'dear, lief, 
ON. ^>^r, GOTH. /////> dear : Teut. 
base Imba- adj. 'lief from the 
TEUT. \flub in love. 

liege ME. /<?^^ (by-form lige) fr. 
OFR. //>^(? //"fif FR. lige. 

life ME. OE. lif = OSAX. /?/■, 
ON. lif, OHG. /?i^ 'life' (g. leib, 
DU. /(^ 'body) ; allied to the 
TEUT. \/^lib in live; a lost str. 
vb. Itban cp. under leave vb. 
Outside of teut., gr. Xiiiaul(o 
'remain' points to an aryan \flip> 

lift vb. ME. li/te fr. scand. lypta] 
cogn. w. loft. 

light sb. ME. light OE. leoht = 

OSAX. OHG. lioht , DU. G. //V^/ 

'light'. The dental of the word 
is formative as seen in goth. 
liiih-ap 'light ; cp. the Aryan 
yfluk: leuk in LAT. luceo 'shine', 
GR. XtvuoQ 'white', skr. rue 'shine'. 
— Hence lighten vb. me. 

light(e)ne (where the n is 
formative) 'become light and 
lightning verbal sb. 'an il- 
luminating flash' (with the suffix 

light adj. me. light oe. liht leoht 
= DU. ligt, OHG. Itht G. leicht, 
ON. l^itr , GOTH, leihts: Teut. 
base linhta- for lenkto-1 Perhaps 
cogn. w. OR. sXa/i'c 'small', lith. 
lengjaus leng7eias light . See lung. 

- Hence also lights 'animal's 
lungs'. — light vb. 'alight, 
descend' i^iE. lihte oe. lihtan lit. 
'make light, relieve a horse of 
his burden' fr. oe. liht = light. 
— lighten vb. ident. w. light 
vb. (w. formative -eti). — light 
in the phrase "to make light of 
somebody" represents me. lite OE. 
lyt 'little, small', which is cogn. 
w. little. 

like vb. ME. like OE. lician wk. 
vb. 'please' = goth. Icikan (pret. 
leikaiiid) 'please', DU. lijken 'suit', 
ON. Uka 'please': deriv. of like 
adj. or cogn. w. OIR. ligach 
'beautiful' — lig 'color, splendor'? 

like adj. me. lik earlier ilik oe. 
■^ellc = GOTH, galeiks, on. gllkr, 
OSAX. gilik, DU. gelijk, OHG. 
gilih (hh) G. gleich. The Teut. 
adj. ga-lika- is a comp. of the 
particle GOTH, ga- and a sb. Uka- 
"body', the comp. meaning having 
the same body'; cp. goth. Icik, 
OSAX. ON. ilk 'body', OE. lic-homa 
'body , G. leiche — leichnam 
'corpse . Cp. -ly, which and 
such. — Hence liken vb. me. 
likne 'compare'. 

lily — lion 


lily ME. lilie OE. lilie (plur. 
Uliari) = ohg. lilia G. lilie, DU. 
lelie'. source lat. plur. lUia 'lily', 
whence also OSAX. lilli 'lily'. 

limb ME. lim oe. Urn (plur. 
leomu) = ON. limr 'limb' : Taut, 
base li-tna- cogn. w. Goth, li-pus, 
OHG. li-d, OSAX. li-th, oe. //•/ 
'limb'; cp. also lith. lemu 
'stature, growth': aryan \fli. 

lime^ sb. 'viscous substance, 
bird-lime' AfE. oe. lim 'cement, 
glue' = DU. lijm, G. leim OHG. 
Rm, ON. lim 'glue': teut. lima- 
is allied to teut. laima- (see 
loani). lat. limus 'slime' cor- 
responds to lime in form, to 
loam in meaning, 's/^lai It is 
attested by on. leir (Teut. base 
lai-z-a-) 'clay, loam' and lat. li-no 
'rub over, daub'. 

lime sb. 'the linden-tree', cor- 
rupted fr. earlier line-tree for 
lind-tree; see linden. 

lime^ sb. 'a kind of citron' 
borrowed fr. fr. lime 'a lime'; 
ident. w. le?non. 

linch-pin earlier lins-pin me. 
lins OE. lynes == oSAX. liinisa, 
DU. luns lens, g. liinse; allied to 
OHG. luning and ohg. mhg. lun 
'linch-pin'. The primit. base 
luni-, if fr. an Aryan Ini-, is 
perhaps ident. w. SKR. drii 'linch- 
pin'; cp. OE. d-lynnan 'loosen'. 

lindentree me. linde oe. lind 
'lime-tree' = ohg. linta G. DU. 
linde, on. sw. dan. lind: Teut. 
base Undo pre-TEUT. lenta-, if 
allied to GR. iXdrT] 'fir-tree' or 
LITH. lenla 'board'. 

line me. oe. line = du. Itjn, 
ohg. lina mhg. mlg. line g. leine, 
ON. lina 'cord, rope' : Teut. base 
lin-jon- prop, 'the thing made of 
flax' ; cp. linen. 

lineage me. linage adopted fr. 
lignage'. source lat. linea a line . 

linen adj. and sb. (orig. only 
adj.) me. oe. linen adj. = osAX. 
OHG. linin G. leinen linnen, du. 
linen 'made of flax': deriv. of 
OE. lin 'flax' = osAX. ohg. lin, 
GOTH, lein sb. 'linnen'; cogn. w. 
LAT. linum, GR. Xivoi- , oSLov. 
Itnii 'flax'. 

linger vb. extended fr. me. 
lenge vb. 'tarry' w. the frequent 
suffix -er; OE. lengan prolong' 
fr. long. 

link sb. 'ring in a chain' fr. an 
unrecorded me. *lenk *link: 
scand. loanword fr. an orig. 
hlenk- cp. ON. hlekkr (for '^hlenkr), 
sw. lank, DAN. l(Enke 'link'. There 
was a genuine oe. hlence 'link' 
fr. a base hlankjon-; but the 
guttural of link shows that the 
word may not be the develop- 
ment of OE. hlence. 

linnet sb. me. littet adopted 
fr. FR. linot{te) 'a linnet' fr. FR. 
li?i 'flax' so called from feeding 
on the seed of flax or hemp ; 
cp. G. hdfijling 'linnet' fr. han/ 
'hemp'. Cp. OE. linece 'carduelis' 
and linetu'ige 'linnet'. 

linseed short for me. lin-sed 
prop, 'flax-seed ; cp. linen. 

lion ME. lioun earlier leiin : bor- 
rowed in the 12'^ cent. fr. fr. 
lion; source lat, leonem (Jeo^. 




lip ME. lippe OE. lippa = OSAX. 
*lippia, DU. lip, MLG. lippe (whence 
G. lippe) ; cogn. w. the synon. 
OSAX. lepur = ohg. le^ur and 
OHG. le/s 'lip'. LAT. labium 'lip' 
with the Teut. group points to 
an ARYAN \fleb lab. 

lisp vb. (Scotch wlisp) me. 
lispe (Jipse) formed fr. the adj. 
OE. wlisp wlips 'lisping' = ohg. 
le/s (for *wlefs) 'stammering'; 
akin to DU. lispen, G. lispeln 'lisp': 
TEUT. yfwlifs — pre-TEUT. wlips. 

list^ sb. ME. list short for OE. 
list = DU. li/st, G. leiste 'list, 
border' ohg. liste border'. — 
Ident. w. list.2 'catalogue' fr. 
FR. liste, which is of Teut. origin 
(ohg. lista 'border, strip'). 

list vb. ME. liste OE. lystan 'desire' 
derived fr. lust. 

listen vb. me. listene earlier 
form liste OE. hlystan 'hear'; allied 
to OE. hlos-nian , ohg. {h)losen 
'hear', on. hlei'a (goth. *hluzatt) 
'listen'. An aryan \fklus 'hear' 
is evident in skr. (rus-fi 'obe- 
dience', OSLOV. slysati vb. 'hear', 
LITH. klausyti 'hear', ON. hlus-t 
'ear ; cymr. dust 'ear'. Cp. leer. 

litter me. lit^re fr. ofr. litiere 
(fr. litiere) 'a horse-litter' (lat. 
type lectaria fr. lectus 'bed'). 

little short for me. OE. lltel 
= GOTH, leitils 'small', on. ////// 
'little'. Relation to the synon. 
DU. luttel, OSAX. luttil, OHG. luzzil, 
OE. lyttel 'little' is obscure. 

live vb. ME. live earlier form 
liiie lib be OE. lib ban {lifian) wk. 
vb. = GOTH, liban, OHG. I'eben 

G. leben, DU. leven, oSAX. libbian; 
cogn. w. OE. belifan = ohg. 
biliban G. bleiben: teut. \f lib see 
under leave vb. and life. 

liver ME. livre oe. lifer = du. 
lever, ohg. libara I'ebara G. leber, 
on. lifr. Connection of teut. 
libro- w. the synon. gr. rj-nag, 
LAT. jecur, SKR. yakrt and the 
two assumed stems "^^lik and "^Ijek 
is doubtful. 

livery me. liveri fr. fr. livrie. 

lizard me. lesarde fr. fr. lizard 
'lizard' (= LAT. lacertd). 

lo interj. me. Ig OE. ld\ a pre- 
historic OE. ^Idw for TEUT. laiw 
is warranted by ohg. lew-es 'lo'! 
Perhaps teut. lai-wa- is con- 
nected with lai-pa- in loath. 

loadstar see lode- star. 

loaf me. Igf OE. hldf: Teut. 
base hlaiba- in goth. hlaifs 
bread', ON. hleifr, ohg. leib G. 
laib; akin to lith. klepas 'bread'. 
See lady, la^nmas and lord. 

loam me. Ipm OE. lam = ohg. 
leim g. lehm, DU. kem: Teut. 
base lai-tna- fr. the Aryan \fli 
under litne. 

loan me. Ign fr. on. Idn 'a loan'. 
There was a genuine oe. Idn 
fr. a TEUT. laihniz', cp. OHG. 
/<f/4rt;« 'a thing granted' and on. 
Idn fr. a teut. laihna-(zf) : teut. 
'sT lihw (goth. leikivan 'lend', 
OHG. liimn G. leihen, oe. leon 
pret. /(i/^ 'lend, give ) = aryan 
\fliq in LAT. linquere 'leave', GR. 
"ksivtiv, sw. rie leave'. 

loath adj. me. loth oe. lap 
'hateful' = on. leidr 'loathed', 

lobster — lore 


OHG. leid 'odious', OSAX. leth\ 
cogn. w. OHG. lidan c. leiden 
'suffer'. Perhaps there was an 
ARYAN \f li lai cp. lo. 

lobster me. lopstre oe. loppestre 
earlier hpust lobster': adoption 
fr. LAT. loatsta 'lobster, locust'. 

loch OE. loh 'lake' : a Gaelic 
word; cp. GAEL. IR. loch 'lake' 
(ident. w. lat. lacus , oe. lagu 
'sea' under lake). 

lock 1 sb. fr. the vb. me. Ipke 
louke OE. lucan lock, enclose' == 
GOTH, galiikan 'shut up', OHG. 
luhhan, DU. luiken. 

lock 2 (of hair) ME. lok (plur. 
lockes) OE. locc (plur. loccas) = 
DU. lok, ON. lokkr, OHG. lok G. 
locke: Teut. base lokka- cogn. w. 
GR. XvytHo 'I bend. 

lode-star me. Igde-sterre con- 
tains OE. "^eldd way, course' (cf. 
ON. leidarstjarna = G. leitstern), 
which is cogn. w. lead vb. = 
TEUT. laidjan 'guide, lead'. Cp. 
ME. Igdesman 'pilot' and E. lode- 

lodge vb. ME. logge vb. adopted 
fr. FR. loger; E. lodge me. logge 
'lodge, tent' fr. fr. lege orig. 'a 
small house'? Source a lat. 
type laubia fr. OHG. lotiba 'an 
arbor' (g. laube 'a covered hall'; 
allied to leaf), 

loft sb. ME. loft 'an upper 
room' borrowed fr. ON. /t^/ 'upper 
story, balcony', which has also 
the meaning 'air, sky' = goth. 
luftus, g. luft, OE. lyft 'air'. 
Hence lift vb. 

loin late me. loine : adopted fr. 

OFR. log fie now longe (lat. type 
*lumbea fr. lat. lumbus 'loin"). 

loiter vb. me. loitre. 

loll vb. me. lolle. 

lone short for alone. 

long adj. ME. OE. long (Jang) 
= OSAX. lang, DU. OHG. G. lang, 
ON. langr, goth. laggs; cogn. w. 
synon. lat. longus (whence it. 
lungo, FR. long) ; cp. linger. — 
long vb. ME. longe oe. langian 
'long after, long* = osAX. 
langoian, G. verlangen 'wish for*. 

look vb. ME. loke earlier Ipkie 
OE. Ipcian = OSAX. Ibkon (ohg. 
luogen g. lugen). The early 
history of the teut. \f lok (Ibg) 
is obscure; cp. skr. lak^ 'notice, 
perceive' and CY^IR. llygat corn. 
lag at 'eye'. 

loom sb. ME. Ipme oe. ^e-loma 
{andlpma) 'a tool, implement*; 
perh. akin to oe. j^elpine = ohg. 
giluomo gildmo 'frequently', ohg. 
gastluomi hospital'. 

loose adj. me. Ids (lous) bor- 
rowed fr. ON. Iguss = Goth. 
laus, OE. l^as (cp. less), DU. .los, 
OSAX. ohg. los g. los. The 
common teut. adj. lausa- is a 
I deriv. of the y^ lus 'be loose' 
under lose. 

\ lord ME. lord short for l&verd 
j oe. hldford prop, hldf-weard 
loaf-ward' — 'keeper of bread' 
(cp. OE. hldf under loaf): the 
masc. corresponding to the 
fem. formation lady = OE. 
hldfdi'^e. Both compounds are 
peculiar to English. 

lore ME. lore oe. Idr infl. lore 


lose — lump 

= OHG. OSAX. lera, G. lehre, du. 
leer: Teut. base laizo-, whence 
GOTH, laisjan, OE. Iceran, OHO. 
l^ran G. lehren, du. leeren 'teach'. 
See .also learn for the teut. 
y~ liz laiz. 
lose ME. Ipse mostly forlese OE. 
forleosan str. vb. ^=. goth. fra- 
liusan, oSAX. ohg. farliosan G. 
verlieren str. vb. lose'. An ARYAN 
\f lus (cp. loose) may be an 
extended form of \f lu in gr. 
Ava> I release', lat. luere. — 
loss sb. ME. OE. los 'destruction'. 

lot ME. lot OE. hlot = DU. 

lol; ident, w. OE. Alyl = goth. 
hlauts, OHG. /(?5 G. loos : Teut. 
base hlauti- : teut. y^ hlut hlaut 
in ON. hljota str. vb. 'get by 
lot', OE. hleotan, ohg. {h)lio-^yxn. 

loud adj. ME. A??^/ oe. hltid I 
= OSAX. i^/z?//, DU. luid, ohg. I 
(^)/«/ G. laut: the Teut. base j 
hlu-da- (cp. cold, old, coutii) i 
was orig. a part, with suffix -/<? : 
(lat. -tus, GR. -ro^-, SKR. -tas) ; ' 
pre-TEUT. klu-to-s (sKR. (rutds, \ 
GVL.vXvToq, LAT. inclutus 'famous') j 
fr. an Aryan sf klu in skr. (ru 
hear', gr. xP.t)W — xAto^. | 

lough 'lake' fr. iR. gall, /ic^r/;; 
see /(7f^. \ 

louse me. lous (plur. /«) oe. ; 
/«^ (plur. lys) ^ DU. /«/>, ohg. j 
lus G. Az?^^, on. lus (plur. lyss) : ! 
Teut. base lus-, derived perh. 
fr. the TEUT. v^ lus 'destroy' 
under loose and lose', cp. gr. 
(pdsig 'louse' — (pd^HQM 'I de- 

lovage fr. FR. liveche mixed 

w. ME. luvestiche oe. lufestice. 
Source of the whole group lat. 
ligusticmn 'lovage . 

love ME. love oe. lufii = 
GOTH, lubo , OHG. luba 'love': 
Teut. base lubon- allied to the 
TEUT. adj. leuba- = lief. An 
ARYAN yf lubh 'desire' is evident 
in LAT. lubido, SKR. lobha 'desire' 
and SKR. \^ lubh 'to desire'. 

low adj. ME. low earlier lag 
late OE. lag: borrowed fr. ON. 
Idgr 'low' (sw. lag, dan. lav) 
= DU. laag, which are derived 
from the teut. V~ ^^S ^^S '\x&. 
Hence low prop, 'lying flat'. 

lo^v vb. ME. l&ive oe. lilpwati 
'low' ; cp. du. loeien, ohg. luoien 
low': TEUT. \f hid , pre-TEUT. 
kla in LAT. cld-mdre 'cry. 

lower vb. me. loure = mhg. 
luren G. lauern 'lurk ; cp. lurk. 

luck found since the is'** cent.; 
ident. w. du. luk geluk 'good 
fortune', mhg. gelucke G. gliick, 
OFRis. luk. Akin to G. locken, 
DU. locken 'entice, allure'. 

lucre ME. lucre fr. fr. lucre = 
LAT. lucrum. 

lug vb. :me. lugge 'drag, lug'; 
cogn. w. SW. lugga. 

lukew^arm fr. me. leuke {Hike) 
earlier hleuk; perh. contr. fr. 
an unrecorded oe. *hl4owoc 
'lukewarm'; cogn. w. ME. l&ive 
OE, hleowe 'lukewarm' = on. 
hlyr 'warm' (ohg. hlao G. lau 

lull ME. lulle = DU. lullen, 
DAN. lulle, SW. lulla. 

lump sb. ME. lumpe lompe'. 




ident. w. du. lomp 'a lump', G. 
Iu7npen 'rags'. 

lung AiE. lunge longe OE. lungen 
= ON. lunga, DU. long, OHG. 
lunga G. lunge lung': Teut. base 
lungon-j-f allied to an aryan 
adj. bnghu- 'light' = gr. eXa/vc, 
SKR. lag^u 'light'. Cp. lights 
as synon. with lungs. See 
light for the ARYAN V" lengh. 

lure sb. isie. litre fr. fr. leurre 
'bait*; source a teut. lopra- 
= MHO. luoder 'bait' (o. luder). 

lurk vb. ME. lurke'. derived fr. 
ME. lour en (= lower) as hark 
fr. hear, talk fr. /^//. 

lust sb. ME, OE. /wi'/ 'desire' 

= OSAX. DU. G. ON. lust, GOTH. 

lustus 'desire': a common Teut. 
fQrmation, prob. allied to the 
ARYAN y" las 'desire' in gr. 

XiXaio/iiai, SKR. y~ las for lals 
'desire', lat. las-civus. 

lute sb. ME. liite: borrowed fr. 
OFR. lut leut = FR. luth\ ident. 
vv. DU. luit, G. laute, it. liuto 
leuto, SPAN. laud. Source ARAB. 
al ud lute*. 

-ly adj. -suffix me. -ly -II earlier 
-lich{e) OE. -lie = osAX. -lik, 

DU. lijk, OHG. -Itch G. -lich, ON. 

-likr, GOTH, -leiks. Orig. the 
same as lika- 'body' discussed 
under like (goth. waira-leiks 
'manly' prop, having the body 
of a man). 

lye sb. ME. Mie oe. liah (infi. 
l§'age); cp. synon. DU. loog, ohg. 
louga g. lauge , ON. loug 'warm 
bath': prob. connected with the 
ARYAN \P lou lu 'bathe' (cp. 


mace 'a big club' borrowed 
fr. OFR. mace fr. masse: source 
a LAT. type *matea 'a beetle'. 

mackerel ime. tnqkerd adopted 
fr. OFR. maquerel (fr. viaquereati) 
= DU. makreel, whence G. mak- 
rele : source med.-lat. macarellus 
maquerellus 'a mackerel'. 

machine (= g. maschine, du. 
machine) fr. fr. machine: source 
LAT. machina gr. /.iri^av?] 'a 

mad adj. me. mad oe. lemced 
prop, lemcsded: part, of OE. 

English Etymology. 

lemcedan 'drive mad', deriv. from 
the OE. adj. lemdd 'mad' = 
OSAX. gimed 'foolish', ohg. gimeit 
'foolish', GOTH, ga-maids frail, 

madder sb. me. *maddre oe. 
mddre (mcedrel) = ON. madra, 
OHG. mdtara; cogn. du. lg. 
mede 'madder'? 

maggot late ime. maggot maggat; 
prob. fr. CYMR. nujceiad macai 
'a maggot'? 

magpie sb. a bird'; mag 
short for Magot = fr. Margot 




'Marguerite', also 'magpie'; pie 
= FR. pie fr. LAT. pica 'a 
magpie'; see pie. 

maid me. 7naide oe. ?ncsiden 
= OHG. magatin: Taut, base 
magadina- is diminutive of a 
TEUT.-GOTH. piagap- 'a girl, 
virgin' = oe. mcei^ep , OSAX. 
magaih, du. meid, ohg. magad 
G. wrt-^^ — 7nddchen. Allied to 
the Teut.-Goth. base niagu- 'boy' 
= ON. w^^^r 'boy, son', oe. 

mail^ sb. adapted fr. fr. 
inaille 'mail' (also 'a mesh of a 
net') : source LAT. macula 'a 
spot, hole, mesh of a net'. 

mail 2 sb. me. male 'a bag, 
wallet' borrowed fr. the synon. 
OFR. male = fr. ma//e (ohg. 
malha 'a leather bag"), 

maim vb. me. maime prop. 
maine borrowed fr. OFR. mehaigner 

main sb. me. tnain oe. mceien 
'strength' = OHG. magan tnegin, 
OSAX. ON. megin 'strength' : TEUT. 
\/^mag in fnight and may. 

main adj. borrowed fr. ofr. 
maine magne 'chief' (lat. magnus 

maintain vb. me. maintene 
adopted fr. fr. maintenir (lat. 
type manutenere 'hold by the 

maize sb. = fr. mais, g. 
mais', adopted fr. span, tnaiz. 
Columbus is said to have im- 
ported the Haytian name mahis 
and the cereal to Spain whence 

it was adopted by the other 
mod. languages. 

make vb. me. fndke oe. macian 
= OSAX. makon , du. maken, 
OHG. mahhon 'make, also fit or 
fasten together' G. machen: 
Teut. base makon 'join, belong 
together'. Cp. with goth. *makdn 
the ON. comparat. makara 'more 
suitable, fitting', oe. j^emcBC 'fit, 
suitable', OHG. gimah 'con- 
venient, comfortable' G. gemach ; 
OE. lemcecdea 'husband, wife' (e. 
make companion, spouse', E. 
match 'spouse'). 

malady sb. me. maladie bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. maladie fr. fr. 
malade (source male 'ill, bad' 
and aptus 'disposed'). 

male adj. me. male adoptad 
fr. FR. mdle (source lat. dimin. 

malice sb. me. ?nalice borrowed 
fr. FR. ?nalice (source lat. fna- 
litia 'ill will'). — malign adj. 
adopted fr. FR. malin (f. maligne) 
'malignant' (source malignum i. e. 
male genus 'ill-born'). 

mall sb. ME. ?nalle 7nelle mail 
borrowed fr. fr. mail 'a mall': 
source lat. tnalleus 'a hammer*. 
— Hence mallet sb. me. maillet 
borrowed fr. fr. rnaillet a mallet'. 

mallow ME. malive oe. mealwe 
= DU. maluwe: borrowed fr. 
LAT. malva , whence also fr. 
mauve, span. it. malva, G. 7nalve. 
Cp. mauve. 

malt sb. ME. malt oe. mealt 
= OSAX. on. malt, du. mout, 
G. malz. The Teut. base malta- 



fr. a TEUT.yPmelt in OE. m'eltan 
'dissolve, melt' with which is 
allied the on. adj. maltr 'rotten' 
= OHG. malz 'melting away, 
soft' so that *malt is perh. the 
adjectival neut. sb. meaning 'that 
which is soft'. Cp. melt. 

man sb. me. oe. man mon(nn) 
= OSAX. OHG. DU. MLG. man 
G. ?nann, on. madr, goth. manna 
'mankind, man'. In oe., man mgn 
(n = nn) denotes 'man' and 
'woman' (cp. oe. wifmon = e. 
woman), goth.-teut. mann- is 
based on older manw- manu- (as 
chin is based on an ARYAN 
kenw- genu-), indo-eur. manu 
'mankind' appears in skr. as 
Manu, but it signified also the 
'father of mankind'; cp. also 
SKR. manus and nianusa 'homo' 
and OSLOV. mqzi 'man'. 

mane sb. me. mane oe. manu r= 
OHG. mana G. mdhne, DU. maan, 
ON. mgn, sw. dan. ?nan. The 
Teut. base mono- 'mane' shows 
a later development of meaning; 
the older meaning was neck'; cp. 
ON. men, OE. m§ne, OHG. m§nni 
'necklace', cogn. with lat. monile 
'necklace', ocelt. uavidy.rig = 
oiR. muince 'necklace'. In lieu 
of ARYAN wawi? 'neck' occurs skr. 
manya 'nape', closely allied to 
oir. 7nuin muinil 'nape'. 

mange sb. shortened fr. the 
adj. me. *maunge which is bor- 
rowed from the fr. part, tnangi 
lit. 'eaten ; cp. fr. mangaison 
'mange'. — manger sb. yse.. 
maungir borrowed fr. fr. man- 

geoire 'manger, stable' (fr. man- 
ger 'eat = LAT. manducare). 

mangle vb. me. mangele frequent, 
and weakened, for *mankele fr. 
ME. manke oe. lemancian, which 
was prob. formed from an adj. 
oe. *manc = DU. matik : loanword 
fr. LAT. mancus adj. 'maimed'. 

mangle sb. borrowed fr. du. 
mangel {= sw. G. mangel); dimin. 
of a simple word represented 
by G. mange 'a mangle' = it. 
tnangano 'a machine for smoothing 
linen, a war-engine' fr. lat. man- 
ganum = gr. f.idyyavov 'a war- 

manikin manakin borrowed fr. 
FR. mannequin = du. manneken', 
cp. G. mdnnchen, du. mannetje: 
all diminutives of man. 

mankind sb. me. manklnde 
earlier man-kin oe. mon-cynn. 
See man and kin, also kind. 

manner me. manure borrowed 
fr. OFR. manere = fr. manierc. 

mantle me. mantel (a form 
mauntel\% unrecorded) =^ du. sw. 
DAN. mantel; on. mgttull and oe. 
mentel rest on a lost lat. mantu- 
lum mantilum (fr. LAT. mantum = 
FR. mante, IT. manto a cloak'), 
whence also G.fnantel OUG. mantal; 
cogn. w. FR. manteau, it. mantello 
(lat. type *mantelluni). 

many me. 7nani many oe. manij, 
monei: Teut. base managa- = 
OSAX. OHG. manag G. manch, DU. 
menig, ON. margr. Cogn. w. OIR. 
menicc IR. minic 'frequently' (base 
menecci- ?) and CYiiR. maint, bret. 
ment (celt, base manti-). 




map sb. borrowed fr. fr. mappe 
=^ IT. LAT. mappa prop, 'a nap- 
kin, table-cloth'. 

maple sb. me. indpel oe. *mc£pel 
*7napul in mapoltreo 7nap alder 'a 
maple-tree': perh. ident. w. OHG. 
tnai^yiUra (g. massholder), which 
points to TEUT. matlu-, whilst 
the E. word points to a base 

mar vb. me. merre oe. dmerran 
dmyrran wk. vb. 'to hinder, ob- 
struct' = GOTH, marzjan 'offend', 
OHG. marren, DU. inarren 'tarry': 
TEUT.-ARYAN \ftnarz mars. 

marble me. marble mdrbre fr. 
FR. viarbre; source LAT. marmor. 

march sb. me. ?ndrche 'march, 
boundary' fr. fr. marche 'bound- 
ary'. The Fr. word is of Teut. 
origin; cp. GOTH, marka, oe. 
mearc, OSAX. OHG. marka 'bound- 
ary' which are primitively related 
to LAT. margo 'border; edge', 
avest. merezu border', IR. mruig 
'shire' (Celt, base mrogi-). Cp. 

march vb. fr. fr. marcher. 

March (the month) me. (since 
the 12'^ cent.) March fr. fr. 
mar si Source lat. Martins mensis 
(whence ohg. me/zo G. mdrz, lg. 

mare me. mire oe. mire myre: 
Teut. base marhjon- (== OHG. 
merihha G. mdhre^ DU. merie, on. 
mer?-), deriv. fr. teut. mar ha- 
'horse' in oe. mearh, ohg. marah, 
ON. marr horse' (see marshal). 
There is a pre-TEUT. f/iarka- in 
the Celt, languages; cp. gall. 

marca , ir. Gael, marc, cy:mr. 
corn, march 'horse'. 

margin me. mdrgin{e) fr. lat. 
marginem (nom. sing. lat. margo 
= fr. marge). 

mark^ sb. 'line, dot, cut' me. 
marke oe. mearc = du. on. mark, 
MRG. marc (gen. tnarkes) g. 
marke (goth. marka 'boundary'). 
— Hence mark vb. me. marke 
OE. mearcian = on. marka, osAX. 
7narkdn\ cp. du. g. fnerken = 
GOTH. *markjan. 

mark''^ sb. 'a unit of weight, 
a coin' me. mark late OE. marc. 
borrowed fr. OX. mark, whence 
also DU. G. mark (med.-lat. 
marcii) . 

market sb. me. market late oe. 
(11'^ cent.) ?narkit mar cat: bor- 
rowed fr. ofr. ^market fr. marchi 
(it. tnercatd) = lat. mercdtus 
'market', whence also ohg. markdt 
mer chat G. du. markt. See mart. 

maroon adj. 'chestnut-colored* 
borrowed fr. fr. marron '•= it. 
marrone 'a chestnut'. 

marrcw me. marow mary oe. 
mearh mearg = osAX. marg, 
OHG. mar(a)g G. mark, du. merg, 
ON. mergr: Teut. base mazga- 
= ARYAN *mazgho- in OSLOV. 
mozgii, ZEND mazga, SKR. 7najjan 
'marrow'. The root is SKR. majj 
'immerge' = lat. mergere. 

marry vb. me. 77iarie vb. adopt- 
ed fr. FR. marier: source lat. 
maritare 'marry'. — Hence mar- 
riage ME. 77iaridge = FR. mariage. 

marsh ^ie. 77iersh oe. mersc 
earliest form merisc = mdu. 

marshal — mastiff 


maersche, lg. g. marsch, dan. 
inarsk: Teut. base inariska- = 
MED. - LAT. mariscus 'swamp', 
whence ofr. maresc fr. marais. 
Source TEUT. tnari- 'ocean' (= 
LAT. mare) in OE. mere, onG.meri 
G. meer, on. marr, goth. marei. 

marshal :me. mar{e)schal adopt- 
ed fr. OFR. mareschal = fr. 
marichal, span, mariscal, it. 7na- 
r/j4:a/(? 'a marshal, farrier'. Source 
a teut. marha-skalkaz 'horse- 
thane' = OHG. marah-scalc (ohg. 
mar ah 'a horse' = E. mare and 
OHG. scalch = OE. scealc me. 
schalk, ON. skdlkr , OSAX. skalk, 
GOTH, skalks 'servant'. 

mart sb. short for market. 

marten short for martern orig. 
martre me. martre adopted fr. 
FR. martre (= it. martora, span. 
7narta). The Fr. word, which 
supplanted a genuine oe. mearp, 
is of Teut. origin: on. mgrdr, 
OHG. mardar G. fnarder , DU. 
marter; osax. *marthar inferred 
fr. the adj. 7narthrin. 

martin sb. borrowed fr. fr. 
martin, orig. the proper name 
Martin, which was applied to 
various birds and animals; cp. 
robin red-breast. 

martyr sb. me. jnartir oe. mar- 
tyr = osax. martir, ohg. martyr, 
GOTH, martyr (with suffix DU. 
martelaar, ohg. martirdri G. mdr- 
tyrer): fr. lat.-gr. martyr 'a wit- 

marvel vb. me. merveile bor- 
rowed fr. FR. merveiller; source 
LAT. mirabilia 'wonderful things'. 

mash vb. fnasche vb. 'mix' (oe. 
i^mdscianT) = G. tneischen: prob. 
cogn. w. OSLOV. mezga 'sap of 
trees' (osLOv. 0^ = teut. skT). 
Cp. mix. 

mask sb. borrowed fr. fr. 
masque, whence also G. du. 
dan. maske sw. mask. 

mason me. mdsoun adopted 
fr. FR. mafon; source a type 
matio 'a maison' = ohg. tnezzo 
G. steinmetz a stone- mason'. 

mass' sb. 'a lump of matter' 
late ME. masse borrowed fr. fr. 
masse (= IT. massd) : source 
LAT. massa 'a lump, a mass', 
whence also ohg. massa G. 

mass^ sb. 'the eucharist me. 
masse oe. mcesse; evidently 
identical w. oSAX. missa, du. 
tnis, OHG. m'essa missa G. messe: 
a Christian word from med.- 
LAT. f/iissa 'mass' = fr. ?nesse 
(whence me. messe). 

mast me. mast oe. m^est = 
du. lg. g. sw. dan. mast, on. 
mastr. In accordance with 
Grimm's law, the Teut. base 
masta- is based on pre-TEUT. 
mazdo- = LAT. mdlus (for *madus) 
'a mast'. 

master sb. me. tnaister late 
OE. mce-yester borrowed fr. ofr. 
maistrev^. maitre{= IT. maestro) '. 
source lat. magister , whence 
also OSAX. mistar, du. meester, 
! ohg. meistar G. meister. See 

mastiff me. mestif mastifaido^t&A 
fr. ofr. mestif prop, an adj. fr. 




the sb. OFR. mastin (fr. indtiri) 
'a mastiff'. 

mat ME. matte oe. meatta = 
DU. mat, OHG. matta G. matte, 
IT. matta borrowed fr. lat. 
7natta 'a rug', whence fr. natte. 

match ^ sb. me. macche oe. 
"^emcecca 'a companion' ident. w. 
OE. lemaca sb. = E. make. 

match- sb. 'the wick of a 
candle, a match' me. macche 
borrowed fr. fr. meche 'match 
of a lamp' : source lat. myxa 
'the nozzle of a lamp'. 

mate sb. 'a companion' me. 
mate = DU. maat, OSAX. *gimato, 
OHG, gima'j^ip isiHG. gemaT^T^e, oe. 
*iemdta (wanting) would be 
derived from oe. mete = meat] 
hence mate prop, 'mess-mate'. 

mate adj. me. tndte mat 'con- 
founded, dejected borrowed fr. 
OFR. FR. mat (= SPAN, mate, 
IT. matto). Source the Arab.- 
Pers. expression in the chess- 
play schdh mat 'the king is dead'. 

matins, mattins 'morning 
prayers' me. matin{e)s'. borrowed 
fr. FR. matins plur. of matin 
'morning': source lat. matutinus 
'belonging to the morning'; cp. 
LAT. hora matiitina in ohg. mettina 
G. mette 'matutinal service'. 

matter sb. me. matere adopted 
fr. FR. matiere', source lat. 
materia 'materials'. 

mattock aie. mattok oe. mattoc 
prob. fr. CYMR. matog a hoe'; 
but OSLOV. motyka and lith. 
matikas 'mattock* point to a Teut. 

mattress me. materas (= du. 
matras) borrowed fr. ofr. mate- 
ras = FR. matelas = med.-lat. 
matratium: source ARAB, matrah 
prop, 'a place where something 
is thrown'. 

maudlin adj. corrupted fr. 
ME. Maude kin = Magdelaine = 
OFR. Magdeleine, lat.-gr. Mag- 
dalena. Maria Magdalena was 
considered a type of sorrowing 

maul vb. me. tnalle 'strike with 
a mall* formed fr. the ME. sb. 
malle 'a mall' borrowed fr. ir. 
mail 'a mall', whence also mall. 

Maundy Thursday me. maunde 
thursdai fr. ofr. mandi (= ohg. 
mhg. manddi) 'the ceremony of 
Christ's washing his disciples' 
feet': source lat. manddtum ac- 
cording to John XIII 34. 

mauve 'mallow color' borrowed 
fr. FR. mauve 'a mallow' = lat. 
malva; ident. w. mallow. 

maw ME. mawe oe. maga 
'stomach' = ohg. mago 'sto- 
mach' g. magen, du. maag, on. 
magi 'stomach'. 

may vb. me. 7?iai oe. w«j = 
OSAX. ohg, g. du. mag, on. ma, 
GOTH. mag. TEUT. \f mag {mug) 
fr. ARYAN magh is closely allied 
to OSLOV. mogq moiti 'be able*. 

May ME. may mai fr. fr. Mai 
(lat. Mains 7nensis). 

mayor sb. me. maire adopted 
fr. FR. maire: source lat. tnajor 

me — mean 


me pers. pron. dat. and ace. 
ME. OE. me fr. a Teut. and ARYAN 
stem mc- in GOTH, mis mi-k, 
G. mi-r mi-ch, lat. tnihi me\ GR. 
1.101 If-ioi i-iB IjiiB', SKR. 7nahyam 
me dat., ftuivi md ace; base 
ma- . 

mead^ sb. me. mede oe. meodo 
= DU. MLG. mede ohg. meio 
mitu g. met, on. mjgdr'. base 
TEUT. medu = aryan *med/iu; cp. 
SKR. mddhu honey, sweet drink', 
OR. (.dd^v 'wine' (allied /itsdra) 
'I am drunk', /iie&t] 'drunkenness'), 
oslOv. medu 'honey, wine , lith. 
midus 'mead' — mediis 'honey', IR. 

mead^ sb. 'meadow' (now in 
poetry) me. m(de OE. meed (gen. 
m^dwe) = DU. mat mlg. m.ade 
OLG. mdtha tndda, ofris. tneth, 
g. matte, goth. *medwa: based 
on a TEUT. V^ map mM, con- 
nected w. LAT. meto 'I mow, 
reap' and showing a shorter 
form me in E. mow. But the 
GOTH. *me might represent 
the root and twd the suffix. — ; 
meadow me. medwe oe. mckd\ 
gen. mckdwe. Mead and f/ieadow 
are related as shade and sha- 
dow. Cp. mead. \ 

meagre adj. me. m(gre bor- [ 
rowed fr. fr. maigre {= span. 
IT. magro) : source LAT. macer \ 
'lean, thin, meagre', oe. tnce^^er 
(= DU.MLG.G. mager ohg. magar, 
on. magr is common Teut.). 
The Teut. forms with lat. 
macer, GR. (.lav.tSvoc 'tall', (.luv.- 
oog long have prob. come fr. 

an ARYAN Y^ mdk 'thin, long'. 
lith. mdzas 'small' and OHG. 
magar might point to a common 
Y~ ma^h. Perh. the Teut. group 
comes fr. vulg. lat.-it. magro. 

meal' sb. 'flour' me. mele OE. 
m'elo (gen. 7nelwes) = OSAX. 
m'elo, DU. DAN. meel, OHG. 7nelo 
(gen. n2elawes') G. mehl, on. ^/{/<?/; 
Teut. base *m'elwa- flour meal' 
lit. 'that which is ground from 
a Teut. and aryan \f tnel grind' 
seen in osAX. ohg. goth. malan 
DU. fnalen G. mahlen, on. mala 
'grind' ; cp. lat. molo, gr. ftvXXn-, 
OSLOV. ffte/ja (m/eti), lith. ma/u 
(mdlti), OIR. melim 'grind'; cp. 

meal- sb. 'a repast' me. m^'l 
= OSAX. mdl, DU. maal, G. mahl, 
ON. mdl, OHG. *mdl wanting with 
this meaning; ident. w. GOTH. 
7nil time', oe. mdl 'time'. 

mean adj. me. me'ne oe. lemch/e 
fr. a Teut. base ga-tnaini- = 
GOTH, gamains, OSAX. gif/ieni, 
OHG. gimeini G. gemein, DU. 
gemeen; cogn. w. LAT. cotn- 
miinis for co7n-moini-s\ cp. lat. 
ilnus with goth. ains = ARYAN 

mean vb. me. mc'ne oe. mcknan 
= OSAX. m^nian, DU. meenen, 
OHG. meinen meinan G. meinen, 
o^.vieina, GOX'H..*mainJan; OSLO v. 
vicnjq fucniti is closely allied. 
Connected with \f^ man 'think' in 

mean adj. me. mcfie adj. 'middle' 
contracted fr. *mej(n = OFR. 




meyen fr. moyen 'intermediate': 
source lat. medianus. 

measles sb. me. mcsel sb. 
'leper — adj. 'leprous': loan- 
word fr. OFR.?/z«^/=LAT. misellus. 

measure sb. atE. m^sure bor- 
rowed fr. FR. mesure (= span. 
mesura , it. misurd) from lat. 

meat me. mete oe. mete fr. a 
Teut. base mati- = OSAX. meti, 
DU. met (in -wurst'), ohg. wia';, 
ON. z//a/r, GOTH. ;««/lf 'food'. 

medal borrowed fr, fr. mi- 
daille (= span, medalla , it. 
medaglid); source a lat. type 
metallea fr. LAT. metallum. 

meddle ]\iE. w<?^//(? (tue'le^ 'mix' 
borrowed fr. OFR. tnedler mesler 
^fr. meler: source a lat. type 
misculare 'mix' fr. lat. miscere 
'mix'. — medley sb. me. mcdle 
adopted fr. ofr. mcdle ?tiesle 
(fern, medlee = fr. melie) part, 
of OFR. medler 'mix*. 

medlar sb. me. medle-tre fr. 
OFR. meslier mesle 'medlar-tree': 
source lat. mespilum 'a med- 

meed sb. me. oe. med (oe. 
once mcord) = osAX. 7nMa, 
DU. miede, OHG. ;>i(?/<7 jfihita G. 
wzV/"!? 'fiire' ; GOTH. mizdo 'reward 
(the z of which was lost in 
Teut. with lengthening- of i to 
e) fr. an aryan mizdho- in gr. 
fttadoi^ 'wages, pay, hire', osLOv. 
viizda , AVEST. mizda 'wages', 
OIND. viidhd (for mizdhd) 'contest, 
match, booty (perh. orig. a 
prize' by inference fr. the skr. 

adj. midhvds 'spending lavishly'). 

raieek adj. me. mek (late oe. 
*mioc) borrowed fr. the equiv. 
ON. mjiikr = sw. mj'iik, dan. 
myg soft', cp. DU. midk 'soft', 
GOTH. ?mks (inferred fr. miika- 
modci 'meekness). 

meet vb. me. mete oe. metan 
vb. = OSAX. motian, DU. moeten, 
ON. mdta, GOTH, gamotjan 'meet' : 
TEUT. sfjndt. 

meet adj. mk. mite oe. lemdte 
= OFRIS. mete, jnilg. mate, ohg. 
gima-ij.; cp. tnete. 

melt vb. me. melte oe. mcltan; 
for the \f tnelt see malt. An 
Aryan \f meld is evident in skr. 
mrdi'i 'soft, tender', GR. /jtAdf/r 

menace sb. me. mendce mandce 
borrowed fr. fr. menace (lat. 
minacid) 'threat. 

mend vb. mende short for 
amende borrowed fr. fr. amender 
(lat. emendare). See amend. 

menial (prop, adj., but also 
used as sb.) me. meineal formed 
with the suffix -al fr. me. meini 
maini 'a household'. This is 
borrowed fr. OFR. fnesne meisnee 
answering to a lat. type *man- 

merchant me. marchaunt mar- 
chaund borrowed fr. OFR. mar- 
chant = FR. marchand: source 
lat. mercari 'buy' (cp. market^. 

mercy me. nier^l borrowed 
from FR. 7nerci (source med.- 
LAT. merces'mercy, pity' extended 
fr. LAT. merx 'traffic'). See 
market, merchant. 

meige — mid 


merge vb. adopted fr. lat. 
me7'gere 'plunge under water'. 

merit me. merit fr. fr. mirite. 

mermaid me. mer-tnaide\ oe. 
mere 'ocean' me. m^re agree 
with OHG. OSAX. meriy goth. 
marei 'ocean'; cp. marsh. 

merry adj. me. mirie oe. myr^e 
from a Teut. base f/turgi- 'short' 
in OHG. miirgfari 'of short life', 
Swiss murg 'raannikin'; cp. GOTH. 
I maurgjan 'shorten'. The adj. 
TEUT. 7niirgu- short' = IE. 
mrghu- corresponds to gr. ^oa- 
\'/Jic. 'short' (for */ii()axvc). 

mesh sb. me. tnesche oe. ttuBsde 
= ON. fnpskve, OHG. mdsca G. 
masche; the Teut. base *mesgen 
belongs to the IE. mezg in lith. 
mdzgas 'knot' from the vb. mezgu 
(megsfi) 'knot, weave nets'; hence 
mesh may be traced to a teut. 
\f mesq ( Aryan 7nezg 'braid). 

mete vb. me. mete oe. m'etan z= 
OSAX. m'etan , du. tneten , ohg. 
meT^an G. messen, ON. meta, GOTH. 
mitati with which is allied GOTH. 
miton 'think over, OHG. met^Tpn 
moderate". The teut. \fmet is 
based on the Aryan \fmed in 
GR. ahbof.i(u I devise' — ut'dmv 
'counselor' — uhdiurog 'a corn- 
measure', lat. modus 'manner' 
— modius'a. corn-measure', GOTH. 
mitaps measure'. 

miess sb. me. tnesse borrowed 
fr. OFR. mes fr. 7nets (source 
LAT. missus fr. mittere) send' and 
in med.-lat. put, place'). 

message me. 77tessdge borrowed 
fr. FR. inessage : lat. type 7tiissatica 

an extension of lat. 77iissus. — 
Hence messenger (with the 
insertion of « as in passcTiger^ 
ME. 77iessagir formed fr. 7tiessage 
with the suffix -er denoting 'the 
mietal me. 7netal borrowed fr. 

FR. 77lital. 

mete vb. 'measure' me. m(te 
oe. metan sw. vb. 'measure' = 
GOTH. 7nita7t, G. messen OHG. 7ne7^'^an, 
DU. 7/ieten. 

mettle ident. w. 77ietal but 
meaning now 'spirit, ardor'. 

mew vb. onomatopoetic like 
DU. maauwen, G. 7nauen ; imitative 
of a cat's cry. 

me^v me. 7n6'w oe. 7ndw\ cp. 
DU. 77ieeuw , on. 7nd-r, G. mowe: 
TEUT. base 77iaiw-. 

mickle me. 77iikel 77iichd 7nukel 
7nuchel, oe. 7m(!el 7nycel = GOTH. 
7711 kits , ON. mikill 7nykill y OSAX. 
77iikil, OHG. 77iihhil', cp. 77iuch. 

mid- adj. me. mid oe. t7iid midd 
= OSAX. 7niddi, ohg. 7nitti G. 7nit-, 
ON. midr, GOTH, midjis. In mod. 
e. and in mod. G., the adjectives 
E. mid- = G. 7nit- are only used in 
compounds as E. midday, 77iid/ent, 
77ndsum7ner, midwinter; G. 7nittag, 
mitternacht, 7nittwoch (orig. dat. 
sing.). The teut. stem midja- 
answers to ARYAN midhyo\ cp. 
GR. Liiooc, (for *ttsdjO'J), SKR. 
77iddhyas, lat. medius. — middle 
adj. and sb. me. oe. middel = 
DU. 77iiddcl, OHG. viittil G. mittel', 
with formative -/ from the adj. 


midge — milt 

midge me. migge oe. ntycg fr. 
a Teut. base 7nugjd- = osax. 
muggia, DU. mug, ohg. mucka G. 
milcke. From on. my it may be 
inferred that the West-Teut. 
guttural is secondary. 

midst formed with excrescent / 
from ME. in middes equivalent to 
a m id. 

mien borrowed fr. fr. 7nine fr. 
IT. mina = OIT. mena 'fashion, 
carriage ofman': sourceMED.-LAT. 
minarc 'conduct, lead'. 

might 3ilE. might oe. miht meaht 
= OSAX. OHG. maAf, DU. magf, 
G. macht, ON. 7ndttr, goth. mahts. 
The common teut. *ma/iti is an 
old verbal abstract from GOTH. 
magan (like OSLOV. mosti from 
*mokti from mogq 'clean'). See 

milch adj. me. milche oe. '^mylcc 
deriv. of milk\ cp. the equiv. 
adj's. ON. milkr mj'dlkr , ohg. 
miilch G. tnelk, OE. tne/c. 

mild adj. me. oe. milde = 
OSAX. mildi, DU. G. fttild ohg. 
milti , on. mildr , GOTH, mildeis. 
Cogn. w. oiR. meldach 'agreeable' 
or blaith 'soft, smooth' (base 
?nlati-) ? or oSLOV. mladii 'young, 
tender', lith. mildiis 'pious'? 

milde^v me. mildew oe. miledeaw 
=^ DU. meeldauw, ohg. fnili-iou 
G. mehltau; the first part is prob. 
fr. OE. mele = goth. mi/i^ 'honey ; 
cp. ON. milska 'a honeyed drink'; 
the second part see under dew. 

mile ME. mile oe. ;//// = du. 
mijl, ohg. mila milla (for *mtljd) 
G. meile: borrowed fr. LAT. milia 

(passuum) lit. 'thousand paces', 
(whence also fr. 7nilk, it. 7niglid). 
The more frequent plur. 7nilia 
was adopted in Rom. and G. as 
a fem. sing, (omitting passiiutTi). 

milfoil me. milfoil fr. fr. mille- 
\ feuille = LAT. 77iillefoliu77i. 

milk me. 7nilk oe. 77ieoloc 77iilc 
= OSAX. miluk, DU. melk, OHG. 
7niluh G. milch, on. mjolki', goth. 
miluks. It is remarkable that a 
common Aryan or at least a 
West -Aryan term for 'milk is 
wanting, although the \f 7nelg = 
teut. 7ni'/k to milk occurs in all 
the West- Aryan languages. From 
a common Indo-Eur. vb. : oe. 
melcuTi, DU. 77ielkefi, ohg. melchan 
G. 7tielken, goth. *7nilkan. Cp. lat. 
mulger-e , gr. djueXy^iv, osLOV. 
f/desii (pres. mliizq), lith. 7/nlstt 
(pres. milzii) oiR. mbligit/t {tnlicht 
and melg 'milk'). — milk vb. 
me. 7nilke oE. 7neolcian (= ofris. 
77ielka, on. 7tij6lkd) fr. oe. 7neolc. 

mill ME. w///(f earlier wz7«^ oe. 
77tylti (whence on. 7/iyl7id) = du. 
moleTi meulen , ohg. muli{n) G. 
77iilhle\ borrowed fr. late lat. 
common rom. 7nolma 'mill' (for 
class. LAT. 7nola), whence also 
IT. 7nulino, fr. 7noulin, 

millet fr. fr. millet', source lat. 
milium 'millet'. 

milt me. oe. milte ^= du. 7tnlt, 
OHG. 77iilzi 0. milz, ON. 7/iilti\ from 
the TEUT. \f77telt seen in 771 a It. 
e. and du. 77iilt soft roe of fishes' 
is a corruption of milk (sw. 
mj'dlke 'milt' fr. wy'^/^ 'milk', dan. 

nunce — mire' 


fiskemelk 'soft roe of fishes', lit. 

mince vb. me. mince oe. min- 
sian wk. vb. 'make small' deriv. fr. 
OE. inin{nn) =: DU. tnin 'smaller; 
cp. FR. mincer 'mince' from mince 
'small' of Teut. origin. 

mind sb. me. minde oe. le-mynd 
'memory, mind': Teut. base 
ga-muTidi- = goth. ga-munds 
'memory' from goth. ga-munan 
=r OSAX. (far)fnunan 'despise', 
on. muna, oe. ~^emunan, cp. goth. 
muns purpose , desire , mind', 
ON. munr 'mind , desire , love", 
OE. myne 'memory, love'. Allied 
to ON. minni 'remembrance, mind', 
OSAX. minna, ohg. minnia and 
OHG. niinnt G. minne 'love', orig. 
'remembrance'. All belong to 
the common Aryan and teut. 
■\ftnen man 'think'; cp. gk. fiti'oc 
'courage, mind', juiuvijaxco I 
remember', lat. memitii remitiiscor 
mens moneo, skr. \fman 'think, 

mine possessive pron. me. oe. 
min = OSAX. OHG. min, du. mijn, 
G. mein (also ohg. min G. meiner), 
ON. minn, goth. meins: derived 
fr. the stem me- of the pers. 
pron. cp. me and for the suffix 
cp. SKR. makina 'mine' and thine. 

mine sb. nK.mlne = du. mijn, G. 
DAN. mine: borrowed from fr. 
mine (= span. it. mind) : of Celt, 
origin; cp. iR. Gael, miin 'metal', 
BRET, men 'stone , metal , cvmr. 
mwyn 'metal' : celt, base mena 
meina ? 

mingle a frequent, vb. from me. 
minge menge oe. mengan = osax. 
mcngian, du. mengen, OHG. tnengan 
G. mengen, GOTH. *maggjan. Cp. 

minnow 'a fish' me. minowe oe. 
*mynwe (and wj/z^'capito ) = OHG. 
muniwa 'capedo'; cp. westphal. 
mane, hess. rncehnl Etymology 

minster me. minster oe. mynster 
fr. a base fnunistirja- == du. 
miinster , ohg. mimistri prop, 
'monastery' then convent-church' 
G. miinster : after lat.-gr. mona- 
sterium, whence also fr. moutier 
'monastery, convent'. 

minstrel me. ministral menestral 
borrowed fr. fr. minestrei. source 
LAT. ministerialis 'an artisan, jester, 

mint ' sb. me. mint oe. tnynet 
= du. munt, OHG. miiniz^ muni7^7,a 
G. miinze: TEUT. munita- miinito- 
borrowed fr. lat. moneta 'place 
of coinage, money', whence also 
FR. fnonnaie under money. 

mint- sb. 'a plant' me. oe. minte 
= DU. munt, OHG. minza G. minze : 
adapted fr. lat. mentha menta 
(gr. (.dvda) , whence also fr. 
menthe, it. span, menta. 

mire^ 'deep mud' me. mire oe. 
fnyre from west-teut. nnurjbn = 
on. mvrr 'slime' ; the r of these 
words is orig. z = s] cp. oe. me'os 
'moss' by the side of oe. mos 
'moss, swamp ; G. moos also signi- 
fies 'marsh'; cp. moss. Hence 
E. mire prop, mossy soil'. 

mire^ cp. /is mi re. 


mirth — mole 

mirth me. mirthe earlier tnurhde 
OE. myrgd deriv. fr. OE. myv^e = 
merry with formative -th (as in 
length, strength). 

mis ^ prefix me. oe. mis- = du. 
mis-, OHG, missa missi- G. miss-, 
ON. jnis-\ GOTH, missa- for *7mpta- 
|(prop. 'lost') is an old part, in 
\td- from a sfmij) seen in OE. 
\midan me. mithe 'shun, avoid' 
(== oSAX. tnidan, ohg. midan G. 
meideti). Akin to gir. mi in tni- 
gnim 'misdeed'? 

mis 2 prefix older mes- borrowed 
fr. OFR. mes- (kr. ot/-) : source 
LAT. minus less'. — mischief 
me. mes-chef borrowed fr. ofk. 
mes-chief 'a bad result, damage' 
fr. mis'^^ and chief (cp. me. ban- 
chef 'happiness'). — miscreant 
borrowed fr. OFR. mescreant 
(source lat. credent-eni). 

miss vb. ME. misse OE. missan 
= DU. G. missen, on. missa, goth. 
missjan. Evidently connected 
with WEST-TEUT. mipan avoid' in 
OE. tnidan, ohg. midan G. meiden 
'avoid'. Cp. mis. 

miss contr. of mistress. 

mist ME. OE. mist = du. mist, 
LG. mist 'darkness, fog, mist', 
on. mistr 'darkness, mist. 

mister me. maister = master. 

mistle ME. mistel oe. mistel = 
OHG. mistil G. mistel, ON. mistel 
'mistletoe'. — mistletoe oe 
mistdtdn (= on. mistilsicinti) fr. 
wzi'/'z/' bird-lime' and tan 'branch. 

mite ^ sb. 'a small insect me. 
OE. mite = LG. mite, ohg. miyi 
'a midge, fly: teut. \fmit 'cni 

small', whence goth. maitan =r 
ON. meita 'cut'. 

mite '- sb. 'a very small portion' 
ME. mite borrowed fr. ODU. mijt 
a small coin'. 

mitten me. mitaine borrowed 
fr. FR. mitaine 'a mitten'. 

mix vb. ME. fiiixe OE. miscian 
= ohg. miskan from *7niskjan 
mhg. mlg. g. mischen: all prob. 
borrowed fr. lat. miscere 'mix'. 

mizzen sb. borrowed fr. fr. 
misaine = IT. mezzana'. source 
LAT. medius. Ident. w. G. bezaan- 

moan vb.ME. mgne (oe. *fndnian') 
with the by-form me. mine oe. 
nice nan 'moan". 

moat sb. me. tnote borrowed 
fr. OFR. mote 'dike*. 

mock fr. FR. se moquer. 

mode fr. fr. mode. 

moiety borrowed fr. fr. moitii 
(lat. type medietdteni). 

moist adj. me. moiste 'moist, 
fresh': borrowed fr. OFR. moiste 
(= FR. moite). Source lat. 
miisteus 'belonging to new must 
or wine', also new, fresh' {inustus 
'new wine"). 

mole' sb. 'a mark on the body' 
ME. mole OE. mdl = ohg. meil 
also meila, goth. fnail 'a spot*. 

mole' sb. 'breakwater' bor- 
rowed fr. FR. mole 'a bank' 
(^= IT. mole mold) '. source 
LAT. moles 'a great heap, a vast 

mole^ sb. 'an insectivorous 
animal' me. mo lie = du. moH 
Prob. short for me. moldewerp 

monday — more 


= OHG. moltw'erf G. maulwurf. 
From ME. mplde OE. mglde 'earth' 
= ON. mold, OHG. molta, goth. 
/«aA/<r? 'earth' and from theV~ werp 
seen in goth. wairpan; see 

monday me. mgnenday oe. 
mpnandcei = DU. maandag, OHG. 
mdnatac G. montag, ON. mdnadagr: 
the common Teut. name for 
LAT. </7Vj Lunae (fr. limdi, it. 
lunedi) ; the first syllable of 
monday is ident. w. moon. 

money me. moneie borrowed 
fr. OFR. moneie = fr. tnonnaie 
(= SPAN, moneda, it. monetd) : 
source lat. nwneta. See w/«/ '. 

monger sb. me. oe. mongere oe. 
mangere (= OHG. mangdri, ON. 
matigart) formed from OE. ««<z«- 
^/ffw 'trade' with suffix -^r(?. 
Source lat. matigo 'a defrauding 
trader . 

monk ME. /«i?«^ OE. munuc = 
OSAX. munik, DU. monnik, OHG. 
mumh(h) G. monch: source lat. 
vionachus (gr. tiora/61^^, whence 
also FR. w^w^ and oir. manach. 

monkey formed like donkey. 
source IT. tnonna mojia ape', 
whence also G. (16. cent.) niun- 
aff 'simia prasiana'. 

month ME. moneth oe. mgnap 
= DU. maandy OHG. mdnod G. 
monat, ON. mdnudr, goth. minops. 
The common Teut. stem menop- 
'month' (pre-TEUT. menoi-^ is 
ident. w. teut. menan- = 

mood sb. ME. OE. mod ^= 
OSAX. mod, DU. moed, ohg. muot 

g. »/«/, goth. mods, on. »;(7/fr. 
The orig. meaning of the TEUT. 
stem moda- was perhaps 'strong 
emotion, violent excitement and 
was prob. derived fr. i\ie.\/^ ma- 
in gr. f.iait09ai desire'. 

moon ME. fnpne oe. mpna == 
OSAX. OHG. mdno, du. maan, G. 
mond , ON. mdni, GOTH, mena 
'the moon'. The Teut. base 
minan- (and menop- = montli) 
is cogn. with the greater part 
of the terms for 'moon, month' 
in the other ARYAN languages; 
cp. SKR. mds (for mdns mens) 
'moon, month' — mdsa 'month', 
GR. /«//»' (for *^irjV^) month', 
LAT. mensis 'month', OSAX. mes§ci 
'moon, month', lith. jne'nfi 'moon' 
— menesis'vaont\\ , OIR. w/'month'. 

Moor^ sb. 'an inhabitant of 
Barber}-' borrowed fr. fr. More; 
source lat. Maiirus, whence 
also SPAN. IT. Moro, ohg. Mor 
G. Mohr. 

moor^ sb. 'a tract of untilled 
land* ilE. OE. mpr a moor, morass, 
bog! =■ OSAX. mor, DU. tnoer, 
OHG. muor, LG. G. moor; related 
to OE. mere, ohg. meri 'sea' = 
LAT. mare 'sea'. See marsh. 

morass sb. me. mareis bor- 
rowed fr. FR. marais (= IT. 
marese), whence also du. moras 
moeras , LG. moras (whence G. 
morasi) '. source med.-lat. mara- 
gium 'swamp, marsh'. 

more adj. me. more oe. mdra 
= OSAX. OHG. mero G. mehr, DU. 
meer, on. meiri; GOTH, maiza 




(whose iza is the OTeut. coin- 
parat. suffix) became OE. mdra 
(r from z by rhotacism) Tlie 
stem ma- belongs to the teut. 
adj. nie-ra- 'illustrious'. 

morning ivie. morninge mor- 
weninge deriv. of OE. morgen = 
OSAX. OHG. morgan, du. g. morgen, 
ON. morgunn and myrgenn, goth. 
maiirgifis'. a common teut. word 
for the first half of the day 
from day break. — Cp. evening. 

morro'w; see morn and to- 

morsel me. morsel adapted fr. 
OFR. morsel (= fr. morgeau, 
IT. morsello^ : dimin. of lat. 
morsum 'a bit'. 

mortar' 'a vessel in which 
substances are beaten to powder' 
me. tnortir oe. fnorUre (= du. 
mortiery. borrowed fr. fr. mortier 
i= SPAN, mortero, it. mortajo) 
'mortar' : source lat. mortdrium 
'a vessel in which substances 
are pounded'. 

mortar^ 'a mixture of lime 
and of sand so called from the 
vessel in which it was made 
mortar^ me. snorter mortier 
adopted fr. fr. mortier {= 
span, mortero, it. mortajo^, 
whence also du. mortel, mhg. 
mortcr mortel G. mortet): source 
LAT. mortdrium. 

mortgage borrowed fr. fr. 
mortgage lit. 'a dead pledge'. 

moss me. oe. mos 'a swamp, 
a plant' : Teut. base mosa- = 
DU. mos 'moss, plant', ohg. mos 

'a swamp, plant' G. moos 'plant, 
bog', ON. mosi 'moss, mire'. 
Ident. w. OE. meos, ohg. mios 
from a Teut. base meusa-, whence 
mire. Outside of teut., lat. 
muscus and OSLOV. miichu are 

most adj. and adv. 'greatest 
in size' me. most OE. 7ndst com- 
monly OE. mckst = OSAX. mht, 
DU. meest, ohg. g. meist, ON. mestr, 
GOTH, maists. Superl. belonging 
to the compar. more. goth. 
maists has the old superl. suffix 
like GOTH, bat-ists, ohg. brt,yst, 
OE. hetst (for bet-esi). The adj. 
stem goth. mirs, ohg. md-ri, 
OE. ?ncere etc. seems to be the 
base of more and most. 

mote ME. mote oe. mot (plur. 
motti) 'atom' ; the me. form are 
based on the oe. nom. plur. 
Cp. DU. motl 

moth me. moththe oe. moppe = 
DU. motyt), mhg. g. motte, on. motti, 
sw. mott a moth' with the by- 
forms MHG. matte, oe. mohpe me. 

mother' me. tnpder oe. inpdor 
=r OSAX. modar , du. moeder, 
OHG. muoter G. mutter, on. modir. 
The common teut. word for 
'mother' (goth. said (7/)5^z). teut. 
modr- 'mother' from ARYAN mdtr- 
in SKR. jndtr, gr. fitjv/^o judrt^g, 
LAT. mdter, osLOV. mati , oiR. 
mat/fir 'mother'. 

mother^ 'dregs, lees' from 
*mudder ^= ODU. modder 'mud, 
dregs', DU. moer 'dregs, lees'. 

motley — muff 


LG. G. moder, dan. sw. mudder 
'mud, mould". Cogn. w. 7nud. 

motley adj. me. motle bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. viatteli 'clotted, 

mould ^ sb. 'fine soft earth' 
ME. OE. mglde ground, land, 
earth, country' = OHG. tnolta, 
ON. mold 'mould', goth. mulda 
'dust': '\f vial (cp. meaf) with 
formative d as in old, cold. 

mould^ sb. ME. mglde adopted 
fr. OFR. molle (fr. moule) 'a 
mould': source lat. modulus 
dimin. of modus 'measure'. 

moult vb. ME. jnoute OE. bi- 
mutian: borrowed fr. lat. mtitare 
'change', whence also DU. muiten, 
OHG. mu"^6n G. mausern 'change 
the feathers or skin, moult'. 

mount vb. adapted fr. fr. 
tnonter 'mount'. 

mount sb. me. mount: loanword 
from FR. mont. Ident. with OE. 
miint from lat. monte?n (mons). 
The ME. ou = u is not the OE. 
u, but substitution for the FR. 
nasal vowel. — mountain me. 
vwuntaine fr, ofr. montaine = 
FR. montagne (lat. type Ttion- 

mourn vb. me. mourtie oe. 
miirnan str. vb. = OSAX. mornian, 
OHG. mornen, ON. morna, GOTH. 
maurnan : aryan v'^ ^^f" in gr. 
iitoiu va sorrow' and lat. memor. 

mouse me. mous (plur. mls^ 
OE. mils (plur. mys) = DU. muis, 
OHG. mus g. maus, ON. mus. The 
base 7nus- occurs in almost all 
ARYAN languages. Cp. skr. tnus 

'mouse' with the \^ muS mu§ 
musdy 'take away, rob'; also 
GR. Livq, lat. mus, OSLOV. 7nysu 

mouth ME. ffwuth oe. Tmid = 
OSAX. m7'id, DU. mond, OHG. mund 
G. mund, ON. munnr miidr, goth. 
munps 'mouth'. The teut. 
7nunpa-z 'mouth' is based on 
pre-TEUT. msnto-s and connected 
with LAT. 7ne7itum 'chin'. 

move vb. me. move with the 
by-form moeve fr. ofr. moiwir 
memoir fr. 7noui>oir r= lat. 

moAV sb. me. Ttunve 7nouwe oe. 
miiga 7ftuwa = on. 7/tugi 'heap'; 
cp. . OHG. mu-werf 'mole' orig. 
'maker of mole-heaps'. 

moAV vb. me. mpwe oe. mdwan 
str. vb. = DU. maaijen , ohg. 
7nde7i MHG. 7n(EJen G. 7ndhen. A 
common west-teut. y/^tTie 'mow' 
appears in OE. mdp (e. math in 
after-, latter-'), OHG. mad G. mahd 
'mowing, swath', and in GR. 
a-nrjToq 'harvest' — d-fido) 'I 
mow' and in lat. metere 'reap'. 

much iffi. 7/wche 7nuche for 
earlier muchel OE. mycel fr. a 
Teut. base tnukila- (niikila-)', 
cogn. w. GR. LuydXrj and /.leyac, 
SKR. mdhan 'great'. Cp. mickle. 

muck ME. 7nuck borrowed fr. 
a SCAND. *7nuk- = ON. 7nyki 
mykr 'dung'. 

mud ME. 7nud = OLG. mudiie 

muff vb. DU. mof lg. g. sw. 
muff: DAN. muffe a new teut. 
word derived fr. fr. 7nouflc 




'mitten*. viuffula (9''' 
cent.). Cogn. w. rnufjle vb. 
'cover up warmly' fr. ofr. 7noufle 

mulberry ^ie. oe. miirberie oe. 
mor-berie ^= du. inoerbes moer- 
besie , ohg. miirberi inorberi G. 
maulbeere; the / of the first part 
of the compound for r is the 
effect of dissimilation ; tnor is 
LAT. morum 'a mulberry . The 
second part is an explanatory 

mule 3kiE. miile borrowed fr. 
FR. mule\ source lat. mulus 'a 
mule*, whence also it. mulo, o. 
maulesel (ohg. ?nul, oiR. OE. 

murder sb. me. f/iorther oe. 
mordor = GOTH, maurpr'., from 
\^mr mar 'die' and suffix -Pra; 
cp. OE. mord = ON. niord, OSAX. 
morth, DU. fnoord, OHG. G. mord 
'premeditated murder'. teut. } 
morpa- 'murder' is based on ' 
pre-TEUT. mfto-m 'death': \/^fnor\ 
widely diffused through all the ! 
Aryan languages signified 'die'. ! 
Cp. the SKR. yftnr 'die' (mrtd-m I 
'death' — mrtas 'dead' — mdrta-s 
'mortal') virtytis death'; lat. I 
mori 'die' — ftwrtum A^did^ — 7nors 
'death'; oSLOV.wr*?// die' — moru- 
su-mruti 'death' — jnrutvu (lat. 
mortuus) 'dead ; lith. mirti 'die' 
— mirtis 'death'; gr. ^(jnio^ (for 
*«poroc)'i^ortar — dufigorogim- 
mortal'; OIR. marb 'dead'. — 
murder vb. me. 7nurthre viirthre 
OE. myrdrian =r ohg. murdiren, 
GOTH, maurprjan 'murder, kill'. 

murky aie. mirke mirk bor- 
rowed fr. ON. f/iyrkr and ident. 
w. OE. mir(!e ?nyrce. OE, myrce, 
OSAX. mirki and on, tuyrkr 
'dark represent a Teut, base 

murmur vb. :me. murmure 
adopted fr, fr. murmurer {= 
SPAN, fnurmtirar, it. mortnorare, 
OHG, murmuron G. murmeln) : 
source lat, tnurmurare. 

muscle adopted fr. fr. muscle: 
source lat, musculus 'a muscle, 
a little mouse', dimin. of mus 
'a mouse' (gr. /utig) a mouse, 
a muscle'. From the same source 
also DU. G. muskei 'a muscle'. 

must sb. me. oe. must 'new 
wine' (= DU. G. most, on. must) 
adopted fr. lat, mustum 'new 
wine', whence also ofr. moust, 
Fl^. mout, IT. mosto., See musty, 
moist etc. 

must vb. ME, OE. moste pret. 
of OE. motan = osAX, motan, 
DU. moeten , OHG. muoxi^an G. 
miissen, goth. motan. 

mustard me. mustard mostard 
(= DU. master d mostaard, G. 
mostert {vwstricH) : borrowed fr. 
OFR, moustard = fr. f/ioutard. 
Source OFR, moust = lat. mustus 
'new wine', 

mute ME. miiet fr. fr. fnuet. 
Source lat, mutus 'dumb*. 

mutton 2iiE. motoun mutoun adopt- 
ed fr, OFR, moton (fr, tnoutoti). 

muzzle :me. mosel borrowed fr. 
OFR. musel = fr. museau 'muzzle'; 
perh. orig. identical w. morcel 
= E. morsel. 




mushroom late me. musheroun 
fr. the equiv. ofr. mousseron. 

muster sb. 'a show; review, 
array; pattern' etc. short for 
AIE. moustre from ofr. tnonstre 
(fr. niontre = it. mostrd): source 
LAT. monslrare, whence also DU. 
monster, mlg. fnunster, G. tmistcr, 

s w. DAN. monster. — Hence the vb. 
muster vb. 'exhibit, review' etc. 
ME. must{e)re < ofr. monstrer 
(fr. montrer = span, mostrar, 
IT. mostrare^ from lat. monstrare; 
cp. DU. monsteren, mlg. munsteren, 
G. mustern, sw. monstra, dan. 


nag ME. nagge 'horse'; cp. ODU. 
negge a small horse'. 

nail ME. nail oe. ncej^el = OSAX. 
OHG. nagal du. g. nagel, on. 
«^^/ 'finger-nail' — «tf^// 'wooden, 
iron nail'; GOTH. *nagls inferred 
from the vb. nagljan 'nail', teut. 
nag la- arose from ARYAN nog Mo- 
or nokhlo-; cp. SKR. nakhd 'nail 
of a finger or toe, claw of a 
bird', GR. ovvx' (nom. ovvt) nail 
of a finger or toe, claw, hoof, 
hook', LAT. unguis 'claw, talon', 
OIR. ingen (cymr. ewin) from 
ynghwind, OSLO v. nogUti 'nail, 
claw' (fr. OSLOV. noga 'foot'); 
LITH. ndgas 'finger-nail' — nagd 
'horse's hoof, aryan \f nokh 

naked adj. me. naked oe. ndcod 
^= DU. naakt, ohg. nackut nahhut 
G. nackt, ON. nekkvidr, goth. 
naqaps: Teut. l)ase naqo-da- 
naqa-da- from a pre-TEUT. nogoto- 
nogeto-; cp. oiR. «<7^/^/naked' from 
a base nokto- and skr. nagnd 
'naked' with suffix na for ta\ 

without consonantal suffix are 
formed OSLO v. nagii, lith. 7iu gas 
naked'. Allied also lat. niidus 
for *novdus *nogvtaus. — aryan 

name sb. me. ?idme oe. tidtna 
noma =- osAX. ohg. nafno, DU. 
naam, g. name, ON. nafn (for 
*namn), GOTH. namd\ synon. with 
SKR. ndma, gr. o-roua, lat. 
nomen and perh. also ident. with 
OSLOV. im^ fr. *in-men *?n-men, 
PRUSS. emmans, OIR. ainm. The 
ARYAN base was nd-fnen-, which 
perh. was orig. *gno-men- fr. the 
ARYAN \r^«^ in know. Then 
name prop, meant 'name by 
which a thing is known'. 

nap^ sb. from the vb. me. 
nappe O'E. hnceppian hnappian 'doze'; 
cp. OHG. hnaffezen mhg. nafzen 
vb. 'slumber'. Perh. cogn. w. 
OE. hnipian, o^.hnipna vb. 'droop*. 

nap 2 sb. earlier nop me. noppt 
nap', OE. hnoppa ('villus') 'nap 

of cloth' = DU. nop, MLG. DAN. 

noppe, osw. nop 'nap of cloth or 

English Etymology. 


nape — neck 

wool'; cogn. \v, NORWEG. niippay 
GOTH, dishniupan "to, break'. 

nape me. nape 'knob'; perh. 
with inner labial for guttural and 
cogn. w. neck. 

napkin me. napekin adopted fr. 
FR. nappe table-cloth with dimin. 
suffix -kin. Source a vulg. lat. 
"^nappa == lat. mappa 'a cloth'. 
See map. 

nard me. nard borrowed fr. 
FR. nard (= span. it. nardo) 
= LAT. fiardus, whence also Q. 

narrow adj. me. narou^e narwe 
OE. nearu = OSAX. ?iaru, du. 
naar) from a teut. adj. narwa- 
(used as fem. sb. in ohg. 7iarwa 
G. narbe 'scar'). Cp. lith. ner-ti 
vb. 'thread' (a needle) — nartuj 
'cell of the queen-bee'. 

narwhal (= g. ?iarwal) adopt- 
ed fr. DAN. sw. narhval = ON. 
nd-hi'alr 'sea-unicorn'. The se- 
cond element see under whale; 
the first part is obscure. 

nasty adj. corruption of an 
earlier nasky; perh. borrowed 
fr. sw. dial, naskug 'nasty, dirty'. 

naught :^IE. naught oe. ndht 
earlier ndwiht = osAX. nioiinht 
ohg. mmviht g. nichi, du. niei, 
GOTR. ni waihts 'no thing'; cp. 

nave' sb. 'the body of the 
church' borrowed fr. ofr. nave 
FR. nef (= SPAN. IT. nave^ 'a 
ship' — 'the body of the church': 
med,-lat. ndz'is 'the nave of 
a church' = lat. navis 'ship'. 

I nave"^ sb. 'the hub of a wheel' 

I ME. nave oe. ndfu = du. naa/ 

i aay nave , ohg. naba G. nabe, 

I ON. ngf, GOTH. *naba\ an old 

; ARYAN word (base nobha) ; cp. 

SKR. ndbhi f. and nabhya n. 'the 

nave' (of a wheel); cogn. w. 

navel. See auger. 

navel sb. me. ndvel(e) oe. nd- 
fela = DU. navel, OHG. nabjilo 
G. nabel, ON. najli; GOTH. *nabala : 
j a commonARYANword with a base 
! tiobhalo-'. on b halo-; cp. the synon. 
! GR.>aX6g, lat. umbilicus (tor 
I *unbilicus '^ nobilicus) , SKR. ndbhila, 
I oiR. iinbliu 'navel'. These words 
are very old /-derivatives of 
I ARYAN ndbhd onbhd 'nave, navel'; 
I cp. LETT, naba navel , lat. u7nbo 
I 'boss of a shield'. Cp. nave. 

navy me. ndvie ndzie: borrowed 
fr. OFR. navee orig. 'a single 
ship' (fr. lat. navis ship*). 

nay we. nai: loanword fr. on. 
DAN. nei 'no, not', which answers 
to genuine no (cp. aye), 

neap-tide sb. .me. n{p-s{soun 
oe. n'tp-Jlpd 'ebb'; a teut. adj. 
nepa- is not found elsewhere. 

near adj. 'nigh' now used as 
a positive, but prop, a compa- 
rative adverb me. ncr (ner) oe. 
near (nyr) contr. of *ncahor {*ni'a- 
hir) = OSAX. OHG. ndhor adv., 
I du. naar adv. Cp. nigh. 
! neat adj. borrowed fr. fr. net 
j (source lat. nitidus 'shining, 

neck ^kfE. nekke oe. hnecca = 
DL'. nek\ cp. OHG. nac hnac (ck) 

need — nest 


0. nacken, on. hnakki: Teut. base 
*hnakkan- for OM. hnakki and 
*hnekkan- for OE. hnecca. OIR. 
cnocc, OBRET. cnoch 'liill' (stem 
ctwcco-^ may be cognate, perhaps 
also nape. 

need sb. me. ned (naf) OE. ned 
nyd {^n{ad) fr. a Teut. base naudi 
^ OSAX. «(?^/, DU. nood, OHG. 
//(?/ G. «<?/, ox. naudr, GOTH. 
naups: pre-TEur. tiauti- has been 
connected with pruss. nauti- 
'distress'; pre-TEUT. \fnau. 

needle me. nedle oe. nedl nddl 
(oldest form Hcedl) — oSAX. nddla, 
DU. naald, OHG. nddala G. node/, 
ox. «<//, GOTH, nepla: a common 
Teut. word for 'needle* formed 
with the suffix -f>ld-, ARYAN -t/d- fr. 
\/^ne seen in ohg. ndj'an g. niihen 
'sew'. rEUT.\/~«^ is usually con- 
nected with the AR.\A:s\^sni in 
LAT. nere, gr. vtu) 'I spin' — v^/m 
'thread' — vT]xoov 'spindle'; oiR. 
x«/>« 'spinning' and 5«<7M^ 'thread' 
— sndtJwt 'needle'. 

neeze vb. cp. me. nisinge 'snee- 
zing' and ON. hnjosa, ohg. hnio- 
san g. niesen, du. niezen vb. 
'sneeze': t^v\.\'' hneus, cogn. w. 
the TEUT. v^y^'^^-s^ in oe. fneosan 
ME. fnese and DU. fniezen 'to 
sneeze' and y^sneus in sneeze, 

neif neaf me. w^t^^ 'fist' bor- 
roAved from ox. hnefi 'fist' (sw. 
ndfve, DAN. nceve). 

neigh vb. me. niie oe. hnckyin 
'neigh' ;= du. ««V// vb. and 
MLG. neiinge sb. 'neighing*, MHG. 
neigen vb. 'neigh': of imitative 

origin like on. gneggja and OHG. 
hweibn vb. 'neigh'. 

neighbor me. neighebour oe. 
nlhhebur prop, nfah-jjtbiir = osAX. 
ndbiir (for ndh-gibtir), x>\:.nabuur, 
OHG. ndh-gibur g. nachbar: a com- 
mon West-Teut. compound of 
«/^// and bower, pointing to 
GOiH. *ne/mia-gabfir. 

neither see either', me. nonther 
OE. ndu'der earlier form /w- 

nephew me. neviw borrowed 
from FR. neveu; supplanting the 
genuine me. neve oe. ne/a 'grand- 
son, nephew' = on. neji 'relative', 
DU. //^^'grandson, nephew, cou- 
sin*, OHG. nievo G. neffe 'sister's (or 
brother's) son': Teut. base nefan- 
from a pre-Teut. base nipdt- ap- 
pearing in SKR. ndpdt (stem 
ndptr) 'descendant, son, grand- 
son', GR. avsxpioq a first cousin, 
kinsman' — vinodeq 'offspring', 
LAT. nepos (the source of FR. 
Tteveu, whence e. nepheui) 'a 
grandson, also a nephew*, oiR. 
nia 'a sister's son*. 

nest me. OE. nest = ohg. g. 
du. nesi: teut. nes/a- = pre-Teut. 
form nizdo- confirmed by skr. 
nida-s 'lair of animals' also 
'dwelling', armen. nisi seat', 
OIR. nei 'nest', LAT. nidus 'nest' 
for *nizdos. The ARYAN ni-zdo- is 
prop, a compound of the ARYAN 
\^sed sit, seat oneself, and 
the verbal particle ni preserved 
in SKR. (see nether); nizdo- 
from ni-sedo- means lit. 'settle- 
ment'; cp. .SKR. ni-sad 'sit down, 


net — nisht 

settle'. — nestle vb. me. nest{e)k 
OE. tiistlian {= DU. neslelen, G. 
nisiebi) '. a frequent, form, lit. 
'frequent a nest'. 

net ME. OE. net (it) fr. a Teut. 
natja- = OS AX. net (fietti), DU. 
ON. net, OHG. nezzi G. neiz, goth. 
nati; allied to ON. not 'a large 
net' and lat. nassa 'net'. 

nether adj. aie. nether e oe. 
neoiiera\ cogn. \v. OSAX. nithiri, 
DU. neder, ohg. nidiri G. nieder 
and OE. wV/^r = osAX. nithar, 
DU. neder, ohg. nidar g. nieder, 
ON. «/V/r, GOTH. *nipar\ deriv. 
from the Aryan verbal particle 
«/ 'downward' mentioned under 
«^^/ and the comparat. suffix 
LAT. -ter, GR. -Te()og, skr. -/^rrt;. 

nettle 2kiE. //^///i? oe. nete/e = 
DU. MLG. «^/(?/, OHG. ne"^ila G. 
nessel; with dimin. suffix -ilon- 
from a more original form seen 
in OHG. na-^yi nettle', goth. */wA? 
and *natild', possibly connected 
with net and with the redupli- 
cated OIR. 7ienaid (base nenat-^ 
nettle'; cp. lith. notere 'nettle'. 

never adv. me. never oe. ndfre 
from ne 'not' and cefre = ever. 

new adj. me. ?ieive oe. neowe 
(iiiwe) = OSAX. ohg. niuwi, DU. 
nieiiw, G. «^«, ON. «>''r, goth. niujis. 
The common teut. niuja- from 
pre-TEUT. niuyo- answers to skr. 
tidvyas naviyas (and ndvas), lith. 
naujas navas (OSLOV. novii, lat. 
novns, GR. j'foc); prob. connected 
with the ARYAN particle nu 'now', 
so that that which is new' means 
now, recent'. Cp. vmt.i. 

newt with secondary // from 
I me. elite evete OE. efete; not found 
i in the other Teut. languages. 
! Teut. base abiton-l 

next adj. me. next oe. niehst 
ne'hst = OSAX. OHG. ndhist c. 
ndchst: superl. of oe. tihih = e. 
nigh. See also near. 

nice ME. ni(e 'foolish' fr. Ofr. 
ni(e 'slothful, idle, dull'; source 
LAT. nescius 'ignorant'. 

niche borrowed fr. fr. niche 
=^ IT. nicchia 'a recess in the 

nickname short, for earlier 
nekendme me. eke-ndme prop, ad- 
ditional name'; cp. on. auknafn, 
DAN. dgnavn nickname'. For oe. 
icanycean 'to add cp. eke. Tlie 
initial n of nickname is secon- 
dary as in newt. 

niece me. nege fr. fr. niece: 
source med.-lat. neptia 'a niece' 
= LAT. neptis a' grand-daughter, 

niggard sb. me. nigard with 
the by-form me. nigoun 'niggard'; 
the formation of the Me. words 
points to Fr. influence. 

nigh adj. adv. and prep. me. 
neigh OE. neh earlier ncah = 
OSAX. ndh, OHG. ndh G. nahe, on. 
nd-r, GOTH, nehws 'nigh, near': 
Teut. base nehwa- = pre-TEUT. 
neko- neqe-. Cp. near, next 
and neighbour. 

night ME. night {tiaught) OE. 
niht {neaht') = osax. ohg. naht, 
DU. G. nacht, ON. ndtt nott, goth. 
nahts : teut. fiaht- from pre- 
TEUT. nokt-\ cp. LAT. nox (stem 

nightingale — nose 


nocti-), GR. vvS. {yvKX-), skr. 
7idkta — naktan — ndkH, lith. 
naktis, OSLOV. nosti. See fort- 
night, sennight. 

nightingale me. fiightengdle oe. 
nihte-gale = OSAX. ohg. nahti-gala, 
DU. nachtegaal, G. nachtigall 'a 
nightingale*: from oe. niht (gen. 
nihte) = night and teut. galan 
str. vb. 'sing'. Cp. stanyel. 

nightmare me. nightemdre\ oe. 
OHG. ON. mora 'a night -mare' 
(du. nach'-merrie 'nightmare'). 

nightshade oe. niht-sceadu from 
OE. niht = E. night and oe. 
sceadu = e. shade. 

nimble adj. me. nimel lit. 'ready 
to catch' from OE. niman vb. 
'take, seize'; for the suffix cp. 

nine me. nine oe. nigone without 
inflexion nigon neogon = osAX. 
nigun, nv.negen; cp. goth. ohg. 
niun g. neun, on. niii 'nine': the 
forms with g are based on teut. 
*n'egun for *newun, whilst goth. 
and OHG. niun are based on*ne7vn. 
The numeral is common to all 
Aryan languages in the form 
newsn newn ; cp. skr. ndvan, lax. 
novem, gr. svrsa, OIR. noi. 

nit me. Tzite oe. hnitu = du. 
neet, mlg. «^/^ «//, ohg. W5 o. 
wVf. gr. ; ov/? (plur. , om)fc) 
"egg of lice, bee-bugs and fleas" 
may be allied , if x(o)vid is 
common to both languages. Cp. 
also SLAV, gnida and alban. ^cni 
from *kenidd. 

no adv. .ME. no oe. 7id {= on. 

nei cp. d!j) from ne 'not' and 
<f aye, ever'. 

noble me. 7jgbk fr. fr. fwhle = 
LAT. nobilis. 

nod vb. ME. nodde', cogn. w. 
ohg. hnuttin 'vibrate' mhg. fiotten 
'stake' and ON. hnjoda vb. ham- 
mer : rE\i'V.\^hnud. 

noddle 'head' me. nodle. 

noise sb. me. noise borrowed 
fr. FR. ;z^/jr^ 'quarrel' ; source lat, 
nausea 'nausea'. 

noisome adj. of me. noy 7iuy 
'annoyance, hurt' earlier me. anui 
fr. FR. ennui (ofr. anui^\ cp. 

none me. non oe. nd7i from 7ie 
'not' and dn = one. 

nook ME. nph 'corner'. 

noon ME. OE. npn = osax. ohg. 
nona, du. noen, G. no7ie, on. 7idn. 
Source LAT. nona (sc. hora) lit. 
'the ninth' (hour) with an ex- 
tension of meaning 'midday, 
twelve o'clock'. 

nor ME. nor short for nother 
'neither', oe. ndrcder contr. of 
ndhwceder 'neither' from oe. 7id = 
7to and OE. hwceder = whether. 

north ME. north{e) oe. norp = 
DU. noord, OHG. G. nord, on. nordr, 
sw. DAN. nord', it. span, norte, 
FR. 7iord are of Teut. origin. 

northern me. northerne oe. nor- 
deine prehistoric *norprx7ii fr. a 
teut. type norproni^= ohg. 7ior- 
drtioni, on. norrcenn 'northern'. 

nose me. nose oe. nosu (ndsu) 
'the nose'; cp. du. neus, ohg. 
7iasa g. 7tase, O'H.nps: teut. *naso- 
nosb- 'nose' = aryan nas-; cp. 


not — nut 

SKR. ndsa nas, osLov. nosti, lith. 
nosis, LA.T. nasus ndres. — nostril 
ME. nosethirl oe. nos-pyrel {iiccs- 
pyrl) lit. 'a nose-orifice' from 
Ov..tiosunasu=^nose and o^. pyrcl 
'a perforation, orifice'. 

not ME. not short for nought 
OE. nauht ndiviht = osax. ohg. 
niowiht, du. niet, G. «/M/. From 
OE. nc 'not' and oe. dw'iht = 

notch also nock me. tiokke = 
ODU. nock 'a notch in the head 
of an arrow', osw. nocka 'a notch': 
source ofr. hoche 'notch ? 

note me. note adopted fr. fr. 
note: source lat. nota 'a mark, 
sign, note'. — notice borrowed 
fr. FR. notice 'notice' = lat. notitia 
'knowledge, acquaintance'. 

noun sb. borrowed fr. ofr. non 
= fr. nom 'a name : source 
LAT. fionien 'a name . 

nourish vb. me. nurisshe vb. 
adopted fr. ofr. noriss- tVie stem 
of certain forms of OFR. norrir 
= FR. nourrir 'nourish': source 
LAT. nutrire 'feed'. Cp. nurse. 

now me. no7t' oe. nti = osax. 
nu, DU. nu, OHG. nfi G. nu(n), on. 
mi, GOTH, mi: a common aryan 
adv.; cp. skr. tiu nun-am 'now', 
GR. vv vvi; lat. nunc (with the c 
ofhi-c), oslv. n-yne 'now , lith. nu. 
Cp. ne7C'. 

nude adj. fr. fr. nude = lat. 
nudus 'naked'. 

nuisance sb. me. noisauufe bor- 
rowed fr. FR. nuisance 'a hurt': 

a verbal noun formed fr. the 
pres. part, of FR, nuif-e = lat. 
nocere hurt, injure'. 

numb adj. me. nome nomen prop, 
part, of ME. nifne = oe. niman 
'take, overpower, deprive of sen- 
sation'; cp. ON. numinn 'bereft' 
(of life, of speech). 

number adopted fr. ¥R.nombre: 
source lat. numerics 'a number'. 
— numerous adj. adopted fr. 
FR. numcreux (for the usual nom- 
breux) fr. lat. numerosus adj. 
'numerous . 

nun ME. nonne oe. nunne =:^ du. 
non, ohg. nunna G. nonne. In the 
8'*^ cent, adopted fr. lat. nonna 
(orig, meaning 'mother') ; cp. fr. 
nonne, it. nonna 'a nun'. 

nurse sb. contr. of me. norife 
nuri(e: loanword fr. Ofr. nurrice 
= FR. nourrice. Source lat. 
nutric-em'si nurse'. — nurture sb. 
ME. nor tare adopted fr. ofr. no- 
riture (= Y^.nourriture) : source 
lat. nutritura 'nourishment . See 

nut ME. Jiote nute oe. hnutu = 
DU. noot., ohg. mr^ G. nuss, on. 
^«^/'nut'. The Teut. base hnut- 
points to Y" knud (seen in oiR. 
cnu 'nut'?). — nutmeg me. note- 
niuge 7iutmegge from me. nut = 
nut and me. miige borrowed fr. 
ofr. muge 'musk' = lat. muscus 
musk ? Cp. OFR. muguette fr. 
?nuguct 'a nutmeg' = ital. noce 

oaf — on 



oaf ident. with elf\ perh. OE. 
celf or rather borrowed fr. on. 
dlfr 'elf. 

oak ME. ok OE. dc fr. a Teut. 
base aik- = on. eik, du. «>^, 
OHG. eih G. «V^<?: all with the 
same meaning 'oak'; perh. cogn. 
w. OR. aiyavst] 'spear' — Aiyig. 

oakum me. gkumb oe. d-cimiba 
tow'; cp. OHG. d-kantbi 'tow': 
prop, 'that which is combed 
out'. For OE. comb cp. comb. 

oar ME. ore oe. dr (infl. are) 
fr. a Teut. base airo- = ox. dr 
(dan. <zar^, sw. arrt). If teut. 
<?/r^- is an aryan eryd-, \fer in 
OR. spsvtjq 'oarsman' — spsTjuog 
'oar' might be cognate, cp. ro7a. 

oast me. psf OE. dsi 'kiln, dry- 
inghouse' = DU. ees/: teut. dr/>/«- 
cogn. w. L.\T. aesfus ghnving heat'; 
ARYAN \^ aidh 'burn' in GR. alitog 

oath ME. pyA OE. d/ = goth. 
ai/s, ON. eidr, du. eed, OHC. G. 
eid 'oath': teut. ai/a- fr. a pre- 
TEUT. oi/o- in OIR. (^(?/^ 'oath'; perh. 
\^ai in OHG. (?7£'<j: 'law'. 

oats ME. pfes plur. of p/e oe. 

oblige vb. .ME. oblige = fr. 
obliger, LAT. obligare. 

obtain fr. fr. obtenir. 

odd ME. ^^/<'/(? 'distinguished, 
special': loanword fr. on. oddi 'a 
triangle', which also means 'an 

j odd number' {standask i odda 
! 'be at odds, quarrel'). 

i of ME. OE. of = GOTH. ON. DU. 

af, OHG. aba G. ab '. aryan apo in 
^ GR. dill}, skr. <i/a 'away . — off 
I orig. ident. w. of. 

offend vb. me. offende fr. fr. 
1 ojfendre = lat. offendere. 

offer vb. me. offre oe. offrian 
wk. vb. 'offer': loanword fr. lat. 
offerre 'offer'; cp. DU. offer sb. 
offering' and OSAX. offron vb. 

office ME. office fr. fr. office = 
LAT. officium duty'. 
often earlier oft me. ofte oe. ^? 

= ON. opt, GOTH. ///"/</, OHG. ofto 

G. <?/? 'frequently'. The adv. 
points to a Teut. adj. of-ta-, 
which is perh. part, of an akyan 
\/~uq = SKR. uc 'to be wont'. 

oil me. oik {olie) fr. OFR. oile 
= FR. huile 'oil' (lat. oleutn). 

ointment me. oinement fr. OFR. 
oig*'ement: deriv. of fr. oindre = 
LAT. ungere vb. 'anoint . 

old ME. old OE. did (fald) : Teut. 
base alda- =r osax. aid, OHG. G. 
alt, ON. aldr, du. oud 'old'; cogn, 
w. GOTH, alpeis 'old' and usalpan 
'grow old'. A primitive teut. 
and ARYAN V^a/grow' cp. in GOTH 
I alan == lat. alere 'nourish . 

on ME. oe. on = GOTH, ana 
'on*, G. an OHG. ana, DU. aan, 
ON. a (for *a«) : cogn. w. gr. 
(ivu, SKR. ana. 



once ME. ones late oe. dnes (com- 
monly cknes)\ orig. genitive of 
OE. an = one', cp. G. einsi OHG. 
ernes. — one me. on oe. an fr. 
a Teut. base aina-z = goth. ains, 
ON. einn, du. een, G. ein. aryan 
oifio-s may be inferred fr. lat. unus 
(for oinos'), IR, iJ<?«, CYMR. un, GR. 
o(yf/c; cogn. w. SKR. <?-^« 'one'. 

onion me. onioun fr. fr. oignon 
whence also flam, anjoen du. 
ajidn fr. OD\:.onJuun: source lat. 
uni6(nem) , whence also ok. ynne 
'onion' fr. west-teut. *unnjon- = 
TEUT. unjon-. 

only ME. pnli earlier pnlic OE. 
d7ilic 'unique'. From one. 

ooze ME. wgse oe. wos (infl. 
Tf/^iiv) juice'; perh. fr. a Teut. 
base wansa- in ON. z'<i.J 'wetness'; 
cp. MLG. 7i>dse 'juice'. 

or conj. ME. or shortened fr. 
an earlier odr, which supplants 
oe. oiide or' under the influence 
of oe. dwder dhwceiter r= me. 
anther outher 'either' ('one of two') 

or adv. 'ere'ME. or late oe. {rare) 
dr\ commonly oe. ^r me. ir 'ere'. 
See ere. 

orange me. orenge fr. ofr. orenge 
= FR. orange. 

open ME. open oe. open fr. a 
Teut. base opana- = ohg. offan 
G. offen, OSAX. opan, DU. open, 
ON. opinn. The adj. has the form 
of a participle and points to a 
lost verbal root {eup'i wepT). 

orchard me. orchard oe. or e'er d 
older ort-~i^eara (= goth. aurii- 
gards 'garden ) : adoption of lat. 
hortus (for the mute h cp. it. 

orto) ; GOTH, aiirtja 'gardener' and 
OHG. orzbn 'cultivate' point also to 
LAT. hortus. The ch of the E. word 
is owing to a fusion of / -|- 5 

I (oe. ort -\- "^eard). oe. ^eard 

! garden' (cp. yard and garden) 

\ is added in explanation of lat. 

} hortus {= TEUT. or(). 
ordain vb. me. ordaine fr. ofr. 

j ordener = lat. ordinare. — ordre 

' ME. ordre fr. fr. ordre = lat. 
ordinetn (nom. or do). 

I ordure (Shakesp.) 'excrement' 

i ME. ordure fr. FR. ordure. 

j ore ME. or oe. dr 'brass' = goth. 

[ ais 'brass* (aiza-smipa 'copper- 
smith), ON. eir, ohg. er 'brass'; 

I cogn. w. LAT. aes 'ore, bronze', 

j SKR. ayas 'iron . 

I origin me. origine fr. fr. origine. 

j orison 'prayer' me. oreisoun fr. 

j FR. oraison 'prayer': source lat. 

I oratio-nefn. 

; orts ME. ortes plur. of a sing. 
*ort OE. *oret for *or-cet; cp. LG. 
ort 'what is left by the cattle 
in eating' and goth. uzeta crib': 
prefix or 'out' and \/^et in eat. 
ostrich ME. ostriche fr. ofr. 
OS true he = fr. au true he; source 
i.kT. avis struthio 'ostrich', whence 
oe. stryta, ohg. strttT^ (g. vogel 
Strauss) and also it. struzzo. 

Other me. other oe. pder fr. a 
Teut. base anpera-^^Gcn^.anpar, 
OHG. G. du. ander, on. annarr; 
cogn. w. LiTH. antras, skk. antara 
and anya 'other'. 

otter ME. oter oe. otor = du. 
G. otter OHG. ottar, on. otr : base 
TEUT. \fotra- = ARYAN udro- cogn. 

ouch — pack 


w. water; otter prop, 'the water 
animal'. Cp. gr. v^ga 'a water- 
snake' and closely allied to the 
Teut. group OSLOV. vydra, lith. 
tidra 'otter'. 

ouch ME. (?i^r/^<f commonly nouche 
'necklace, collar' fr. ofr. nouche 
prop, nosche (= OHG. nuscd). 

ought = aught. 

ounce ME. oun(e fr. fr. once\ 
source lat. uncia, whence also 

our ME. oure oe. ure for *usre 
= GOTH, unsara: from the Teut. 
pron. uns; cp. us. 

ousel me. psel oe. psle for *omsle 
TEUT. amsla = Ohg. amsala G. 
amsel 'ousel'. 

out ME. cute OE. ute earlier ut 

= GOTH, tit, ON. ut, OHG. ill, G. 

aus, DU. tiit. Cp. SKR. ud 'up, out'. 

outlaw ME. oiitlawe late oe. 
litlaga fr. ON. utlagi; cp. lat. 
^a:/<?;r and see la^v. 

outrage me. outrage fr. fr. ou- 
trage {= source a lat. type 

oven ME. oven oe. ^t/^"/? = ohg. 
ovan G. ^(?/?, DU. oj)en, on. <?/« 
and GOTH, auhns 'oven'; an ori- 
ginal meaning of the Teut. word 
is preserved in oe. ofnet 'vessel'. 

An ARYAN type uqno- is found in 
GR. invo'i; 'oven'. 

over ME. oz'er oe. o/er = goth. 
u/ar, OHG. u6ar, ON. o/r, DU. 
over; cp. G. iider ohg. udt'ri. 
Outside of the Teut. languages, 
GR. vnsp and skr. updri 'above' 
are cognate. 

owe vb. ME. p7i^e oe. dga/i 
possess' = GOTH, aigan, ohg. 
e/gan 'possess' : aryan v^ aik in 
SKR. z( possess'. — ought me. 
p'ughte OE. dhte is the pret. tense of 
OE. dgan and own me. dioen oe. 
dgen is part. = ohg. etgan G. 
eigen, osax. egan. The vb. own 
ME. dune OE. dgnian 'possess' is 
a deriv. of the adj. own. 

owl ME. oule OE. ule fr. a Teut. 
base UTrnvalon-; cp ohg. uwila G. 
(?«/^; ON. sw. ugla points to a 
GOTH. *uggwaldn-. The word is 

ox ME. ox OE. ^^« = GOTH. 

aiihsa, ohg. <?Ai-<? G. ochse, on. (?J!:z 
?i!j::/, DU. OS 'ox' : Teut. base ohsan-, 
ARYAN ukson- in SKR.' uksan 'ox', 

CYMR. Jf'rA. 

oyster me. oistre fr. ofr. oistre 
= FR. huitre 'oyster': source 
LAT. ostrea, whence also oe. pstre, 
G. auster, du. oester. 

pace ME. //?/•(? /tfi^ borrowed ix.\paquet\ bret. />a^: source and 
FR. />as = LAT. passus 'a step'. I history of the group unknown. 

pack sb. ME. packe = du. pa^, — package formed by adding 
ON. pakki, G. pack, IT. pacco, fr. I the fr. suffix -age = lat. -aticunt 


pact — pall 

to the sb. pack. — packet 
formed fr. the fr. dimin. paquet. 

pact adopted fr. fr. pacte = 
i^kT. pactum, whence also xx. patto, 
DU. G. pacht 'rent-contract'. 

paddock ME./a//^/(9^; the ending 
-ock is a dimin. suftix as in bul- 
lock, hillock. Primit. iME. /rt^/c/*? 

'frOg' = SCAND./rt'////rt', DU. LG. FRIE.S. 

padde (g. schildpatt) . There exists 
also LG. pad-hucke 'paddock', the 
second element of which is lg. 
hucke 'paddock'. 

page sb. ME. pd'^e fr. ¥K. page 
(whence G. page). Source gr. 
Tiaidtov a little boy". 

page'- sb. (of a book) fr. ofr, 
page. Source LAT./4i,'/W, whence 
also OFR. pagene (me. pdglne pdgenl 
page*) and OHG. peine (rare) 
'page'. — pageant orig. 'the 
movable scaffold on which the old 
mysteries were acted' me. pdgent 
— earlier form pdgive pageant'. 
Source med.-lat. pagina 'scaffold 
= LAT. pagina 'a page', also 'a 
plank of wood'. For the excres- 
cent / iw. pageant cp. parchment. 

pail ME. pail oe. pceiel 'bucket' 
^nv. pegel peil, I.G. pegel, whence 
G./<^'^<'/'water-gauge' is borrowed. 

pain ME. peine fr. fr. peine: 
source poena, whence also 
OE. pin ■= E. pine. 

painim MK.painim 'heathendom' 
fr. OFR. paenwie = lat, paga- 
nismus 'heathendom'. 

paint vb. me. painte peinte vb. 
borrowed fr. fr. peint, part, of 
peindre =^\.\y.pingere 'paint'. See 

\ pair ME. peir fr. fr. paire (= 
SPAN, par, IT. paro pajo) '. source 
LAT. /rtr 'alike', whence mhg. par 

\ G. paar 'pair'. See peer. 

palace me-, paleis palais fr. fr. 

palais, whence also mhg. palas 

I (rare paleis) G. palas t: source 

; MED.-LAT. palatitwi. 

palate fr. the svnon. lat. pa~ 

' Idttim (me. pal^t paldt from ofr. 

\ pal at). 

j pale adj. 'as., pale borrowed fr. 

I FR. pale', source lat. pallidus 

\ 'pale'. 

j pale sb. ME. pdl(e) 'stake' fr. 

j FR. pale 'stake or pole'. Source 

! lat. palus 'a stake*. For the 

I rare oe. pal 'stake see pole. 
palfrey me. pal{e)frei palefrai 

j fr. ONFR. palefrei = fr. palefroi, 

' Source 'LXT. par aver edus an extra 

; post-horse' which is also the 

\ source of ohg. pferfr'id G. pferd 
and IT. palafreno, ^vxs.pala/ren. 
The Lat. word is a cornpound of 
or. TTCtgd and gallo-lat. veredus 
'horse' (rheda is Gallo-Lat. for 

' 'travelling carriage' and ve is a 

Celt, prefix) ; yience naga-veredus 

was orig. the horse in reserve'. 

palisade Shakesp. palisado = 

FR. palissade, span, palizada, it. 

palizzata. All equiv. and deriv. 
fr. lat. palus 'a stake'. Cp. 
pale and pole. 

pall me. pal OE. pcell: source 
LAT. pallium. The adoption 
cannot have occurred before 
the literary period of Anglo- 
Saxon, as we should expect an 
oe. form *pelle *pylle 'wrapper'. 

palm — parchment 


LAT. paiia cannot be the source, 
as it never was the ecclesiastical 
terminus technicus, but rather 

palm inner part of the hand 
ME. paume paltne'. borrowed fr. 
OFR. palme = paume. Source 
'LA'V.palma\\\e palm of tVie hand' 
(cogn. w. OY.. folm under feel^. 

palm 2 sb. 'a tree' me. palm OE. 
pdlm: a bible word, lat. palma 
'a palm-tree'. 

palsy ME. pal{e)sie oldest form 
parlesle fr. fr. par a ly sic. source 
LAT. paralysis 'palsy', which was 
used in oe. as paralysis. 

pan ME. OE. panne = ohg. 
pfanna c. pfanne, on. sw. pamia, 
BV.pan: TEvr. panna is regarded 
as a transformation oi'LKl. patina 
(or rather *patna) a basin'. 

pane me. pane 'patch, piece, 
pane fr. fr. pan a pane, piece, 
or pannel : source lat. pannus 
'a cloth, rag, patch'. — - panel 
pannel me. panil 'a piece of 
cloth' (=: DU. paneel^ fr. ofr. 
panel vvi.panneau. Source a lat. 
type panellus fr. pannus. 

pannier me. panier 'bread- 
basket' fr. FR. panier (= lat. 
panarium 'bread-basket', whence 
also DU. paander, osax. paneri, 
OHG. pfandri). 

pansy borrowed fr. fk. pensie: 
derived from fr. penser 'think' 
(cp. G. 7>ergissmeinnicht as the 
name of a flower). 

pant vb. 1 5"" cent, pante paunle 
fr. OFR. pantoyer (cp. fr. pan- 

teler) gasp, pant'; cp. ofr. 
pantais = E. pantas (in falconry) 
'a disease of hawks'. 

pantaloons fr. fr. pantalon. 
The FR. word prop, meant 
trowsers worn by the Venetians 
who were called Pantalone after 
the patron Saint of Venice, St. 

pantry me. pan{e)trle fr. fr. 
paneterie (derived fr. lat. panis 

paper me. paper earlier pap^r 
fr. FR. papier = lat. papyrus 
(cp. also taper), whence also 
G. nv. papier. In late oe. (ii*'' 
cent.), a rare paper (cp. ohg. 
paffur) 'papyrus is found. 

paradise me. paradis (parais) 
fr. OFR. paradis {parais pareis) 
— FR. paradis , IT. paradiso. 
Source lat. paradisus, whence 
also OHG. OSAX. paradis G. para- 
dies, DU. paradijs , on. sw. dan. 
paradis. The corresp. OE. term 
was neorxnawgng. 

paramour me. paramour 'lover, 
concubine'. Source the fr. 
phrase /ff;- amour by love' (cp. me. 
par de by God' — par fay 'by 
my faith' and perhaps^. 

parcel me. parcel prop, parfll 
fr. FR. parcelle (lat. type *par- 
ticella derived fr. particuld). 

parch vb. prop, the same as 
pierce fr. uiE.. perche perce. 

parchment me. parcliemin fr. 
FR. parcliemin (du. perkament fr. 
OFR. parcamin) : source lat. 
pergamena {charta) parchment'. 
The city of Fergamon in Asia 


pardon — pastry 

Minor was famous for the in- 
vention of parchment. The ex- 
crescent / in NE. parchment is the 
same as in tyrant; cp. pageant. 

pardon sb. me. pardonn from 
FR. pardon: source lat. per- 
donare 'remit a debt', whence 
FR. pardonner. 

pare vb. me. pare fr. fr. parer 
--= LAT. parare. 

parish me. parisshe earlier 
parosche fr. OFR. paroche = FR. 
paroisse: source \.ki. parxcia (gr. 
naooixia)y an ecclesiastical ter- 
minus technicus. 

paritory see pellitory. 

park me. park short for oe. 
pearroc; ident. w. DU. mlg. perk 
'a park', OHG. pferrih G. pferch 
'an inclosure, sheepfold' : source 
a Celt, base parraka- (parrika-) 
in FR. pare, it. parco. Cogn. w. 
SPAN, parra 'fruitwall, espalier 
for vine' and provenc. parran 
'small garden'. 

parlour me. parlour fr. fr. 
parloir 'conversation room (fr. 
parler 'speak). 

parrot for earlier (15'' cent.) 
perrot = fr. Perrot Pierrot 
'little Peter (in fr. also used 
as a name for a sparrow). 

parsley me. persll earlier form 
persil fr. fr. persil — lat. petroseli- 
num 'parsley' (cf. G. oe. peter silie). 

parsnip late me. parsnipe pas- 
nipe fr. ofr. pastenaqiie = lat. 
pasiinaca 'parsnip'. 

parson me. persoun ident. w. 
person, med.-lat. persona also 
meant 'curate, parson'. 

part sb. ME. part fr. fr. part 
(= span. it. parte') : source 
lat. pars-partem. — part vb. 
ME. parte vb. fr. fr. partir r=: 
LAT. partiri pariire divide, part . 
— partake vb. me. part take', 
cp. G. teii nehnien. — party sb. 
U¥.. parti(e) fr. FR. par tie, whence 
also MHG. partie G. partei, DU. 
partij; IT. partita = l\t. type 

partridge me. pertriche fr. ofr. 
pertris, whence also du. patrijs 
(ouu. pertrise) : source LXT.perdix- 

parvis me. parvis fr. fr. par vis 
porch of a church'; ident. w. 
paradise. The church-porch 
is called in several languages 
paradise (esp. the portico of 
St. Peter's church, Rome, was 
called paradisus'). 

pass vb. ME. passe {page) vb. 
fr. FR. passer (rr. med. - lat. 
passare 'step, walk' fr. lat. passus 
'step'. — passage me. passage 
fr. FR. passage. — passenger 
earlier passager me. passag^r; 
cp. inesseng er for the secon- 
dary n. 

paste sb. me. paste fr. ofr. 
paste = FR. pate; source late 
lat. pasta paste'. 

pastern earlier pastron repre- 
sents an unrecorded M^.*past(U)- 
roun fr. the synon. ofr. pasturon 
=; FR. paturon. 

pastime for pass-time, an imi- 
tation of the synon. fk. passe-tc?nps. 

pastry sb. me. pdst^ pie' fr. 
0¥K. past^ (earlier /r/j/^M, whence 

patch — peat 


ODU. pasteide = du. pastei) : 
derived fr. \.Ki. pasta ^= paste. 

patch ME. pacche', perh. ident. 
w. LG. plakke 'a piece*. 

path ME. path OE. pap = du. 
LG. pad, OHG. pfaih pfad G. pfad 
a way': Teut. base papa-, not 
cogn. w. GR. narog 'a way', 
SKR. /rtM 'a way', avest. pap 
way'. But cp. oe. pceppan 'tread', 
'LG.pedden vb. 'tread', iAHCp/etten. 

pattern me. patroun borrowed 
fr. FR. patron 'pattern'. 

pause adopted fr. fr. pause 
= LAT. pausa. 

pave vb. ME. pave borrowed 
fr. FR. paver 'pave' (lat. pavire 

paw sb. ME. paue poue bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. fioue (= PROV. 
pauta 'a paw') ; ident. w. du. 
poot, G. pfote: it is uncertain 
whether the base patita is orig. 
Celt, or Teut. 

pa^vn^ sb. borrowed fr. fr. 
pan 'a pawn, gage, pledge'; 
perh. ident. w. ofris. du. pand^ 
OHG. pfant G. pfand. 

pawn'-' sb. (at chess) me. paun 
poun borrowed fr. OFR. poon 
paon peon = fr. pion : source 
IT. pddone prop, 'a footman (lat. 
pedo-neni). Cp. ox. ped-viadr 
pawn at chess. 

paxwax late me. pax-wax 
'tendon of the neck'; cp. ohg. 
waltowahso, ofris. waldewaxe'vi^r- 
vus' and wax for the second ele- 
ment of the compound. The first 
part of E. pax7vax (dial. e. fax- 
wax is obscure. 

pay vb. me. paie vb. fr. fr. 
payer (prop, 'satisfy, content' = 
LAT. /a^<7r^ 'pacify'), whence also 
du. paaien 'pay . 

pea (plur. peas) fr. me. p(s{e), 
the s of which was considered 
to be the plural ending, me. 
p{s points to ONFR. pels = fr. 
pois. Source lat. pisum 'a pea', 
whence also OE. pisu. 

peace me. p(s earlier pais (= 
DU. MLG. peis, MLG. pais^ fr. 
OFR. pais = FR. paix (lat. pax- 
pa cent). 

peach late me. p{che fr. fr. 
peche iox pesche = it. pesca, lat. 
persicum 'a peach'. Fr. the lat. 
word, G. pfirsichy nxj.pcrztk, OE. 
persoc 'a peacli' are borrowed. 

peacock me. p{-cock and pea- 
hen -ME. p(-hinne point to oe. 
pea with the by-form pdwa 'pea- 
cock : source lat. pdvo-nem, 
whence also ohg. pfawo G. 
pfau, \)V. pauw, o^. pd/ugl-, cp. 
FR. paon peacock'. 

pear me. p^re oe. peru 'a pear' 
^ ODU. pere, DU. LG. peer : loan- 
word fr. the equival. \.XT. pirum 
(whence also G. birne) = FR. 
poire 'a pear'. Cp. perry. 

pearl me. pirle fr. fr. perk = 
OHG. per a la G. perle, IT. per la: 
source lat. piriila (for pilula 'a 
little ball'?). 

peasant fr. fr. paysan; cp. 
pheasant fr. FR. faisan and see 

peat for beat (see purse for 
the change of b to /). 


pebble — penny 

pebble sb. me. pihbel-stgn and 
puble-stgn oe. papol-stdn popol-stdn 
'a pebble-stone*, 

peck vb. a var. oi pick. 

peck sb. ME. pekke a measure'; 
perh. akin to fr. picotin 'a mea- 

pedant sb. (=r du. g. dan. 

sw. pedant) borrowed fr. fr. 

pidant, IT. pedante, the ultimate 

source of which is GR. naidivsiv 


pedigree late me. petegrew 
petigrii'. perh. adopted fr. fr. 
pied de grue 'a crane's foot'? 

peel vb. adopted fr. fr. peler. 
Source LAT. pellis 'skin'. 

peep^ vb. 'chirp' me. *pepe pipe 
borrowed fr. FR. piper. Source 
LAT. pipare = GR. -nmniCsiv 
'chirp' : sound - imitation ; for 
variant in form see pipe. 

peep2 vb. 'look prj'ingly'; cp. 
OY^.piper 'peep' — la pipe du jour 
'the peep of day*. 

peer sb. me. pere p(r borrowed 
fr. OVK. per peer ^"Sl. pair. Source 
LAT. par 'equal'; see pair. 


1 vb. 

appear me. pere 
short for ME. appere = appear. 
peer^ vb. 'pry' ale. pire = lg. 
pireii look closely'. 

peevish adj. me. pevisch pfviche 
pevdge. The ending (cp. par- 
tridge and parish) points to 
FR. origin. 

peg sb. me. oe. pegge; akin to 
DAN. pig^ sw. pigg 'spike', lg. 
pigge 'peg'. 

pellitory sb. late me. paritorie 
fr. FR. paritoire, which goes back 
to a LAT. type *parietaria 'the 
plant of the walls'? 

pelt sb. ME. pelt 'a sheep-skin' 
(e. peltry = du. pelterij, mlg. 
peltrie fr. VK. pelletrie); ident. w. 
g. pelz OHG. pelliz^. Source a 
Rom. \.y^<t pellicia = fr. pelisse, 
IT. pelliccia. Cp. pilch. 

pelt vb. yiv,. pelte a\so pilte pulte, 
the latter forms corresponding 
to OE. piltan pyltati. Source 
LAT. pultare 'beat, strike'? 

pen sb. borrowed fr. fr. 
penne. Source lat. penna 'a 

pen vb. ME. penne oe. onpennan 
'impound, enclose': prob. con- 
nected with pound'^ and LG. 
topennen 'bar, bolt' — - ilppennen 

penance me. penaunce fr. ofr. 
penance older peneance = 
poenitentia 'penitence'. 

pencil orig. 'a hair-brush' me. 

penfd fr. ofr. pinccl fr. pinccau 

a brush'. Source lat. penicillus 

'a painter's brush', whence also 

G. pinsel. 

pennon pennant me. penoun 
borrowed fr. ofr. pennon 'a flag, 
streamer' (for the secondary / of 
pennant see pageant, parch- 
ment). Source i.xi: penna 'v/ing, 

penny me. pen/ plur. penies 

(contr. pens, whence e. pence) 

oe. penij^ penni^ penning pending 

1= osax. pending pennifig , du. 

people — pester 


penning, OHG. phanti7ic pfenting 
pfenning G. pfennig, ON. penningr. 
The word may be derived fr. 
pan, so that the form of the 
pennies may have suggested the 
word or it may have been asso- 
ciated with the base *pand 
imder pawnl For the suffix 
-ing cp. shilling , farthing. 

people ME. peple pceple bor- 
rowed fr. OYK. pueple fr. peuple, 
whence also G.pobel. Source lat. 
pppulus 'people' (cp. also DU. 

pepper me. peper piper OE. 
pipor = DU. peper, oho. pfeffar 
G. pfeffer, ON. piparr: borrowed 
fr. LAT. piper (whence also it. 
pepe, FR. poivre). Cp. osLOv. 
pipril 'pepper'. 

perceive vb. me. perceive fr. 
OFR. percet'ervK. apercevoir. Source 
LAT. percipere 'apprehend*. 

perch' 'a rod' me. pirche fr. 
the synon. fr. perche. Source 
LAT. pertica 'a pole, bar? 

perch- 'a fish' me. pirche bor- 
rowed fr. FR. perche. Source lat. 
perca = GR. TiBQY.r] a perch'. 

perchance cp. perhaps. — 

perdy (Shakesp.) by God' 
me. parde = fr. par dieu 'by 

perform vb. me. perfourme ear- 
lier parfourne borrowed fr. ofr. 
parfournir 'perform'. 

perhaps (late me. perhappous 

1 5*^ cent.) and perchance have 
the fr. preposition par (per) in 
imitation of me. peraventiire- 

parauntre and per cas; haps is 
the plur. of hap under happy 
(cp. paramour^. 

peril me. peril fr. fr. piriL 
Source lat. periculiim 'danger'. 

perish vb. me. perisshe bor- 
rowed fr. the stem of some 
forms of the fr. verb pirir 

deriwig formerly periwigge per- 
wicke borrowed fr. VK. perruque (wi 
being substituted for fr. it) ; 
cp. also G. perriicke, DU. pruik. 

periwinkle; cp. the synon. 
me. pervenke oe. pervince. Source 
LAT. pervinca 'a twining plant'. 

perry adopted fr. fr. poiri 
'perry', formed fr. a vulgar LAT. 
type *piratiis 'perry, drink made 
of pears' (i.A.r.pirtim xmA^rpear^. 

person me. pirsoun borrowed 
fr. FR. personne. Source lat. 
persona; ident. w. parson. 

pert adj. me. pert 'pert, plain, 
clever, bold'; cp. odu. gepertich 
FLAM, pertig 'alert'. The group 
goes back to fr. apert. 

pertain vb. me. partine bor- 
rowed .fr. OFR. partenir. Source 
LAT. pertinere 'belong'. 

peruke ident. w. periwig. 

pervious adj. borrowed fr. 
LAT. pervius 'passable'. 

pest borrowed fr. fr. peste. 
Source lat. pestis plague'. 

pester vb. short for impester 
borrowed fr. ofr. etnpestrer 
'pester, entangle' fr. empetrer. 

pet sb. 'a tame animal, a 


pet — pile 

favored child' short for earlier 
peat (iME. *p(i). . 

petty adj. me. /<?/// adopted fr. 
FR. petit 'small'. 

pe'W sb. ME. pile (puwe) fr. 
OFR. puie 'an elevated space', 
an open gallery with rails', 
whence also du. pui , ofris. 
poie. Source lat. podium 'a 

pewet peewit so called from 
its plaintive cry; the earlier 
by-form puet points to a FR. 

pewter late me. peuter adopted 
fr. OFR. peutre (peautre) a kind 
of metal'. It stands for '^peltre 
= SPAN, pe/tre, it. peltro 'pewter'; 
cp. DU. piauter. 

pheasant me. fcsaunt earlier 
/(saun fr. FR. faisan = it. 
fagiano. Source lat. phasidnus, 
GR. (paaiavog 'bird of Phasis in 
Colchis', whence also OHG. fasdn 
G. fasan. 

phial vial borrowed fr. ofr. 
phiole (fr. fiole). Source lat. 
phiala, GR. (pidXr^ 'a broad, flat, 
shallow cup'. 

philtre borrowed from fr. 
philtre. Source lat. philtrum, 
GR. (piXxQOv *a love potion'. 

phlegm adopted fr. VK.phlegme. 
Source lat. gr. phlegma a flame, 
inflammation, phlegm'. 

pick vb. ME. pikke oe. pician = 
lg. du. pikken, G. picken. 

picket borrowed fr. fr. piquet 
picquet 'a little pick axe', dirain 
of OE. pic 'a pike' under pike. 

pickle sb. me. pikel = du. pekel^ 
yihG.pekel G.pokei; prob. ix. pickle, 
frequentative of pick 'pickout, 

picnic a modern word arising 

I about 1700 and soon received 

into FR. (^piquenique about 1740) 

and GERM. (//V^/«V^ about 1770). 

pie ME. pie fr. fr. pie 'a broiled 
remnant of a shoulder of mutton'. 

pie (in magpie) u^. pie fr. ofr. 
pie 1=: LAT. pica. 

piebald composed of pie 'a 
magpie' and bald streaked*. 
I piece ME. pe(e borrowed fr. fr. 

pier ME. pere borrowed fr. ofr. 
piere, fr. pierre — hAT.petra 'stone'. 

pierce vb. me. perfe borrowed 
fr. FR. percer pierce', me. by- 
form perche. 

piety adopted fr. fr. piiti 
'piety' = LAT. pietdtetn\ ident. w. 

pig ME. pigge. 

pigeon late me. pigoun fr. fr. 
pigeon. Source lat. pipio{nem) 
.'a chirper'. See peep and pipe. 

pike ME. pike oe. pic = du. 
pick, G. piek\ cp. pick. 

pilch ME. pilche oe. pilce pylce 
fur. Source med.-lat. = rr. 
pelliccia felt", whence also fr. 
pelisse and ohg. pellii^ G. pelz, du. 
pels 'fur (primitive source lat. 
pellis). Cp. pelt. 

pile ^ sb. 'an arrow' me. oe. pU 

{=^ DU. pijl, OHG. pfil G. pfdl, 

ON. pila) : borrowed fr. lat. pUum 

j 'a javelin', whence ofk. pile, span. 

! IT. pilo 'a javelin, pestle'. The 

pile — pipe 


corresponding Goth, word was 
arhwazna ; cp. on. pr, oe. earh 
= LAT. arcus. 

pile 2 sb. 'a heap' we.. pile 'tower, 
castle' borrowed fr. OFR. pile a 
pier, pyramid' fr. pile *a mole' 
:=: SPAN, pila 'a pillar, trough', 
IT. pila 'trough'. Source i^kt.pUa 
'a pier of stone'. See pillar. 

pile^ sb. 'a tumor' (now used 
in plur.) fr. lat. pila 'a ball'. 

pile* sb. 'hair' borrowed fr. ofr. 
peil FR. poil = SPAN. IT. pelo. 
Source lat. pilus 'a hair'. 

pilfer borrowed fr. ofr. pelfrer 

pilgrim ME. pilgrim borrowed 
fr. MHG. pilgrim. Source med.-lat. 
peregrinus (late lat. pelegrinus), 
whence fr. pterin, it. pellegrino, 
SPAN, peregrino, du. pelgrim. 

pill = G. v>K^. pille prob. bor- 
rowed fr. the dimin. fr. pilule. 
Source lat. pilula *a pill'. 

pillar ME. piler borrowed fr. 
FR. pilier (=^ span, pilar, it. 
piliere). Source med.-lat. pilare 
pilarius {lkt:. pilci) 'pillar, whence 
also OHG. pfildri G. pfeiler\ du. 
pilaar is fr. pilier, but du. pijler 
is lat. pilare. 

pillory sb. me. pilgry borrowed 
fr. FR. pilori 'a pillory'. 

pillow sb. ME. pilwe oe. pyle 
*pylwe = DU. peuluw , ohg. 
pfuliwi{?i) also pfulwo G. pfUhl: 
borrowed fr. lat. pulvinus 'cu- 
shion'. Cp. cushion. 

pilot 'sb. borrowed fr. VK. pilote 
=: SPAN. IT. piloto pilota , du. 

English Etymology. 

piloot, G. pilote. Origin unknown. 
The word occurs in Germ, and 
Engl, since the 15''' cent.; in 
Germ, it appears first in the 
It. form piloto. Perh. the It. 
word became European through 
the commerce with Genoa and 

pimpernel sb. fr. fr. pimprenelle 

pin sb. ME. oe. pinn = du. lg. 
pin. Source lat. penna 'a pin, 

pinch vb. u^. pine he borrowed 
fr. FR. pinccr, 

pine sb. me. pine oe. *pln(trio) 
'pine-tree': borrowed fr. i^pc^.pinus 
'a pine, whence (pv. pijn), 
SPAN. IT. pino *a pine-tree'. 

pine vb. me. pine oe. pinian 
'torment' = on. pina, du. pijnen, 
OHG. pfindn pinon (g. peinigen) : 
deriv. fr. OE. pin = ohg. pina G. 
pein. Source LAT. /r^'«rt' (pronounc- 
ed pina). 

pinfold; see pound^. 

pint sb. late me. pinte fr. FR. 
pinte (whence du. pint, LG. pinte 
'can ) : source LAT. pincta. 

pip sb. ME. pippe = DU. lg. pip, 
G. pips ohg. ppijfi'i, : borrowed fr. 
a vulgar lat. pippita (= lat. 
piiuitd) 'phlegm*, whence also 
FR. pipie, SPAN, pepita, it. pipita. 

pipe sb. me. oe. pipe = du. pijp, 
\JC. pipe, OHG. pfi/a G. p/eife, ON. 
pipa : borrowed fr. med.-lat. pipa, 
whence also the synon. fr. pipe, 
SPAN, pipa, IT. piva. Source lat. 
pipare 'chirp'. 



pit — plant 

pit sb. ME. //■/ OE. pyt (it) = 
DU. put, LG. piiti OHG. puzzi pfuzzi 
G. pfiltze: TEUT. putjus'. borrowed 
fr. LAT. puteus 'a well, pit', whence 
also IT. pozzOf sp a:<s. posa, fk. putts 
and oiR. cuithe, cymr. peten 'well, 

pitch sb. ME. pick OE. //V := 

OSAX. ODU. pik DU. /^/^, OHG. peh 
b'eh (hh) G.pech, on. bik: borrowed 
fr. LAT. pix (pic-) 'pitch', whence 
also FR. poix, SPAN, pez, it. /^^^ 

pitcher sb. y\.F.. piccher borrowed 
fr. OFR. picher. Source med.-lat. 
picdrium, a by-form of late lat. 
bicarium under beaker. 

pith sb. ME. pithe oe. pida cog- 
nate w. DU. //'/ ODU. pitte 'pith' 
and MLG. pedik 'pith'. A West- 
Teut. hsise. pipan- is to be assum- 
ed, perh. a teut. pipwon- in- 
stead of qipwon-: \rglt^ 

pittance sb. u^.piiaunfe (= mlg. 
pitancic) borrowed fr. FR. pitance 
'meat, food, daily subsistance'. 

pity sb. ME. pite fr. fr. pitii. 
Source LAT. pietdtem. 

place ME. pldfe fr. fr. place 
(= SPAN, plaza, IT. piazza). 
Source lat. platea == GR. TtXaxHa 
'a street'. G. platz and du. plaats 
are also of Fr. origin. 

plague ME. (14^*^ cent.) plage 
adopted fr. lat. pldga 'an injury' 
whence du. plaag , OHG. pldga 
G. plage and it. piaga, fr. plate. 

plaice ME. plaife borrowed fr. 
FR. plaise OFR. pldise. Source 
MED.-LAT. plafisa prop, platessa 'a 

flat-fish', whence also du. pladijs^ 
G. platteise. 

plain adj. me. plain borrowed 
fr. FR. plain (whence also DU. 
pleifi) = SPAN, piano , IT. piano. 
Source lat. pldnus 'flat, even'. 

plain sb. me. pleine adopted 
fr. FR. plaine = SPAN, plana, it. 
piano. Source lat. pldnii7n 'a 

plaint sb. me. pleinte plainte fr. 
FR. plainte (= lat. planctm 

plait vb. MF..plaite 'fold' derived 
fr. OFR. pleit (ploit) sb. fold'. 
Source lat. plicare 'fold, braid'. 

plan adopted fr. fr. plan, 
whence DU. G. plan. Source 
■Lt^T. pldnus 'flat, plane', whence 
span, plan, it. piano. See plainy 
p la fie. 

plane adj. borrowed fr. fr. 
plane (= span, piano, it. piano'). 
Source LAT. pldnus 'flat, level'. 

plane sb. 'a carpenter's tool' 
late ME. plane borrowed fr. fr. 
plane. Source med.-lat. pldna 
'a carpenter's tool'. 

plane-tree me. pldne{-tre) = du. 
plaan-boom fr. ff.. plane. Source 
lat. plataniis 'plane-tree'. 

plank ME. planke borrowed fr. 
onfr. planke fr. planche (= span. 
plancha , it. piancd). Source 
MED.-LAT. planca, whence DU. 
plank, G. plattke. 

plant ME. plante oe. plant = du. 
plant, OHG. pflanza G. pflanze 
(on. plantd) : fr. lat. "planta, 
whence also fr. plante, span. 

plash — pluck 


planta, YZ. pianta. In ME. we find 
also plaunte sb. vb. as adap- 
tion of FR. plante — planter. — 
plantain we.. plantain {J)launtain f) 
borrowed fr. 'SV^. plantain. Source 
LAT. plantago (^plantaginetn) 'a 

plash ME. plasche borrowed fr. 
ODU. plasch DU. plas 'water- 

plaster me. piastre plaister fr. 
OFR. piastre (^plaistre , whence 
nxs.pleister') cp. fr. platre. Source 

GR.-LAT. f/.l7lXa(Tr(J0V = IT. 

empiastro, FR. emplatre 'plaster'. 
LAT. emplastrum ^= med.-lat. 
plastrum 'gypsum', whence OHG. 
pflastar G. pjlaster. 

plat plot me. oe. plot (tt). See 

plate ME. plate borrowed fr. 
OFR. plate plaite 'plate - armor, 
ingot, silver' fr. plat, whence 
DU. plat , G. platte. Source a 
MED.-LAT. plata 'plate of metal' 
(gr. TxXnrvc). 

platoon fr. fr. peloton 'a ball, 

platter ^m. plater fr. ovvi. platel 
'a plate' = fr. plateau also 

play vb. ME. plaie pleie OE. 
pli'gian play' and play sb. me. 
plaie pleie OE. plega. The other 
TEUT. languages have no such 
root as pleg "play'. 

plea sb. ME. /// plai 'debate' 
fr. OFR. pie plai with the by- 
forms plait plaid. Source med.- 
LAT. placitum 'a decree, sen- 
tence'. — plead vb. me. plede 

plaide fr. fr. plaider 'plead, 
argue', whence also DU. pleiten 

please vb. me. ple'se borrowed 
fr. OFR. plesir plaisir (fr. plaire 
'please'). Source LAT. placer e 
'please'. — pleasure (late me. 
ple'siire iS'** cent.) fr. the FR. 
infinit. plaisir, but influenced by 
abstract nouns such as nature 

pledge sb. me. plegge fr. ofr. 
plege (TK.pleige) 'a surety', which 
is related to OSAX. plegan OHG. 
pflegan 'be responsible for, 
answer for' (cp. plight^. 

plenty me. plente fr. ofr. plenti, 
source l.a.t. plenitatem. 

plier see ply. 

plight sb. me. plight oe. pliht 
formed by means of the abstract 
formative -/ from a vb. seen in 
OE. plion 'risk' (ohg. pflegan o. 
pflegen whence G. pflicht 'friendly 
care, interest'). 

plot^ short for complot = fr. 
cotnplot 'a conspiracy'. 

plot 2 sb. me. OE. plot {tt). 

plough me. plough plow OE. 
plph ^ DU. ploeg, OHG. pfliioh 
pflicog G. pflug, ON. plogr. This 
Teut. group plohu- plogu- was 
borrowed by the Slav, (serb.- 
RUSS. plugii, LiTH. pliugas). 

plover ME. ploz'er borrowed fr. 
OFR. plovier fr. pluvier. Source 
a LAT. type *pluviarius 'rainy'. 

pluck vb. ME. plukke plokke 

{j)licche^ oz. pluccian (oE. *plyi(ian) 

= DU. plukken, OHG. *pflucchen 

*pflockdn G. pflikken, on. plokka. 



plug — poll 

Source a lat. type *piluccare =- 
IT. piluccare, fr. iplucher. Vulgar 
LAT. *piluccdre (whence me. pilken 
pluck') prop, 'pluck hairs one 
by one' is an extension of lat. 


plug sb. ident. w. du. plug, 
LG. plugge {jplucJi) late mhg. pfloc 
G. pflock 'plug'. 

plum ME. ploume OE. pltinte 
(^plyme) ^= du. pruini, LG. prume 

pliime, OHG. pfriima beside pflumo 
(lat. r changed to teut. /) a. 

pfiaunie: early loanword fr. lat. 

prununiy whence also fr. prune, 
IT. prima. Cp. prune. 
plumb fr. FR. plomb = lat. 

plume fr. FR. plume = lat. 


plummet me. //<9ww^/ borrowed 
fr. VK. plombet 'a plummet' dimin. 
of FR. plomb lead'. 

plump adj. borrowed fr. LG. 
plump, DU. plomp. 

plunder vb. adopted fr. mdu. 
plunder en = G. plunder n 'rob, 

plunge vb. short for us., plounge: 
borrowed fr. fr. plonger 'duck, 
dive', whence also du. plonzen. 

plush sb. = du. pluis , G. 
plusch; borrowed fr. fr. peluche 
r= xx. peluzzo. Source a lat. type 
*pilucia, an extension of lat. 
pilus 'hair'. 

ply vb. ME. plie 'bend' adopted 
fr. FR. plier 'fold, bend, bow'. 
Source lat. plicdre 'fold'. 

poach ^ vb. 'dress eggs' fr. fr. 
pocher. — poach 2 vb. 'intrude 
into preserves' borrowed fr. fr. 
pocher from poche 'a pouch'. 

pock UK. pokke OE.pocc =-- mdu. 
pocke, DU. pock, G. LG. pocke 'small 
pox'. — pocket me. poket fr. ofr. 
poquette, dimin. oioiVi. pocke poche. 
See poke. 

poignant adj. us., poinant poin- 
yiunt fr. fr. poignant. (Source 
LAT. pungere). — point me. point 
fr. FR. point (source lat. punc- 
tuni) 'point'. 

poise vb. ME. poise earlier peise 
fr. OFR. poiser peiser fr. peser 
'to weigh'. Source lat. pensare 
'to weigh'. 

poison we., puisoun fr. 'PVi. poison 
'poison' = LAT. potio(nem) 'a 

poke sb. ME. poke 'a bag' =^ 
ODU. poke, ON. poki. fr. poche is 
perh. an Engl, loanword. Cp. 

poke vb. UK. ppke (^pouke pucke) 
'thrust, throw = DU. poken, mlg. 

pole ^ sb. 'a stake' UE.pole ok. pa I 
'a pale, pole': source lat. pdlus 
'a stake', whence G. pfahl ohg. 
mhg. pfdl. See pale. 

pole^ sb. a pivot the synon. 

FR. pol = LAT. poluS (gR. Tiokog) 

'a hinge'. 

polish vb. ME. polisshe fr. fr. 
polir (poliss-) 'polish'. 

poll ME. pol (II) 'head' = lg. 
ODU. polle 'head'; perh. ident. w. 

pommel — port 


pommel me. pomel borrowed 
fr. OFR. p07nel fr. pommeau the 
pommel of a sword : prop, dimin. 
i.AT. pomutn 'apple'. 

pomp ME. pompe fr. lat. pompa, 
whence also fr. pompe. 

pond ME. pond pondi. 

ponder vb. borrowed fr. lat. 
pondcrare 'weigh'. 

pontiff fr. FR. pontif ponti/e, 
LAT. pontifex. 

pontoon fr. fr. ponton, it. 
pontone 'a great broad bridge'. 

pool Sb. ME. OE. ppl r=r DU. 

poel, I.G. pSl, one pfuoi G.p/uhl; 
perh. akin to OE. pu/l pyll 'pool' 
= ON. pollr 'pool, pond'. 

poop borrowed fr. fr. poupe = 
LAT. piippis 'the hinder part of 
a ship'. 

poor adj. me. p&vre fr. ofr. 
povre r= pauvre (source lat. 
pauper) 'poor'. 

pope ME. pope OE. papa = lat. 
papa. The continental dialects 
differ from the lat.-oe. forms; 
cp. 03AX. pabos, DU. paus, mhg. 
babes G. papst. 

popinjay late 1,1^. popinjay earlier 
papegai (== DU. papegaai, mlg. 
papegoie, G. papaga'i) fr. fr. pape- 
gai OFR. pa peg ay and papegau = 
IT. papagallo. Prob. derived fr. 
Low GR. nanayug = arab. ba- 
baghd (pers. bapga). The Lat. 
name psittacus agrees with GR. 

poplar sb. me. popUr{e) ^^ DU. 
populier, onv. popelier: borrowed 
fr. OFR. poplier = fr. peuplier. 
Source fr. peuple 'poplar' = 

'LK'X.populus 'poplar', whence also 
DU. pop el and G. pappel. 

poppy sb. me. popy oe. popi^ 
papce-^ (about 800). The suffix / 
(not producing umlaut) points to 
an older form -ang as in body, 
holly. There are no Teut. 
equivalents. Usually considered 
to be borrowed fr. lat. papcrner. 

porcelain sb. --^ fr. porcelaine, 
DU. porselein, G. porzellan (since 
the 1 6th. cent.); the base is 
IT. porcellana, orig. 'the Venus- 
shell', concha Veneris'; this hav- 
ing much resemblance to porce- 
lain, the name of the shell was 
transferred to that of the cera- 
mic ware. 

porch sb. UK. pore he borrowed 
fr. YVi. porche: source lat. porti- 
cus, from which OE. portlc and 
OHG. pforzih are earlier loan- 

porcudine occuring in the 
is'*" — 16"" cent's in the forms 
porpentine porpoint and porkepin 
which go back to ofr. pore 
espin (now porc-ipic) = it. porco 
spino {porco spinosd) 'thornbush 
hog. — pork 'flesh of swine* 
ME. pork 'pork, swine' fr. the 
synon. fr. pore {= lm:. porcus). 

port^ sb. 'harbor' me. oe. port 
'harbor' fr. the equival. lat. 
partus (= FR. port, it. porto") 
'harbor, whence also ODU. port 

port'^ sb. a gate fr. fr. porte 
= LAT. porta a gate', whence 
also OE. port or port-yat 'a gate , 
DU. poort, G. pfortc. 




port^ sb. 'behavior' me. port 
fr. FR. port 'behavior': deriv. of 
LAT. portare 'carry'. 

port^ = Port-wine orig. »wine 
of Oporto in Portugal*. 

portray vb. me. pourtraie fr. 
FR. portraire. — portrait = fr. 

post^ sb. a pillar' me. o^. post 
= DU. LG. post: early loanword 
fr. "Lm:. postern (nom. %m^. postis), 
whence also G. pfosten ohg. pfost 
and FR. poteau. 

post^ sb. 'mail service' = DU. 
G. post, FR. poste., IT. posta. The 
word is a native of Italy and was 
borrowed from there by the 
modern languages in the i6'^ 

post^ sb. 'a military post' = 
G. posten, DU. post fr. IT. posto 
'guard, post'. 

pot me. oe. pot (tt), = DU. LG. 

pot(ttj, ON. pOttr (SWED. potta, 

DAN. potte) ; akin to fr. pot = 
CYMR. pot, ir. pota. 

potato imported in the second 
half of the i6'^ cent, together 
with SPAN, patata from America 
(in Hayti the name was batata 
about 1530). 

pouch ME. pouche 'bag' fr. ofr. 
pouche (j>oche) 'pocket'; akin to 

poult sb. 'chicken' (=^ ptillet) 
late "siK.pulte fr.FR./J*?/^/^/ 'chicken' 
(^poule 'hen'). — poulterer ex- 
tended for ME. pulter fr. fr. 
toulletier. — poultry i.\K. pultrie 
is derived fr. me. pulter. 

pounce vb. see punch. 

pound ' ME. pound oe. ptimi a. 
pound' (weight and money) = 
OSAX. puml, DU. pond, ohg. pfutit 
G pfund, ON. sw. DAN. pund 
GOTH. pund'. borrowed in the 
second cent. fr. pondo 
(indecl.) 'pound', not fr. lat. 
pondus 'weight'. 

pound ''^ sb. 'enclosure' me. 
pound (shortened in pon-, pun- 
fglde 'pound'). oe. ptind 'en- 
closure' with the verb oe. pyndan 
u%. pinde 'impound, dam up the 
water' = ON. pyuda 'shut in' 
(e. pinfold ^\¥.. pift/plde 'pound' 
points to OE. pyndan me. pinde). 
Vroh. pen oe.. perinan is cognate, 
if the base *panjan goes back 
to an earlier form *pandjan: teut. 
\Ppand pund. 

pound vb. 'beat' ^ve. poune oe. 
punian pound'; perh. cognate w. 
DU. puin 'ruin, rubbish'. 

pout vb. me. poute 'sulk' (oe. 
*putianT). — pout sb. (a kind 
of fish) oe. puta or pute (in the 
compound celeputan 'eelpouts') ; 
cp DU. puit a kind of fish. The 
word is derived from the vb. 
pout (teut. y/^pUt): the fish has 
its name from its pouting lips. 

powder sb. me. poudre 'hair- 
powder' fr. FR. poudre, whence 
also DU. poeder, G. puder. Source 
lat. pulverem (^pulvis), whence 
G.pulver, YZ.polve 'dust, powder'. 

power ME. pouir earlier poh- 
fr. ofr. poer = fr. pouvoir; 
ident. w. it. potere and deriv. 
fr. lat. potest potui etc. 

praise — proud 


praise sb. iA's..prais preis fr. ofr. 
preis, ident. with price. 

pram sb. 'a flat - bottomed 
lighter = \Si. prahm, DU. praam] 
LG. pram, on. prdmr, sw. pram. 
DAN. /r«»/ are of Slav, origin; 
cp. OSLOV. pramti belonging to 
the ARYAN \^per 'cross, ferry' 
seen in fare vb. 

prance vb. me. praunfe vb. 
ident. \v. n. prank^vh. isVE.. pranke; 
the sound points to Fr. origin. 

prate vb. late me. prate = du. 
LG. pratcn 'prate', dan. prate 

pray vb. me. preie fr. ofr. 
preier = fr. prier pray' (source 
l.KT.,precari 'pray). 

preach vb. me. prcche fr. fr. 
prechcr. Source church-LAT./rrt'^- 
dicare 'preach', whence also OE. 
predician , on. predika, du. pre- 
diken, OSAX. predikon, ohg. pre- 
digon MHG. G. predigen preach'. 

press vb. me. presse fr. ofr. 
presser = lat. pressare. 

pretty adj. me. *pr^ti for pratl 
'pretty' and 'clever, cunning'; 
OE.prcetii 'tricky, deceitful'. The 
OE. sb. prcett plur. prattas means 
'trickery . 

prey sb. we. preie prate fr. ofr. 
preie praie = fr. proie (hence DU. 
prooi) prey'. Source lat. praeda. 

price sb. ME.pris fr. ofr. pris 
=^ FR. prix. Source lat. pretium 
'price'. See prize. 

prick sb. ME, pricke {jtrike^ oe. 
pricca i^prica) 'prick, spike'. — 
prick vb. me- pricke (^prike OE. 

pricinti) 'prick, spur'. Cp. MHG. 
pfr'ecken, o^.prikka: t^ht. y^pi'ik. 
— prickle relation me. prikel 
OE. pricel. 

pride me. pride oe. pryda : um- 
laut-relation to proud. 

priest sb. me. prist oe. preost; 
ident. w. ohg. prest priestar mhg. 
G. priester, osax. prestar, fr. pretre 
for OFR. prestre'. descendants 
of lat. presbyter priest'. But 
there are discrepancies in the 
phonetical development of the 
Rom. and Teut. forms. 

prime fr. fr. prime =r= lat. 
primus. — primrose fr. fr. 
prime rose = lat. prima rosa 
'first rose'. — prince me. prinfe 
fr. FR. prince (source lat. prin- 
ceps — principem ■=-- it. principe) , 
whence also G. prinz du. prins. 

print vb. me. printe short for 
prente imprente fr. fr. empreinte 
sb. 'a stamp, print'; cp. fr. 
empreindre = lat. imprimere. 

prison me. prisoun fr. v^. prison', 
source lat. prehensio{nem) ^ it. 

privy ME. prtv( fr. fr. privi 
(= LAT. privatus). 

prize vb. ms.. prise fr. YK.priser; 
cf. E. prise fr. VK.prix. — prize 
sb. 'taking or capture e. g. of 
a ship' fr. FR. prise seizure (du. 
prijs, G. prise). 

proud me. proud late oe. priid 
(by-form ME. prout late oe. prtit 
prete^; cp. on. prudr 'proud', 
DAN. prud 'stately'. Cp. the um- 
laut-relation /r/V/^. Source OFR. 




proud 'valiant (under prowess) 
=-- FR. preux. 

prove vb. me. prove late oe. (c. 
\oo6) profian: loanword fr. lat. 
probare, whence also "eK. proiwer, 
MHG. prileven G. priifen, ON. prof a 
and also me. prez'e pra-ve 'prove'. 
— The sb. proof is derived fr. 
the vb. (cp. ME. preve prdve = 
FR. preuve). 

pro^v me. *proue fr. fr. proue 
(iT.pruaproda, hKT.prora) 'prow'. 

prowess aee. prouesse fr. ofr. 
prouesse 'prowess', abstr. sb. of 
OFR. prou proiui = late OE. prud 
s. under proud. 

proxy sb. earlier prockesy for 
procuracy] cp. proctor late me. 
proketour =i lat. procuraior(etn). 

prune sb. me. prune fr. FR. 
prune = lat. prtinum; cp. plum. 

pry vb. ME. prie oe. *prhvan 
*preowian, the root of which is 
evident in oe. beprman vb. 'wink 
with the eye' — preoavothwll 
twinkling of the eye'. 

psalm sb. ME. psalm = lat. 
psalmus; already OE. salm. 

puck sb. short for ME. pouke 
OE. plica 'demon, hobg-oblin' ^ 
ON. piiki imp' ; cp. oe. piicel 
'demon', north-fries, puk 'mis- 
chievous sprite with large eyes'. 

pudding me. pudding prob. 
borrowed fr. fr. boudin 'black- 
pudding' (cp. ME. cuning fr. OFR- 
coni?i under cony). 

puff vb. ME. puffe OE. *pufjian 
aside of oe. pyffan 'blow': teut. 
base pujfon puff j an. 

pull vb. ME. pulle OE. pullian 

pullet ME. polite fr. v^Si. pouletie 
'a young hen*, cp. poult. 

pulp sb. fr. FR. pulpe = lat. 
pulpa 'pulp'. 

pumpion {AvoAvl. pumpkin) ear- 
lier p07npouft fr. FR. pompon {= 
DU. pompoeti) 'a kind of gourde'. 
Source pepo (=-; fr. pipon, 
IT. pep one popone). 

punish vb. me. punisshe fr. fr. 
punir (^puniss-) 'punish'. 

purblind me. purblind orig. 
'blind as a.pur} O'S.. pur means 
the bird 'onocrotalus'; cp. saved. 

purchase vb. me. purchdfe fr. 
FR. pourchasser. 

purge vb. me. purge fr. fk. 

purple ME. purpre fr. fr. 
pourpre = laT. purpura. 

purpose vb. ME. purpose fr. 
ofr. pourposer = fr. proposer 

purse ME./«r.y late oe. (c.1050) 
piirs: loanword fr. ofr. borse —■ 
fr. bourse; cp. lat. bursa. 

pursue vb. me. pursue fr. ofr. 
porsuir = fr. poursuivre (source 
LAT. prosequi) 'prosecute. 

purvey vb. me. pori'eie fr. ofr. 
porvoir =^ fr. pourvoir (lat. 
providere) 'provide'. 

push vb. ^is.. posse pusse (posshe) 
push' fr. fr. pousser (= LAT. 
pulsare) 'strike, thrust'. 

put — quench 

put vb. ME. pute putte vb. 
'throw, push, thrust' OE. (c. looo) 
potian thrust'; perh. borrowed 

fr. OFR. bouter "thrust' (cp. oe. 
piirs 'purse' fr. ofr. borse under 

quail sb. me. quaile fr, ofr. 
quaille =^ fr. caile a quail'; 
cp. IT. quaglia. Source a vulgar 
LAT. quaccola, whence also du. 
k7vakkel — r ODU. qiiackele 'quail'. 

quaint adj. me. gueint, earlier 
form coiftt (quaint) 'famous, well- 
known, clever, neat, elegant*: 
loanword fr. ofr. coint neat, 
fine' = LAT. cognitus 'known'. 

quake vb. me. quake oe. cwdcian 
vb. 'quake'; cp. oe. cweicean 
'move' =^ ODU. quecken shake 
one's head': teut. \fqak. 

qualm me:, qualm 'death, pesti- 
lence, torture' OE. cwealm death, 
pestilence': derived fr. the teut. 
V^ qel in oe. cw'elan me. quele 
vb. 'die'; cp. quell. 

quarrel me. querele fr. fr. 
querelle =r lat. querela 'a com- 

quash vb. me. quasshe vb. fr. 
OFR. quasser = fr. casser 'break' ; 
source lat. quassare 'to shake'. 

quaver vb. derived fr. me. 
quiive (oE. *cwdfiari) vb. 'tremble'; 
cogn. w. me. quappe vb. 'tremble'. 

quay earlier spelling keie late 
ME. keie fr. fr. quai. 

quean me. qu^ne oe. cwene 
'woman': perhaps a scand. loan- 
word cp. ON. kona G. plur. 

kiienna (r-= ohg. qu'ena kona, 
GOTH, qino); cp. late oe. cwene- 
fugel a hen-bird' fr. the equiv. on. 
kvenfugl. There was a genuine 
OE. corresponding cwine 'bad wo- 
man'. The group rests on a teut. 
q'enon- 'wife' = aryan gend ; cp. 
OR. yvvr] , skr. gnd , oir. ben, 


genu 'wife'. See the following 

queen sb. me. quen oe. C7ven 
queen, distinguished lady'; base 
qoni for qdni - -- goth. qens, ON. 
kvdn kvckn , osax. qudn 'wife': 
TEUT. qeni- = aryan. geni- (= 
SKR. jdni 'wife') is of the same 
root as TEUT. q'enon- (see quean) 
= ARYAN gend. 

quell vb. me. quelle oe. cwellan 
'kill': derived fr. the str. vb. oe. 
cw'elan me. quele 'die' (cp. qualm). 
They belong to the teut. y/^qBl 
in G. qual = ohg. osax. qudla 
'torment, torture': aryan \f gel 
in LITH. geld 'grief — oslov. zali 

quench vb. me. quenche oe. 
czvencean wk. vb. 'extinguish' : 
derived fr. OE. d-cwincan 'be 
exstinguished' = ofris. kwinka 
'vanish'. It is doubtful whether 
oe. cwinan 'to be exstinuruished' is 


question — quoth 

connected with e. quench (du. 
kwijnen 'wither'). 

question me. questioun fr. fr. 

quick adj. me. quick oe. cwicu 
'living, alive' = OSAx. du. quik, 
OHG. MHG. qu'ec (g. quecksilber 
'quicksilver and erquicken vb. 
'quicken, refresh) G. keck (for 
quecli) 'pert', ON. kvikr kykr : 
lYXiT.'sl^ qiq fr. ARYAN -y^^z^ in lat. 
vivo {vixi-vichim-vivere). There 
exists an aryan doublet giw in 
GOTH, qius (stem qiwa-^ adj. 
'alive' = SKR. jiva, lith. gywas, 
lat. vivus 'living, alive' (cp. 
GR. ^iog 'life'). See quitch- 

quill sb. me. quille = westphal. 
quiele 'quill': teut. base qili-, perh. 
ident. \v. mhg. kil G. kiel 'quill'. 

quilt sb. ME. quilte fr. ofr. 
cuilte = lat. culcita 'cushion, 

quince me. coine quine fr. ofr. 
coin ■=■ fr. coing 'a quince' (the ce 
of modern E. quince belongs prop, 
to the plural). Source lat. 
cydonia = IT. cotogna , oho. 
kutina G. quitte, OE. godceppel; 
DU. kwee ODU. quede corresponds 
to MHG. quiten = G. quitte. 

quire (of paper) sb. me. quair 
quaier 'book' fr. ofr. quaier (du. 

kohier) = fr. cahier 'copy book'. 
Source a late Latin quaternufn 
'collection of four leaves' (= it. 
quaderno 'a quire of paper', oe. 
civdtern) . 

quitch-grass (also quick-grass 
couch-grass) me. *quicche; oe. 
cwice 'quitch-grass' answers to 
DU. kweek, LG. queke, G. qu'ec ke 
'quitch-grass'. The name derives 
fr. TEUT. quiku- 'alive' (under 
quick), because the weed seems 
not clearable. 

I quite adv. me. quite fr. fr. 

\ quiver vb. derived fr. the adj. 
ME. quiver, late OE. cwifor 'lively, 
brisk, eagerly'; cp. ofr. quivrer 
vb. 'awaken, encourage'. 

quiver sb. me. quiver fr. fr. 
cuivre; ident. w. fr. coivre cuivre: 
late Latin base cucurum, whence 
also OE. cocor, ohg. kohhar g. 
kbcher 'quiver, du. koker. 

quoth {(juotk he 'he said) 

J 3*^ sing. pret. = me. quoth earlier 

j quath oe. cwced pret. of me. 

1 qu{the oe. cw'edan str. vb. 'say, 

speak' = GOTH, qipan, on. kveda, 

oshx.quedan , ohg. quedan 'say': 

ARYAN \rget (by-form ged in skr. 

gad 'speak'?). Cp. bequeath 

and bequest. 





rabbit cogn. w. odu. robbe \ 
robbeken 'rabbit'; perh. identical i 
w. DU. rob, G. robbe 'phoca'? ! 

race' me. res oe. rcks'i or bor- 
rowed from ON. rds 'a running': 
TEUT. base resa-. 

race^ 'family' fr. fr. race = 
SPAN. PORT, raza; source arab. 
rds 'origin'. 

race^ root' fr. ofr. ra'is = lat. 
radix. — ■ From the same source 
also radish = DU. radijs (fr. 

rafter me. rafter oe. rcefter\ 
formed by suffix -tra- from the 
same root as on. rdf 'roof and 
OHG. rdvo rafter'. Cp. the Aryan 
\/"reph in GR. egeipw — ogo(f)og. 

Tag me. ragge (late oe. *ragg 
inferred from the adj. raggi^ 
'shaggy'): borrowed fr. ON. rpgg 

rage me. rage fr. fr. rage = 
LAT. rabies. 

rail ^ ME. rail reil fr. ofr. reille ; 
source lat. regula, whence also 
G. riegel ohg. rigil, ODU. rijchel 
'bar, rail'. 

rail 2 ME. rail oe. hrcs^l 'a gar- 
ment'; ident? w. ohg. hregil 'a 
garment': teut. base hrag{i)la-. 

rain me. rain rein OE. r'eyi = ohg. 
OLG. regan G. DU. regen, ox. regn, 
GOTH, rigns: TEUT. base regna-. 
Cp. Lith. rake 'drizzling rain'. 

raise vb. me. reise borrowed fr. 
ON. reisa 'raise': causal of ON. 
risa = GOTH, reisan; cp. rise. 

raisin me. reisin fr. ofr. raisin 
'a grape', whence also du. rozijn, 
G. rosine. Source LAT. racemus 
a bunch of grapes'. 

rake me. rake oe. rdca = du. 
raak; ident. w. OHG. re/i/io G. 
rechen, on. reka'. teut. base rakon- 
r'ekon-, derived fr. the str. vb. 
GOTH, rikan 'gather'. 

ram sb. me. oe. ram {mm) OE. 
rptn (tnm) = ohg. mhg. du. ram : 
TEUT. base ramma-\ perh. cogn. 
w. ON. ramr 'strong. 

ramsons me. ramsen oe. hram- 
san plur. : teut. base hrafnusan- 
also in G. (dial.) ramsen, swed. 
ramsidk 'bear-garlick'; further 
allied to GR. ii(jtfivui' 'onion', 
IR. crem — cy:mr. era/ 'garlick, 
lith. kermusze 'wild garlick'. 

range vb. fr. fr. ranger. 

ransack vb. jme. ransake fr. on. 
rannsaka prop, 'search the house': 
ON. rann 'house' (= goth. razn, 
oe. rcesn rcen arn 'house'); for 
ON. saka see seek. 

ransom :me. raunfoun (du. ratit- 
soen) fr. fr. ran(on {= lat. 
redemptio-neni) . 

rap vb. A£E. rape 'rush, hasten' 
= ON. hrapa vb. 'hasten'; cp. 
DU. rapen, MHG, raffen 'seize : 
teut. base hrapon. 

rape sb. me. rape (= du. raap) 
fr. LAT. rapa 'turnip'. 

rat AEE. rat oe. rcet (Jt) = 
G. ratte ohg. ratta, DU. rat rot\ 



ident. w. fr. rat, it. ratto. History 
of the group unknown. 

rate fr. fr. rate ~~- lat. ratiim. 

rather me. rather oe. hrador 
prop, 'quicker, sooner': compa- 
rative form of OE. hrade 'quickly'; 
cp. the adj. oe. hrceit, ON. 
hradr 'swift', OHG. hrad, du. rad 
'quick' fr. a teut. base hrapa-. 
Akin to oiR. crothim 'I shake'. 

rattle vb. me. ratele vb.; cp. 
oe. hrcEtele sb. 'rattle wort' and 
'LG.ratelen vb. 'rattle', MHG. ray^eln 
G. rasseln vb. 'rattle ': teut, y-^^/v?/ 
^ p^vCiP<.^\f krad in GR. Kgadaivo) 
(^\f krot in GR. xgoTaXf'CHP vb. 

raven sb. me. raven oe. hro-fn 
= on. hrafn; cp. ohg. hraban 
G. rahe, du. raaf: teut. base 
hrabiia- hrabn-\ perh. fr. an 
ARYAN \^kro : kor in lat. corvus, 
GR. Y-ogaE. raven'. 

ravish vb. me. ravisshe vb. fr. 
FR. raviss- in ravir 'to ravish'. 

raw me. raw oe. hreaw = ohg. 
/irao hrb G. roh, du. rauw, ON. 
>^r<7r: teut. base hrawa-\ perh. 
cogn. w. SKR. krtira 'sore' and 
lat. cruor 'blood'. 

ray see roach. 

reach ^ vb. me. r{che oe. rcecean 
fr. a teut. type raikjan in ohg. 
reihhan g. reichen vb. 'reach', du. 

reach^, retch vb. me. nr/zi? 
OE. hrcecean; teut. \P hrak in 
OE. hrdca = on. hrdki 'spittle' 
and OHG. rahhisbn to try to vomit'. 

read vb. me. reV/^ oe. rckdan 
vb. = on. ra^a 'read'; prop. 

ident. w. goth. rMan, ohg. ratan 
G. ;-<//'(?« vb. 'advise', on. rdda 
'counsel, consult', read meant 
orig. 'to read a riddle' (cp. 
riddle), then 'to interprete the 
runes' (on. rdda gdtu 'read a 
riddle' — rdda draiim 'read a 
dream' — rdda ri'mar read 
runes'), skr. has a correspon- 
ding \frddh 'perform'; cp. also 
OSLOV. raditi. 

ready adj. me. redi (oe. ^rcedii 
extended fr.) oe. nede 'ready' 
—-- OHG. reitt 'ready'; cp. goth. 
gar aids = ON. greidr 'ready'. As 
g. fertig prop, meant 'ready for 
a journey' (g. fahrt), perh. a 
TEUT. base raida- 'journey' may 
be the source of the group; cp. 
IR. riid passable' and see ride 
and road. 

realm sb. me. rialnie {rialme) 
fr. OFR. realme (fr. royaume). 

ream late me. r^me fr. ofr. 
raime fr. ratne; cp. SPAN, resma, 
ITAL. ristna (g. ries) ream of 
paper'. Source ARAB, rizfna 'a 

reap vb. me. r^pe oe. riopan 
vb. fr. aTEUT.y^^^^ cut' in ripe\ 
cp. OE. rz/Vt?;' 'sickle' and see ripe. 

rear vb. me. rire oe. rceran 
vb. = ohg. riran vb. 'raise' fr. 
a TEUT. base raizjan; cp. rise 
and raise for \^ris. 

rear adj. me. re're oe. hrer. 

reason me. r(soun earlier reisoun 
fr. FR. raison = lat. ratio-nem. 

reave {bereave) vb. me. r^e 
oe. reafian vb. ^= OHG. raubdn 
g. rauben, goth. {bi)raubdn 'de- 


spoil', o^.raufa (see also robey. 
derived fr. a primitive str. vb. 
OE. hereof an, on. rjufa \o break'. 

Cp. S>¥^^.\flu/). 

receive vb. me. receive fr. ofr. 
recever = FR. recezmr. 

reck vb. me. recke {recche) short 
for OE. rfcean earlier r&iean'. 
TEUT. base rokjan in on. rcekja, 
OSAX. rokian, OHG. ruohhan 'have 
a care for'. 

reckon vb. me. rekne oe. j^- 
recenian vb. = OHG. rehhanon 
G. rechnen 'reckon', DU. rekenen; 
cp. the TEUT. \^r(f^ in OHG. rahha 
'subject, thing'. 

-red suffix in fuitred; cp. OE. 
/(ondrckden freondrcBden 'friend- 
ship' {hiwrdden under hind) ; 
orig. -raidin in goth. ga-raidcins. 

red adj. short for me. r(d oe. 
read = teut. rauda- in goth. 
rauds, OHG. rot G. rot, du. rood, 
ON. raudr 'red ; cp. OE. reodan 
= ON. rjoda vb. redden' and 
ruddock (rust). There is a 
corresponding ARYAN -v"" radh 
reudh in gr. tQvd^yoq, sviSi.rudhird, 
OSLOV. riidrii, LAT. ruber 'red', 
LAT. riifus, IR. raar^/. 

reed sb. aie. red oe. ^r<?tf</ :^= 
OHG. hriot G. DU. r/V/: teut. base 

reek sb. me. rek sb. fr. the vb. oe. 
reocan 'reek, smoke' =: on. rjtika, 
OHG. riohhan g. riechen; cp. oe. 
r^<f rjV, ON. reykr, ohg. r<?«^ G. 
ranch, du. r<?(?^ 'smoke' fr. a teut. 
base rauki-. 

reel me. r^/^ oe. /^ri?^/; prop. 
*hr(ehil fr. a teut. base *hranhil 

in ON. //rri// 'a weaver's rod', 
NORTH-FRIES, raial. 

rehearse vb. me. rehlr^e fr. 
OFR. rehercer. 

rein sb. me. reine fr. ofr. reine 
=^ fr. r^ne (cp. ital. redina; 
source LAT. retinere 'restrain"). 

relieve vb. me. releve fr. fr. 
r el ever = lat. relevare. 

rely vb. from lat. re (as in 
recall, remind, reneu<) and 
E. lie 'to rest. 

remnant sb. me. remenaunt fr. 
ofr. remenant 'remnant'. 

rend vb. me. rende oe. rendan 
vb. 'tear, lacerate' =r ofris. r^/z^/c? 
vb. tear, break'. 

rennet ' sb. fr. the vb. me. renne 
'run, make to run'; cp. under 

rennet 2 sb. fr. fr. reinette. 

renounce vb. me. renounce fr. 
FR. renoncer. — renown me. 
renoun fr. fr. reno?n. 

rest sb. me. reste oe. rest: teut. 
base rasti-, cp. ohg. rasta 'rest, 
a measure of distance , GOTH. 
rasta 'a mile, ON. rgst 'a mile'. 
There is a TEUT.V~raj' in goth. 
razn house', ON. ra?in (cp. 

retch vb. see reach^. 

ribb ME. ribbe oe. ribb = teut. 
r/^/a- in ON. ri/, ohg. rippi: 
ARYAN \fr'ebh in osLOV. RUSS. 
r<f/^r<? 'rib'. 

rhythm see rime. 

-ric in bishopric = me. bisshop- 
riche OE. bisceoprice; cp. OE. r/Zi? 
'reign' = goth. r<?/^/, ohg. rihhi 


G. reich'. fr. teut. rik- = goth. 
reiks king'. 

rice sb. fr. fr. riz (du. rijsi) 
= ITAL. riso, G. reis: source 
GR. oQvKa. 'rice'. 

rich adj. me. riche fr. fr. riche\ 
ident. w. oe. rice 'powerful', ohg. 
rthhi G. reich, du. rijk, on. rikr, 
GOTH, reiks. Originally a deriva- 
tive of GOTH, reiks 'king' under 
ric. — riches sb. me. richesse 
fr. FR. richesse: derived fr. fr. 
riche ^ teut. riki 'powerful'. 

rick sb. short for me. rek OE. 
hr(ac 'a heap' = DU. rook, on. 
hrmikr ihroki) 'a heap': teut. 
base hrauka-, akin to ON. hruga 
'a heap' and IR. cruach 'heap*. 

rid vb. ME. ridde prop, redde 
OE. hreddan = ohg. hrettan G. 
retten: teut. base hradjan from 
an ARYAN \Pkrath in skr. (rathay. 

riddle sb. me. redles oe. redels 
rcedelse = DU. raadsel, OSAX. 
radisli G. rdtsel 'riddle'; cp. ohg. 
ratisca ratussa 'riddle': teut. 
sf^rad rM under read. 

riddle 2 sb. 'sieve' me. riddel 
for OE. hridder = ohg. hritara 
g. reiter 'sieve': Ksxpc^sfkri in 
LAT. cribrum 'sieve', GR. •aqLvo) 
and in goth. hrai-ns, ohg. reini 
G. rein 'clean' (prop, sifted'?). 

ride me. ride OE. ridan str. vb. 
= OHG. rttan g. reiten, du. rijden, 
ON. rida\ T^\5T.'\/^rui= pre-TEUT. 
reidh in gallo-lat. rida 'carriage' 
— veredus'horsQ (undQX palfrey) 
and IR. riadaim 'I go'; see ready. 

ridge me. rigge oe. //rj'*:^ (genit. 
hrycges) = teut. hrugja- in oSAX. 
hruggi, DU. ?'?<f, ohg. hrucki G. 
riicken 'back', on. hryggr: pre- 
TEUT. kriikjo-, cogn. w. IR. crocenn 
sb. 'back'. 

rife adj. me. oe. r^ 'abundant, 
frequent' = on. rifr 'munificent, 
abundant', ODU. rijf 'copious*, 
LG. rive 'abundant'. 

right adj. me. right oe. riht 
earher *reht = OHG. osAX. reht 
G. DU. recht, on. rMr, GOTH. 
raihts 'right, straight': TEUT. rehta- 
fr. an ARYAN r'ekto- (= lat. rectus 
'right, straight'), prop, participle 
fr. a verbal \^ri'^ in lat. r eg ere 
'to rule'; cp. skr. rju 'right, 

righteous transformed fr. ME. 
rightwis oe. rihtwis == OHG. reht- 
wis 'knowing the right' ; see 

rim sb. me. rime oe. rima rionia 
'border, margin'; probably cogn. 
w. OE. rand, on. rgnd, ohg. rant 
G. DU. rand 'border, margin': 
TEUT. ran-do- for ram-do- (as 
sand ior ARYAN samdho-) . Perh. 
rind belongs to the same ARYAN 

rime^ sb. me. rim 'verse, song' 
borrowed about 1 200 fr. ofr. 
rime, whence also mhg. rtm G. 
reim, DU. rijm (properly Verse'). 
Source lat. rhythmus. 

rime''^ sb. me. rime oe. hritn = 
DU. riJ7n, ON. hrirn 'hoarfrost'; 
doubtful, whether OHG. hrifo G. 
reify OSAX. hripo, du. rijp 'hoar- 
frost' are cognate. 

rind — roe 


rind sb. me. rlnde OE. rind\ 
'bark of a tree' fr. a teut. base ; 
rindo- (r'endo-) = OHG. rinia G. I 
rinde 'rind'; perh. cogn. w. ohg. { 
rant G. rand and OE. r^Wborder, 
margin' under rim. j 

ring sb. ME. ring OE. hring r= 
ON. hringr, ohg. hring ring G. 
DU. ring: TEUT. base hringa- 
{hrenga-^ fr. a pre-TEUT. V^^r^«^^ 
in OSLOV. krqgu 'circle' and 
kraglu round'. 

ring vb. ME. ringe OE. hringan 
=^ ON. hringja 'ring the bells'. 

rip vb. ME. rippe (ruppe) OE. 
ryppan = hg. rup/en 'to tear': 
TEUT. base ruppjan; cogn. w. 
GOTH, raupjan, OHG. rouffen G. 
raufen, OE. rypan ripan and perh, 
allied to SKS..\/^rup 'break'. 

ripe adj. me. oe. ripe 'mature, 
ripe' = west-teut. ripi- in OSAX. 
rlpi, DU. rijp, ohg. rtfji G. r^^ 
'mature, ripe'; derived fr. the 
TEUT. verbal yrzjJ 'cut' in E. reap 
and OE. rifier sb. 'sickle'. There- 
fore ripe orig. meant 'cuttable, 
fit for reaping'. 

rise vb. ME. rise OE. r/i'a« str. 
vb. = ON. risa, ohg. ma'^ str. 
vb. 'to move up, rise': teut. 
verbal v^rfV, whence also rear 
and raise. 

risk sb. fr. FR. risque = ital. 
GERM, risico. 

rive vb. ME. rive fr. on. r^rt 
'tear' = ohg. riban G. reiben, DU. 
rijven 'grate, rub': teut. verbal 
\^W7-ib in ODU. MLG. wriven 'rub'. 

river ME. rrc'if'r fr. fr. riviere 
'river, stream'; ident. w. ital. 

riviera sea-shore : deriv. from 
LAT. ripa 'bank'. 

roach late me. rgche points to 
a FR. source (cp. swed. rokka, 
DAN. rocke 'roach'); the synon. 
ray goes back to fr. raie = 
LAT. raia 'roach'. 

road ME. rode 'journey, road 
OE. rdd 'journey, road' = teut. 
base raido- (on. reid 'riding') 
fr. the verbal Y^r/ir/ in ride. 

roar vb. me. rare oe. rdrian 
vb. = OHG. reren iraG. rhen vb. 
'low, bellow': teut. base rairan'i 
or raizanl 

roast vb. me. rpste fr. ofr. 
rostir ■== fr. rotir 'roast'. Source 
a TEUT. vb. raiistjan = ohg. 
rosten G. r'dsten 'roast'; cp. ohg. 
AfflG. rost G. rost 'gridiron, grate*. 

rob vb. ME. robbe fr. fr. rober. 

robe sb. me. robe fr. fr. robe. 
Source a teut. sb. rauba- ^ 
OE. r{af 'spoil, clothing', OHG. 
MHG. roup(b) booty, spoil'. Cogn. 
w. reave. 

robin = fr. Robin the name 

rock sb. isiE. rock late oe. rocc 
{stdnroccy. borrowed about lOOO 
fr. ONFR. roc (fr. roche) = ital. 
rocca. Source celt, rokka-l 

rock'-^ vb. me. rocke late oe. 
roccian 'shake, swing, rock'; cogn. 
w. OHG. ruckan G. rUcken, ON. 
rykkja 'to pull roughly and hastily*: 

rod ident. w. rood. 

roe ' sb. 'a female deer* me. rp 
oe. rd earliest form rdha = 
OHG. r^ho: teut. base raihan-i 


roe — row 

ident. w. ohg. reh G. reh, DU. 
ree, on. rd fr. a teut. base 

roe^ sb. 'the spawn of fishes' 
short for late me. rgune\ properly 
OE. *hrogen = on. hrogn^ ohg. 
rogan G. rogen with the by-form 
ohg. rogo\ TEUT. base hrogna- 

rogue sb. fr. fr. rogue. 

roll vb. ME. rolle fr. ofr. roler 
= FR. rouler: source lat. rotu- 

rood ME. rode oe. rod (obi. 
r(?V/(?) 'cross', original meaning 
'a rod or pole'. Ident. w. OSAX. 
roda, DU. roede, ohg. ruota G. 
rute and w. e. rod. teut. base 
rodo-, pre-TEUT. rddhd- or rata-. 

roof ME. rpf OE. /!r<j/^: teut. 
base hrofa- in on. /f/'4'^ 'shed', 
OFRIES. hrof 'roof, DU. ;7?^' 
'cabin'. Perh. allied to roost. 
IR. cro 'roof* points to a pre- 
TEUT. form krdpo-. 

rook sb. ME. rpk oe. hrgc = 
ON. hrdkr, OHG. hruoh: teut. 
base hroka-, pre-TEUT. krdgo-. 

room sb. me. r<?«w oe. rum = 
OHG. r«w G. raum , DU. r«/>«, 
on. rtim, GOTH, rums 'room': 
TEUT. ru-ma- fr. an ARYAN Y^r« 
in LAT. rus {riiris) 'open country'. 

roost sb. ME. rost oe. hrpst 
= DU. roest 'hen-roost', oSAX. 
hrdst 'roof; prop, hrofsta- and 
cogn. w. roof} 

root sb. ME. rote late OE. rot 
borrowed fr. the equival. ON. 
rot: TEUT. base wrotd-, cogn. w. 
E. root vb. OE. wrptan. 'grub up' 

= ON. rota 'grub up'; cp. MHG. 
rile7,l,el G. rilssel. 

rope sb. me. rgp oe. rap =::r 
TEUT. base raipa- in on. reip, 
DU. reep, ohg. g. ;Y//"hoop, ring, 
rope'; perh. cogn. w. gr. QaifioQ 

rose sb. me. rose oe. rose (by- 
form rose) borrowed fr. lat. 
rosa, whence also fr. g. rose 
OHG. rosa. 

rosemary sb. me. rosmarine fr. 
OFR. rosmarin (fr. romariti) = 
LAT. ros marinus (prop, 'marin 
dew'); cp. G. rosmarin. 

rotten adj. me. roten = on. 
rotinn: partic. of a verbal\'"r?// 
reut in oe. rotian, oSAX. rotoriy 
MHG. ro-^^en vb. 'putrify'. 

rough adj. me. rough {ro^v) 
OE. ruh = OHG. ruh G. rauh 
'rough (du. ruig 'rough'): teut. 
base riiha- , pre - teut. riiko-f 
cogn. w. LITH. raukas 'wrinkle'? 

round vb. 'whisper' me. roune 
OE. rtinian ^=^ osAX. runian, 
OHG. runen G. raunen 'whisper: 
derivative of teut. runo- 'secret, 
mystery' under rune. 

round adj. me. round fr. fr. 
rond (oFR. roond^= lat. rotundas), 
whence also G. rund, du. rond 

row sb. ME. rpwe oe. raw 'row' 
fr. a teut. base raiwo- orig. 
raigwo- ; cogn. w. MHG. rihe G. reihe 
'row' and the str. vb. OHG. rihan 
'rank, string': pre-TEUT. Y^r£^^ 
reikh in SKR. rekhd 'line'. 

row vb. ME. rpwe oe. r&ivan 
= ON. rouy DU. roeijen, mhg. 

rowlock — rye 


rilejen 'to row' : coromon base 
a strong verbal v^r^ in rudder 
ME. rather OE. rodor := ohg. 
ruodar G. ruder, DU. roer 'rudder': 
TELT. base ro-pra-. lat. ri-mus 
'rudder' and or. t-ot-rf.i6g belong 
to the same arvaxv'~;'<5 : re. 

rowlock roUock sb. prop, 
"hole for rowing'; cp. G. loch 
and OE. drloc me. orlock hole of 
oars . ▼ 

ruddock sb. me. ruddok OE. 
rudduc 'red-breast'; cogn. w. 
ruddy me. rodl rudy (oe. *rudii) 
reddish' and OE. rudu 'red 
color'; cp. the adj. red. 

rude adj. me. riide fr. fr. rude 
= LAT. rudis 'rude'. 

rue vb. me. rewe oe. hreowan 
str. vb. = OSAX. hreuwan, ohg. 
riuwan G. reuen, on. hryggva vb. 
'distress, grieve': base a strong 
verbal \'^/fr<f««'. Cp. ruth. 

rue sb. (a plant) me. riie fr. 
FR. rue ■= LAT. ruta 'rue'. 

rule ME. rfu/e earlier riu/e fr. 
OFR. reu/e riule: source lat. 
regula, whence also oe. regol, 
OHG. regain G. regely fr. regie. 

rump late me. rumpe\ ident. w. 
MHG. G. ruinpf, DU. ro7np 'trunk, 

rumple parallel form to me. 
riinple oe. hrympele and ident. 
w. ODU. rompel 'ripple': derived 
fr. the TEUT. verbal V~ hremp in 
OE, gehiU7npen 'wrinkled' and ohg. 
rivipfan str. vb. wrinkle'. 

run vb. me. rinne (part, ironne) 
OE. (rare) rinnan (mostly yrnari) 
= ON. rinna, goth. rinnan 'run'; 

English Etv.mologv. 

ohg. rinnan g. rinnen str. vb. 

rune the teut. word for the 
old characters in writing : oe. 
ON. run with the orig. meaning 
mystery, secret' (goth. ohg. 
rtind) ; ident. w. oiR. run 'secret'. 
Cp. round vb. for the root. 

rung ME. runge oe. hrung (obi. 
hrunge) goth. hrugga 'staff', hg. 
LG. runge, DU. rang 'spar, bolt : 
TEUT. base hrungo-. 

rust me. rust roust oe. riist fr. 
a TEUT. base riista-\ ident. w. 
hg. lg. rost fr. a teut. base 
riista- : derived with st- formative 
from the aryan \friiidh (in E. 
red and ruddy), whence also 
LAT robigo 'rust' and OSLOV. 
ruzda (for ^rudjd) 'rust'. 

rush sb. me. russhe oe. rysce', 
ident. w. lg. du. rusch 'rush, 

rush vb. ME. rousche = g. 
rauschen mhg. riischen, du. ruischen 
ODU. ruuschen , os\ved. ruska 
rush': TEUT. base hriiskon'i There 
occurs also oe. hryscan. 

ruth sb. ME. reuthe: extended 
fr. a more primitive sb. OE. 
hreow; cp. OE. hreo^van str. vb. 
rue' under rue. 

rye sb. me. rle oe. ry^e: teut. 
base rugi- in on. rugr rye'; ohg. 
rocko G. roggen and oSAX. roggo 
'rye' point to a teut. parallel 
base ruggan-. Outside of teut., 
OSLOV. riizi 'rye' (base rugi-') 
and LITH. rugiai 'rj'e' show the 
same base as oe. ryj^e and on. 
rugr = TEUT. base rugi-. 



sable — sand 

sable sb. me. sable borrowed 
fr. OFR. sable', ident. w. mhg. 
G. zobel: source a slav. word, 
RUSS. soboli 'sable'. 

sabre saber fr. fr. sabi-e =^ 
G. siibel, SERB. RUSS. sablja, 
HUNGAR. szablya. Source and 
history unknown. 

sack sb. 'bag' me. sakk OE. 
scecc = GOTH, sakkus, DU. zak, 
G. sack OHG. MHG. sac : teut. 
base sakku- borrowed fr. lat. 
sacais, whence also ital, sacco, 
PR. sac. Source HEBR.-Phenic. 

sad me. .yac/'sad, quiet, serious'; 
the ident. OE. seed 'satiated' corre- 
sponds with OHG. sat G. satt, 
OSAX. sad, ON. sadr, goth. saps 
'satiated'. There is an ARYAN 
\f sd 'satiate' in lat. satur-satis 
and oiR. sathach 'satiated' ; cp. 
GR. a-f.isvai 'satiate. 

saddle me. sddel oe. sadol == 
ON. sgdull, OHG. satul G. sattel, 
DU. zadel: teut. base sadula-, 
perh. borrowed from a non- 
TEUT. language which might have 
formed a sb. sadulo- from the 
ARYAN \f sed in sit — set. 

safe me. sdf earlier sauf: loan- 
word fr. FR. sauf = LAT. salvus\ 
cp. save. 

sail sb. me. sail seil OE. sej^el 
= OHG. segal G. segel, DU. zeil, 
ON. segl: TEUT. base s'egla-. 

saint sb. me. seint saint fr. fr. 
saint = LAT. sanctus. 

sake sb. me. sake oe. sdcu = 
TEUT. base sako- in OHG. sahha 
G. sachc, DU. zaak 'matter, affair'; 
perh. based on the teut. verbal 
sakan 'content, rebuke'. 

sale ME. sale oe. sdlii; hence 

sallow sb. me. salwe earlier 
*salge oe. sealh (^sealg-) = ohg. 
salaha: teut. base salhb-; cp. 
ON. selja 'willow' (base salhjon-'). 
Prob. cognate w. lat. salix (base 
salic-) 'willow' and GR. iXiy.rj. 

sallow adj. me. sahiie oe. sealo 
salo = DU. zaluw, ON. sglr 'yellow- 
ish', OHG. salo 'sallow': teut. 
base salwa-. 

salt sb. me. salt oe. sealt: teut. 
base salta- in goth. on. osax. 
salt, ohg. g. salz salt'. Cogn. 
w. LAT. sal, GR. aXq, osLOV. soli, 
OIR. salann salt'. 

salve sb. me. salve oe. seal/ 
(infl. sealfe) = ohg. salba G. 
salbe, DU. zalf ; cp. goth. salbbn 
vb. = OE. sealfian E. salve vb. 
Cognate w. the aryan \f self 
solp in SKR. sarpis 'butter' — 
srpra fat', gr. sknog 'oil'. 

same sb. me. sdnie oe. sam = 
goth. sama, on. samr, OHG. sam 
'the same': pre-TEUT. somo- in 
GR. OfxcQ, SKR. sama 'the same'. 

sample sb. me. saiimple earlier 
asaumplc fr. ofr. cssemple fr. 
exaftiplc = LAT. exemplum. 

sand sb. me. oe. sand = osax. 
sand, OHG. sant G. sand, DU. zand, 

sap — scoff 


ON. sandr: teut. base sanda- for 
samda-, cp. pre-TEUT. samadho-s 
in GR. a^uaOog sand'. 
sap sb. ME. S(7p OE. seep = 

MLG. ODU. Sa/>, MHO. OHO. SOf 

G. soft 'sap' : TEUT. base sdpa- 
borrowed fr. lat, sdpa must'. 

satin sb. me. satin fr. fr. satin: 
source the vulgar lat. seta 'silk' 
(in G. seide ohg. stda = OE. 
sid 'silk'). 

Saturday me. saterday earlier 
Saterndai OE. Sceterndce^ ^ DU. 
zaterdag, ofris. saternesdag ,west- 
PHAL. Sdterdach'. adaptation of 
LAT. Saturni dies. Cp. the names 
of the other days of the week. 

sauce sb. me. saufe fr, fr. 
sauce: source lat. salsa. Hence 
sausage fr. fr. saucisse. 

savage adj. me. sauvdge fr. fr. 
sauvage = lat. silvaticus. 

save vb. me. save earlier sauve 
fr. FR. saiiver ^= lat. salvare 
'secure. Cp. safe. 

savor sb. me. savour fr. ofr. 
savour = lat. sapor-em 'taste'. 

saw ' sb. ME. sawe OE. sage = 
OHG. saga, LG. sage, du. zaag, 
ON. sgg; cp. the ablaut-varia- 
tion OHG. sega 'saw': derived fr. 
an ARYAN v'" sek sok (in lat. 
secare 'cut'), whence also OE. secg 
'sword' and E. scythe. 

saw 2 sb. ME. saive OE. sagu 
'saying = G. sage OHG. saga: 
derived fr. the teut. verb sagain 
= OE. secgan me. sein sain E. 
say and ohg. sagen g. sagen; 
cp. ON. seggja 'say': perh. cog- 
nate w. lith. sakyti vb. 'say'. 

scale' sb, 'shell' me. scale: 
loanword fr. ofr. escale fr. hale. 
Source OHG. scala under shell. 

scale^ (of a balance) me, late 
OE. skdle: loanword fr. ON. skdl 
'scale of a balance'; ident, w. 
OHG. osax. skala 'bowl'. 

scarce me. scars fr. ofr. escars 
(fr. hhars) = ITAL. scarso 
'scarce : source lat. excarsus = 
excarpsus 'selected'. 

scarlet me. scarldt fr. ofr. 
escarlate (fr. harlate) ; ident. w. 
G. scharlach, du. scharlaken (mhg. 
scharlat, ODU. schaerlaei). Source 
PERS. sakirlat. 

scathe vb. me. scdthe fr. ON. 
skdda; ident. w. oe. sceppan = 
GOTH, skapjan vb. 'harm . The 
TEUT. \f skap corresponds to an 
ARYAN \f skdth in GR. aoY.rii)^i]q 

scatter vb. me, scatere: loan- 
word of the 12''' century fr, 
ODU, scateren 'scatter' ? 

scent vb, properly sent (late 
ME. sent sb. 'scent') fr. ofr. sentir 
'smell' = LAT. sentire. 

school me. scple oe. seal (infl, 
scgle^ = OHG. scuola g. sc/iule, 
DU. school: loanword fr. lat. 
scola (in a medieval pronun- 
ciation scola), whence also fr. 
hole and ital. scuola. 

scissors me. sisoures (isoures 
fr. ofr. cisoires 'scissors' (fr. 

scofF ME. scof; cogn. w. the 

equiv. ohg. scopf sb. and ofries. 

schof; cp. ON. skopa vb. 'scoff, 

mock'. Source and history un- 




known; the E. word probably 
not genuine Anglosaxon. 

scold vb. ME. scglde; cognate 
w. OHG. sceltan G. schelten vb. 
'scold'. Probably the E. word 
is not genuine English, but bor- 
rowed fr. abroad. 

score ME. score late oe. scor 
'twenty': loanword fr. on. skor 
'notch': source the teut. \'~ sker 
in shear. 

scorn me. scorn earliest form 
(about 1260) scam', borrowed 
fr. OFR. escarn 'scorn'. Source 
OHG. seem 'mockery'. 

scour vb. ME. scour e. 

scourge sb. 'whip' me. scour''^e 
fr. OFR. escurge (whence also 
FR. escourgie icourgie) 'a scourge'. 

scrape vb. me. scrape fr. on. 
scrdpa; cp. mlg. du. schrapen 
G. schrappen. 

scream vb. me. scrc'me vb. fr. 
on. skrcema 'to scare, terrify'. 

screw sb. fr. ofr. escroue, mo- 
dern FR. icrou. 

scribe sb. me. scribe fr. lat. 
s crib a. 

scrip sb. ME. scrippe fr. on. 

scurf ME. late oe. scurf bor- 
rowed fr. on. skurf (= saved. 
skorf , DAN. skurii) ; cp. ohg. 
scorf G. schorf, du. schurft 'scurf. 
TEUT. \'^sk'cr/ skorf in oe. sceor- 
fan 'to scrape'. 

scuttle sb. ME. OE. scutel 'a 
dish, bowl ; identical w. ohg. 
scuT^yla g. schussel, du. schotel, 
ON. skutell 'dish'. Source lat. 
scutula scutella. 

scythe me. sithe oe. sipe si^pe 
'sickle =^ ON. sigdr 'sickle' : 
Teut. base sigipja-, derived fr. 
a TEUT. sfs'eg in ohg. segaiisa g. 
sense 'scythe*; cp. saw. 

sea ME. se oe. scb ; ident. w. 
got. saiws, ON. sckr, ohg. olg. 
sh G. see du. zee: base saiwi-. 

seal^ sb. me. set fr. ofr. seel fr. 
sceau. Source lat. sigillutn. 

seal 2 (the animal) sb. me. sele 
OE. seolh (pi. seoias) = ohg. 
selah , MLG. sei, ON. selr : Teut. 
base selha-. 

seam sb. 'suture me. s(m oe. 
scain := ON. saumr, ohg. mhg. 
soum G. saum du. zoom : Teut. 
base sau-ma-, derived from the 
same root as the vb. se?^. — 
seampstress me. semster oe. sca- 
mestre 'a woman who sews seams'. 

sear 'withered' me. scr oe. s(ar 
= DU. zoor 'dry, OHG. sor. 

search vb. me. serche (erche 
vb. fr. OFR. ccrcher (= fr. 
chercher). Source lat. circare. 

season sb. me. s{soun (seisoun) 
fr. ofr. seson fr. saison: source 
lat. satio-nem '(time of) sowing'. 

seat sb. me. site borrowed fr. 
ON. S(Zti 'a seat: derivative of 
the teut. \f set in sit and set. 

sedge sb. me. segge oe. sccg: 
Teut. base sagja- also in odu. 
mlg. segge. \f sah sag in ohg. 
sahar 'sedge'. Perh. cognate 
with a reduplicated gallo.-lat. 
si-sc-a 'sedge = IR. seisg. 

see vb. me. se oe. seon con- 
tracted for *s'ehan = ohg. olg. 
sehan G. sehen du. zien : avest- 

see — sew 


TEUT. sehan = goth. sailvan. 
TEUT. \'^sehu> = ARYAN yf seq 
in LAT. sequi, gr. S7na,%a, skr. 
sac 'follow'. The original mean- 
ing of the TEUT. verb probably 
was to follow with the eyes'. 

see sb. 'seat of a bishop' me. 
Sf fr. OFR. se 'seat' = lat. sede-m 

seed ME. sed (se'd) oe. sdd seed 
= OHG. sat G. i>aat, du. zaad 
(goth. scps in vianaseps 'man- 
kind) : Teut. base se-di-\ for 
\^ se cp. sow 

seek vb. ME. seke oe. secan 
(sedeati) = got. sokjan, on. sdkja, 
OHG. suolihan G. siicheti, du. zooken. 

teut. \^ .y(5>^ = ARYAN V~ ^^^ 

in OIR. sdigitn 'I seek' (lat. 
sagtre ?) 

seethe vb. 'boil' me. .y^'M^ oe. 
seodan str. vb. = ON. :f/^^a, 
OHG. siodan G. sieden, DU. zieden. 
In GOTH., we find only the deri- 
vative .f<?«/i- sb. 'sacrifice' (prop, 
'a burnt-offering'), teut. \^seup 
= ARYAN \'^seut. 

seldom adv. me. seldom prop. 
s4lde{n) oe. seldan adv. = on. 
sjaldan, OHG. j-<^/^/« g. selten, du. 
zelden adv. Cogn. w. goth. iv'A/a- 
/f/>^i- 'wonderful'. 

self pron. me. oe. silf = ohg. 
selb 0. .y^/^j/, du. zelf, on. sjal/r, 
goth. .y/7<!^<7: Teut. base selba-. 

sell vb. me. sclle (pret. sglde) 
oe. sellan (pret. sdlde) 'to give' 
= GOTH, saljan to bring an 
offering , on. selja to hand over", 
MHG. sellen. 

selvage, selvedge cp.thesynon. 

du. zelfkanty G. (dial.) self-end 
and LG. egge\ therefore selvedge 
compound of self and edge, per- 
haps in imitation of early du. 

send vb. me. sende (prt. sente') 
OE. sendan (prt. sende^ wk. vb. 
= GOTH, sandjan , on. senda^ 
DU. zenden, OSAX. sendiav, ohg. 
sen tan G. senden. Derived fr. 

GOTH. .$•/«/, OHG. J/W, OE. J'// 

'journey' = oiR. sit 'way' (aryan 
base sento- sb. — sontejo vb.). 

sennight prop, 'seven night 
OE. seofon niht; cp. fourtnight. 

sermon me. sertnoun fr. fr. 

serve vb. me. serve borrowed in 
the 12^^ cent. fr. fr. servir (= 
i^AT. servire). Derivative serz'ant 
me. servaunt fr. fr. servant and 
service me. servlse fr. fr. service 
(lat. servitiuni). 

set vb. ME. sette oe. settan wk. 

vb. ^ GOTH, satjan, on. ^^'^Vr, 

I DU. zetten, osAX. settian, ohg. 

{ sezzan G. j'/?/0<f« : teut. satjan 

I causal vb. to «//«;? = j//. — 

settle vb. me. .t^//^ oe. setlian 

'to fix': derived fr. or. .y^// 'a 

seat'; cp. goth. sitls, ohg. sei^yil 

G. sessel. 

seven num. me. .$-^^« oe. seofone 
prop, seofon ■= goth. ohg. sibun 
G. «'(?/^^« DU. zeven. Oldest Teut. 
form sep'.un in Lex Salica. I dent, 
w. LAT. septem, gr. snxd, SKR. 
sap tan. 

sever vb. me. scifere fr. ofr. 
sevrer = lat. separare. 

se^v vb. me. save oe. seowian 


shackle — shaw 

siwtan; cp. GOTH, siujan, on. 
syja, OHG. siuwan 'to sew': teut.- 

ARYAN \'^ siw in LAT. ^«(fr^, SKR. 

j??^ 'to sew'; cp. seam. 

shackle sb. me. sc hackle oe. 
scedcol 'a bond'; ident. w. on. 
skgkull 'pole of a carriage', teut. 
\P skak in shake. 

shad sb. me. schadde oe. sceadda. 
Perhaps an orig. teut. skadan- 
'herring' is found in Scadin-avia, 
if it originally meant herring's 
isle'. Cp. yet IR. Gael, sgadan 
'herring' . 

shade, shadow me. schdde shad- 
we OE. sceadu obi. sceadwe: Teut. 
base skadwa- in du. s chad ma, 
OHG. skato gen. skaiwes, G. schatten, 
GOTH, skadiis; cogn. \v. oir. scdth 
'shadow' : pre-TEUT. \^skdL 

shaft sb. ME. schaft OE. sceaft 
= OSAX. skaft, OHG. scaft G. 
schaft, ON. skapt: teut. skafta- 
prop. a 'shaven' pole; cp. shave 
and GR. oxTJurpor 'staff, sceptre' 
— Gv.dnxov staff. 

shag 'rough hair' oe. sceacga 
'hair'; cogn. w. ON. skegg 'beard. 

shake vb. me. schdke oe. scedcan 
str. vb. = ON. skaka; cp. osax. 
skakan 'to go away'. 

shall vb. me. schal (prt. scholde) 
OE. sceal (prt. sceS/de) = goth. 
skal {skulda), ohg. seal (scolda) 
G. soil (solte), DU. zal, on. skal. 
Cogn. w. LiTH. skelc-ti 'to be 

shallop see sloop. 

shallow ME. schalwe 'not deep' 
with the byform me. schpld; not 
found in oe. nor in the other 

TEUT. languages. Base skal-wa- 

shambles :me. schdmel 'bench' 
OE. sceamol stool': borrowed fr. 
LAT. scatnelltim , whence also 
OHG. OSAX. scamal G. schemel. 

shame vb. me. schdme oe. scedmu 
= OSAX. skama, ohg. scania G. 
schavi; cp. goth. sik skanian 'to 
shame' = oe. sicdinian. 

shank vb. w^. schanke ov.. scean- 
ca\ cp. G. sc/ienkel 'shank' fr. a 
lost OHG. *sccnkil. Cogn. w. G. 
schinken 'ham' OHG. scinko 'shank', 
which is perh. a doublet by the 
side of oe. sceanca. 

shape vb. :me. schdpe str. vb.; 

ident. w. oe. sdieppan = goth. 

(ga)skapjan 'to create', ohg. scep- 

fan 'to create' (o. schafferi) : teut. 


share sb. 'part' OE.scedr/i; cogn. 
w. shear. 

share sb. 'plough-share' me. 
schdre OE. scedru =r qhg. scara 
G. pfugschaar: teut. \'~ sker 'cut' 
in shear. 

sharp adj. me. scharp oe. scearp 
= ON. skarpr, DU. scherp, osax. 
sharp, OHG. scarf G. scharf adj. 
'sharp'. TEUT. verbal \f skerp in 
OE. sceorpan str. vb. to scrape'. 

shave vb. me. schdi'e oe. scedfan 
str. vb. ^= GOTH, skaban, ON. 
skafa, OHG. scaban G. schaben, DU. 
schaz'en 'to shave : teut. \f skab 
cogn. w. LAT. scabere 'to shave' 
and prob. w. GR. oy.aTiTio 'to dig'. 
Cp shaft. 

shaw me. schawe oe. scedga 
'thicket, small wood'; ident. w. 

shawm — sliield 


ON. skagi 'promontory' and cogn. 
w. ON. skdg7- 'wood' and mhg. 
schache 'piece of wood'. 

shawm me. schahny borrowed 
fr. FR. (dial.) chalemie , whence 
also G. schalmei; standard fr. 
chalumeau fr. a lat. type cala- 

she ME. sche; functionally cor- 
responding to OE. heo (fem. of 
he), but phonetically to OE. seo 
(fem. of the article se = the). 

sheaf sb. me. schc'f oe. scurf: 
TEUT. base skauha- in on. skauf, 
OHG. Seoul), DU. schoof. Cogn. w. 
OHO. scobar G. schober rick' (of 
corn). All derivatives of the 
Teut. \f sknb in shoi>e with the 
orig. meaning 'things shoved 

shear vb. me. sch(re oe. sderan 
str. vb. ^ OHG. seer an du. g. 
scheren, on. skera : arvan \I^ sker 
in LITH. skir-ti 'separate', cogn. 
w. \f~ kcr in or.'osiv 'shear. 

sheath vb. me. schcthe oe. scedf 
obi. sdedpe: fr. a teut. skatpjo- 
in OSAX. skMia, ohg. sceida G. 
scheide, du. scheede: orig. meaning 
that which Separates'. Cogn. 
w. shed vb. ME. schede- OE. seed- 
dan = GOTH, skaidan with the 
byform osax. skedan = ohg. 
sceidan G. scheiden to separate': 
TEUT. \f skaip skaid, which is 
compared to gr. 0%ltsiv, skr. 
chid, LAT. scindere 'to cleave, cut' 
(ARYAN \fskhidl). See shide. 

sheen sb. (prop, adj.) me. 
sche lie oe. scene (scyne) adj. 'fair' 
= OSAX. ohg. skoni DU. schoon 

G. schbn, GOTH, skauns : teut. 
base skau-ni-, verbal adj. 'to be 
looked at' fr. \i~ skau in show. 

sheep sb. me. schep oe. seep 
(scedp) = OSAX. skdp, qxj. schaap, 
OHG. sctif G. schaf: Teut. base 
skepa- (skdpa-). 

sheet sb. me. sehete oe. sdete 
(scyte), umlaut-deriv. of OE. sce'at 
'fold of a garment' = goth. skatits 
'hem of a garment', ohg. scd:i^ G. 
schoss 'bosom, lap ; oe. sdyte re- 
presents a teut. type skautjon-. 
TEUT. \f skeiit in shoot. 

shelf me. schelve oe. siylf = 
mlg. odu. schelf, OHG. scelb\ cp. 
ON. Hlid-skjalf. 

shell sb. me. schelle OE. scell 
obi. scelle : teut. type skaljo- in 
DU. schel, ON. .y/^<?/ 'shell' and in 
GOTH, skalja 'a tile"; cogn. w. 
OHG. seala G. schale 'shell'. 

shepherd sb. me. schepherd o^. 
scip-hyrde prop, compound of OE. 
j^^/) 'sheep' and o^.hyrdeY..herd 
'one who tends a herd"; cp. 
GOTH, halrdeis, ohg. hirti G. hirte 
and see herd. 

sheriff sb. me. sc/ierefe earlier 
schir-reve oe. scir-'^erefa; P' part 
of the OE. compound see under 
shire', OE. lerefa e. reeve is 
derived fr. teut. roba rofa =' 
ORG. ruoba ruofa 'number'? 

shide sb. .me. schide oe. scid = 
ON. skid, OHG. J^?/ G. .yr/tf"// 'thin 
board'; ident. w. OIR. sciath 
shield (ARYAN base skeito-). 
Cogn. w. sheath. 

shield sb. me. scheld oe. sdfld 
(byform sdiid) : teut. base skeldu- 

1 84 

shift — shop 

fn GOTH, skildus = ON. skjgldr, 
OHG. scilt, DU. G. schild. Perh. 
cogn. \v. LITH. skeliu I split'. 

shift vb. ME. schifte oe. siiftan 
'to divide' == ON. skipia, du. 
schiften to divide'. 

shilling sb. iME. schilling OE. 
sailing = GOTH, skilliggs, ON. 
shilling, OHG. oSAX. sailing G. 
schilling: teut. base skillinga- 
more orig. sk'elUngo-, perh. akin 
to OHG. .y^^/Za G. schelle bell'. 
The common Teut. name of 
the coin properly meant the 
tinkling money' (for the suffix 
-ing in names of coins ^^^ penny 
and farthing^. 

shimmer vb. me. schimere oe. 
sciniorian: deriv. of OE. sclma 
light' = GOTH, skeima 'light'; 
cp. G. schimmern aside of ohg. 
schno 'light'. Cp. shine for the 
TEUT. \fski. 

shin (shinbone) sb. me. schinc 
{schinebgn) oe. scina (scinebdn) 
= OHG. scina (mhg. schincheiti) 
G. schiene (schienbein), du. scheen 
(scheenbeen). OE. scie shin' shows 
evidently the more primitive 
root-form ski: separate OE. OHG. 

shine vb.ME. schineo^. s^inanstr. 
vb. = GOTH, skeinan, on. skina, 
OHG. OSAX. skinan G. scheinen, du. 
schijnen: all equivalent. teut. 
ski-na-n rests on a \^ ski as 
shown by OE. scl-ma ohg. sci-mo 
GOTH, skei-ma light'. 

shingle sb. me. schingel; ap- 
parently identical w. G. schindel 
OHG. scintilla (loanword fr. lat. 

scindula, by form oi s Candida 'shing- 
le); but the phonetic anomaly 
is not yet explained. 
ship sb. me. schip oe, sdip = 

GOTH. ON. OSAX. skip, OHG. scif 

g. schiff: common Teut. base 

shire sb. me. schire oe. scir 
(obi. scire) = ohg. skira 'pro- 

shirt sb. me. schirte pointing 
to an OE. ^scyrte\ deriv. fr. the 
adj. OE. sieort = short, as 
shown by G. schurz 'shirt' aside 
of mhg. schurz 'short'. ON. skyrta 
= OE. *scyrte represents a teut. 
type skurtjon-, but OE. sceort a 
base skorta-. See short. 

shoal 'crowd' ME. schgle OE. 
sceolii ■= OSAX. skola 'troop'. 

shock vb. ME. schocke fr. fr. 
chequer 'give a shock. 

shock sb. ME. schocke 'heap 
of corn'. OE. *sceocc is lost, 
but inferred from iiHG. schoc 
'heap' — schocke 'shock'. Cogn. 
also w. MLG. hocke 'shock of corn'. 

shoe sb. ME. schg oe. sceph 
(pi. scep-s for *sc'phas) : Teut. 
base skoha- in goth. skohs, on. 
sko-r, OHG. scuoh g. schuh, du. 
schoen. Perhaps derived fr. a 
TEUT. V" skek- ske(g)w in goth. 
skewjan on. skckva 'to go'. 

shoot vb. cp. ME. schpte vb. 
OE. sceotinn 'to dart', derived fr. 
the primitive me. schete oe. sceo- 
tan = ON. skjota, osAX. skeotan 
OHG. scio-yifin G. sc hies sen, du. 
schieten: teut. \'~ skeut : skut. 

shop sb. me. schoppc oe. sceoppa 

shore — shut 


*booth, hut'; cognate \v. OE. 
scypcn shed for cattle', G. schopf 
scliuppen 'shelter'. 

shore sb. me. schdre: fr. the 
TEUT. y/^sker 'shear, cut'. 

short adj. me. schort oe. sceort: 
base skorta-; cp. ohg. scnrz fr. | 
a base skurtu-: loanword fr. lat. j 
*ex-curtus, as lat. curttis is pre- 1 
served in G. ohg. kurz 'short', DU. 
kort, ON. kortr (see kirtle for j 
OE. cyrtd and shirt for G. | 
schiirze). \ 

shot sb. ME. schot OE. lesceot 'a j 
missile': deriv. from the teut. I 
\f skeut skut in shoot. 

shoulder sb. me. schulder oe. ^ 
scuhior', cp. DU. schoudei- , G. i 
schulter (ohg. scultirrd). 

shout vb. ME. schonte. 

shove vb. ME. schoiive oe. 
sen/an = ox. sktifa, du. schuiven'. 
ident. w. goth. skiuban, ohg. 
sciohan G. schieben'. teut. \^ skiib 

= ARYAN \^skubh\ SKR. \(^ ksubh 

\o be agitated' seems to be 
cognate. — shovel %h. me. schovel 
oe. scedfl\ cp. DU. schoffel and 
OHG. sdifala g. schaufel. 

show vb. :me. scheme late oe. 
lescemvian to show'; the corre- 
sponding OE. sc(awian means 
"to look, behold and is iden- 
tical with the equival. OHG. 
skomvon G. schauen du. schouwen: 
TEUT. \f skau sku (see sheen) in 
GOTH, skuggwa 'looking glass'. 
Cogn. w. the aryan \^ku ko7v 
in LAT. cavere 'to take care', 
GR. Y.OHv to beget'. 

shower sb. me. schour oe. scm- 

= GOTH, skiira 'storm', OHG. 
sciir G. schauer, on. skur. 

shred sb. short for me. schrede 
OE. sdr{ad (obi. scr(ade) 'shred, 
piece'; cp. oe. screadung 'shred 
and scrcadian to pare' : teut. 
\^ skraud in ohg. scrotan 'to cut, 
pare'; perh. cogn. w. shroud. 

shrew^ sb., shrewd adj. fr. 
me. schr^we sb. 'bad person' 
— schr(wed adj. 'wicked, bad'; 
the corresp. OE. scr^'awa means 
'shrew-mouse'. Origin and history 
of the group unknown. 

shriek vb. me. schrike (oe. 
scrtcian); cogn. w. shrike sb. 
oe. scrii 'a bird's name'. Cp. 
ON. skrikja 'to titter'. 

shrine sb. me. schrin oe. serin; 
ident. w. OHG. scrini g. schrein, 
DU. schrijn: loanword fr. lat. 
scrinitim, whence also riAL. scrig- 
no, FR. icrin. 

shrink vb. me. schrinke oe. 
(for)scrincan str. vb. = ODU. 
schrinken; cogn. w. swed. skrynka 
'a wrinkle': teut. \f^skienk. 

shroud sb. me. schroud oe. 
scnid 'garment' = on. skriid 'or- 
nament, dress'. See shred. 

shudder vb. me. schudere (oe. 
*sc'udorian) = LG. schuddern 
(whence G. schaudern) , du. 
schudden 'to tremble'; cp. ohg. 
scutison 'to shudder'. 

shun vb. me. schi'me oe. scimian 
wk. vb. 'to avoid, abhor'; perh. 
deriv. fr. a teut. \r sken 'to flee 
away' in on. skynda to hasten', 
OHG. scuntan "to urge on'. 

shut vb. ME. scliutte OE. siyttan 


shy — sin 

= DU. schiitten 'to shut in, to 
block up': Teut. base skutjan 
cogn. w. shuttle sb. me. schitel 
OE. scytels bar, bolt : Teut. base 
skutisla-, \^skeut shut in shoot. 

shy adj. me. schey oe. sceoh 
(*sdeog-) 'timid' = mhg. schiech 
(g. scheii), DU. schuw. Teut. base 
skeoha- skeuha- , whence OHG. 
sciuhan 'to frighten' (g. scheueri). 

sick adj. short for me. sek oe. 
seoc = GOTH, sinks, ON. sjiikr, 
OSAX. siok, OHG. sioh G. JzVr^, 
DU. ziek: TEUT. seuka- adj. 'ill, 
sick' by the side of the str. vb. 
GOTH, siukan 'to be ill', whence 
the verbal noun goth. sau/its, 
OHG. S2iht 'illness'. 

sicker (Scotch) adj. me. siker 
OE. sicor = OHG. sihhm- G. sicker, 
osAX. sikur, DU. zeker : loanword 
(Teut. base sikura-) fr. lat. 
seairus, borrowed during the first 
centuries of the Christian era. 

sickle sb. ME. sikel oe. sicol: 
borrowed fr. lat. secula, whence 
also OHG. sihhila G. sichelxiM. sikkel. 

side sb. me. side oe. side (obi. 
sidan) = on. sida, OHG. st/a G. 
seite, DU. zijde'. Teut. base sid- 
jon-, perh. connected w. oe. sld 
adj. "long, wide' = ON. sidr 
'hanging down' ? 

siege sb. me. sege fr. fr. siege. 

sieve sb. me. sive oe. sife (oldest 
form sibi^ = OHG. sib G. sieb, 
DU. zeef 'a sieve': Teut. base 
sibi-, connected w. the vb. sift. 

sift ME. sifte OE. siftan = DU. 
ziften, LG. (g.) sichten to sift'. 
There exists a teut. \f siJv in 

OE. seo7i OHG. .y///(^?« G. seihen 'to 
filter, strain', the guttural of 
which may have changed to a 
labial {sif for sih*). 

sigh vb. ME. sighe points to 
an OE. *sihhlan\ cogn. w. the 
equivalent me. slke oe. sican^ 
The root sik sihh looks like 

sight sb. me. sight earlier me. 
sighthe OE. yesihp: deriv. of the 
teut. \f s'eh in see. 

sign sb. ME. signe fr. fr. signe. 

silk ME. silk OE. .wA- fr. an 
earlier '^siluc\ cogn. w. on. silki\ 
source lat. sericiitn (whence 
also OIR. siric and oslov. selkU 

sill sb. ME. sille oe. syll obi. 
syllc : Teut. base si/ljS- borrowed 
fr. LAT. sotea 'sole of the foot',, 
whence also goth. su/Ja 'sole 
of a shoe'. ON. syii is an oe. 
loanword. Cp. so/e. 

silly adj. me. se7y oe. se/i^ 
(sdlii) happy, fortunate' ;= ohg. 
saltg G. selig, DU. zalig blessed': 
secondary extension to goth. 
sels 'good' ^= ON. scell 'happy' 
(cp. oe. S(bI sb. 'happiness'). 
TEUT. \fsei. 

silver .me. silver oe. siolfor =- 
GOTH, silubr, OSAX. silubar, ohg. 
silalmr G. silber, DU. ziiver , on. 
silfr\ ident. w. oslov. sirebra 
RUSS. serebro, lith. sidabras. 
Source and history uncertain. 

sin sb. me. sinne oe. syfin obi. 
synne: base sunjo- for an earlier 
sundjo- in OHG. sjintea G. siindey 
osAX. siindia, du. zonde; cp. yet 

since — • skew 


ON. syiid fr. a base sunidjo- (the i 
dentals are suffixal). Cogn. ' 
w. LAT. sons {sont-is) guilty'. 1 

since with the more original I 
byform (Shakesp.) sithence me. j 
sithens prop, sithen OE. sippan\ 
the additional s of the me. form j 
is of adverbial origin (cp. once, \ 
twice). The orig. oe. form was 
sip-pan (cp. the identical goth. 
pana-seips 'later') , resting on 
the OE. adverb sip 'later', which | 
is a comparative to GOTH, seipus 
'late', ox. sidan corresponds to | 
OE. sip pan; cp. OHG. sid G. seit 
= OE. sip 'later'. 

sinew sb. me. slnewe oe. (sionu 

pi.) sioneowe, which results fr. a 

Teut. base sineivb- or senavo-: I 

cp. ON. stn, OHG. senawa G. i 

sehne, DU. zenuw. cogn. w. skr. ' 

sndva 'sinew' or w. gr. Ivtc 

'sinew'. 1 

sing vb. ME. singe oe. singan i 
str. vb. ;= OHG. OSAX. singan \ 
G. singen DU. zingen ; oldest Teut. 
form GOTH, siggwan (= on. 
syng7fa): all synonymous, teut. I 
\fs'engw sangw is related to 
GR. "speech, oracle*: 
ARYAN \^ s'enghw. Tlie cor- 
resp. causal is represented by 
singe ME. senge oe, s^ncgean fr. 
a Teut. ground-form sang(w)jan 
=^ OHG. sengan G. sengcn 'to 
singe' prop, 'to make to sing'. 

sink vb. sinke oe. silicon str. 
vb. = OHG. sinkan G. sinken DU. 
zinken; oldest form goth. siggan 
(= ON. sdkkv(i) : TEUT. \fset1k70 
'to sink'. 

sip vb. ME. sippe; deriv. fr. oe. 
sype 'absorbing', which is verbal 
noun to OE siepan; see stip. 

sir, sire me. sire fr. fr. sire, 
whence also on. sira. — sirrah,. 
spelt in 16'*' cent, sirrha serrha, 
points to orig. »sir, ah« or »sir, 

sister sb. me. sister is regarded : 
as a distinctively Scand. loan- 1 
word fr. ON. systir. The OE. \ 
equivalent s7i<eostor swustor me. 
suster is not responsible for the 
modern phonology. The Teut. 
base is swestr- swistr-; cp. goth. 
swistar, ohg. swester G. schwester, 
DU. zuster. The / of the com- 
mon Teut. word is excrescent. 
Aryan base swesr- (nom. sivesor) 
in SKR. svasr , lat. soror (for 
*si'esor), lith. sesii 'sister'. 

sit vb. ME. sitte oe. sittan str. 
vb. = DU. zitten, osax. sittian, 
OHG. sizzan G. sitzen: westteut. 
sittjan fr. teut. sitjan (= on. 
sitjii) ; cp. goth. sitan: strong 
verbal sf set sat (\s\\^x\cq. a causal 
vb. sat/an under set), ARYAN 
\f sed in LAT. sedeo, GR. sCofiut 
(tdoQ 'seat'), SKR. y/^sad 'to sit', 
OSLOV. sesti, LITH. scsti. Cp. 
settle and soot. 

six me. oe. six fr. a teut. 
sehs = GOTH. saiAs, ohg. osax. 
seAs G. seeks, du. zes, on. sex: 
ARYAN selks in lat. sex, GR. ff; 
cp. SKR. sas. 

sketch sb. = du. schets, g. 
skizze borrowed fr. ital. schizzo. 

skew vb. late me. sknve 'to 


skill — sleight 

slip away'; cp. odu. schouwen vb. 
*to shun ? 

skill sb. ME. skil 'reason' bor- 
rowed fr. ON. skil 'discernment' 
{skilja vb. 'to separate'). 

skin sb. .me. skin late oe. skinn 
borrowed fr. on. skinn, which 
arises fr. a Teut. base skinpa-, 
whence derived ohg. scintan G. 
schinden wk. vb. 'to skin', bret. 
scant 'scale' rests on an aryan 

skirmish sb. me. scarrnisshe fr. 
FR. escarvwuche; cp. ital. scara- 
muccia, G. scharmiltzel. The group 
rests on ohg. scirtnan (g. schir- 

skirt sb. ME. skirt fr. ox. skyrta 
'a shirt; further relations see 
under kirtle and shirt. 

skull sb. ME. sculle (scolle). 

sky sb. ME. skle borrowed fr. 
ON. sky 'cloud"; not found in 
OE. (but OSAX. skion). 

slack adj. me. slak oe. slrsc 
'languid, slothful' = on. slakr, 
OLG. slak, OHG. slah'%\-AcV'. Teut. 
base slaka-. — Hence slake 
vb. ME. slake oe. slacian 'slacken'. 

slaughter sb. me. slaughter', bor- 
rowed in ii'^^cent. fr. O'H. sldtr 
or its oldest form *slalitr. Der. 
fr. the teut. \^ slah in slay. 

slave sb. = du. slaaf: loan- 
word fr. FR. esclave, whence also 
G. sklave. Source ital. schiatio 
'slave' = GR. ' E(Jx}.ali/]voi 'the 
Slavonians, Slaves'. 

slay vb. me. slg' (part, slain) 
oe. sle'an (part, slteyn) str. vb. 
=^ GOTH. OHG. OSAX. slalian (g. 

schlagen) , du. slaan , on. sld : 
TEUT. s/^slak sloh ^= aky Aii slifk; 
cp. slaughter and sledge. 

slay sb. (a weaver's reed) oe. 
slej^e 'percussorium' cogn. with 
the TEUT. V* slah = slay vb. ; 
on. sld 'bar, bolt'. 

sled short for me. slede ; bor- 
rowed fr. on. sledi 'a sledge'; 
corresponding to ohg. slito G. 
schlitten, du. slede 'sledge'. The 
group rests on the teut. \'~ slid 
in slide. 

sledge-hammer .me. slegge oe. 
slecg (obi. slecge) sb. 'sledge- 
hammer': Teut. base slagjo- 
deriv. fr. \^ slah in slay; cp. 
ON. sleggja, DU. slegge slei 'mallet'. 

sleek adj. me. slik borrowed 
fr. ox. sllk-r 'sleek, smooth' (= 
DU. slijky. TEUT. \'^ silk in OHG. 
slihhan G. schleichen. 

sleep vb. ME. slepe {slcpe) oe. 
slepan (sliepan) str. vb. ^= goth. 
j slepan (pret. saizlep), osAX. sldpan, 
DU. slapen, ohg. sldffan G. schlafen. 
Cogn. w. G. schlaff ohg, sldf 
lax, loose, remiss . teut. \^ slap 
= ARYAN x^slad perh. in lat. 
la^i 'to slide'. 

sleet sb. me. slet; oe. *slet (*slyt) 
not found ; umlaut-relation to 
mhg. slo- (g. schlosse 'hail ) : 
Teut. base slauti-, whence also 
DU. slooi, FRIES, slat. 

sleeve sb. me. sle7>e oe. slefc 
{slyfey. Teut. base slaubjd{n-) in 
ODU. slooT'e 'veil'. 

sleight sb. me. sleighte earlier 
me. stehpe: borrowed fr. on. sliigd 
'slyness', which is abstract for- 

slice — slow-worm 


mation to the adj. sly = me. 
sleh ON. slcegr. 

slice sb. ME. sli(e fr. ofr. esc/ice 
'a shiver, splinter' ; source the 
TEUT. \j'^sHt in slit. 

slide vb. ME. slide oe. slidan 
str. vb. = MHG. sliten 'to slide'; 
TEUT. \f slid under sled; ARYAN 
\f slidh in LITH. slidus 'slipper' 
(cp. oe. slidor 'slippery'). 

slight adj. ME. slighl; oe. *sliht 
not found, but may be inferred fr. 
the corresp. goth. slaihls' ?,mooi\\, 
OHG. i7^7// 'smooth, flat' {G.schlecht 
'bad' — schlicht 'simple') , uu. slec/it, 
ON. sUitr 'flat, smooth': Teut. 
base sleh-ta- prop, slih-ta- fr. the 
verbal \f slik in sleek (on. slikr 
'sleek, smooth'). 

slime sb. me. oe. slifn = ohg. 
jkiHG. slim G. schleim , du. slijm, 
on. slim : Teut. type sli-ma- fr. 
an ARYAN \l" sli, whence also 
LAT. li-mus 'mud. 

sling vb. ME. sliiige str. vb. 
(oe. *slingan not recorded) 'to 
fling' ^ ON. slyngva str. vb. 'to 
cast, fling'; cp. mhg. slinge sb. 
'sling', DU. sUngeren vb. 'to toss' 
and ohg. slingatt 'to swing'. 
TEUT. \'' sl'e/ig7i> (slenkivl). 

slip vb. ME. slippe OE. *slyppan 
belongs to the str. vb. oe. slupan 
'to glide' = DU. slnipen 'to 
sneak'; cp. goth. sliupan str. 
vb. 'to slip' and ohg. slupfan G. 
schliipfen 'to slip': Teut. verbal 
\f slap , perh. related to lat. 
lubriciis slippery'. 

slit vb. ME. slitte deriv. fr. me. 
side oe. slitaii str. vb. 'to slit'; 

cp. on. slita, OS AX. sldan str. vb. 
'to slit', DU. slijten, ohg. sliy^an 
G.schleissen: teut. \/^ slit 'to tear. 

sloe sb. ME. sip oe. sld (infl. 
slci-f/), prob. contracted fr. oe. 
*s lithe (infl. *sldhan) = ohg. 
sleha G. sc/dehe; cp. du. slee, 
swed. sldn, DAN. slaaen 'sloe' and 
0E.i-/rf//-/t;r« 'black-thorn'. Doubt- 
ful whether LrrH. slyvas 'plum' 
and OSLOV. russ. sliva 'plum' 
are cognate. 

sloop sb. fr. DU. sloep: source 
FR. chaloupe , whence also E. 
shallop = G. schaluppe. 

slot sb. 'bar, bolt' late me. slot 

= DU. LG. Slot^ OHG. sl02, G. 

schloss; derived fr. the teut. 
s/^sliit 'shut' in DU. sluiten, LG. 
sliden, ohg. slioi^yin G. schliessen 
(cp. G. schlilssel ohg. slu"^il ^= 
OSAX. sliitil 'key'), teut. \fslut 
rests on an ARYAN \f skliid, 
cogn. w. lat. claudcre 'shut'. 

sloth sb. ME. slguthe with abstr. 
suffix fr. the adj. slow, cp. the 
umlaut-relation oe. sldwp me. 

slough sb. 'mire' me. slough oe. 
slph mire . 

slow adj. ME. slgui oe. slaw 
= OSAX. ohg. sleo blunt', du. 
sleeuw 'sour', on. sljor 'blunt': 
Teut. base slaiwa-, perh. cogn. 
w. LAT. laez'us 'left' , GR. Xatog. 

slow-worm sb. prop. me. slp- 
wortn sip - wurm OE. sld - wyrm 
blindworm'; ident. w. swed. 
sld {or in sld), norweg. slo {ormslo) 
'blindworm'. Not compounded 
with slow oe. slaw, but resting 

I go 

sluice — smelt 

on a TEUT. slaiha- blindworm' ; 
cp. LiTH. slekas, PRUSS. slayx 

sluice sb. = Du. sluis, g. 
schleuse: source ofr. escluse (fr. 
icluse) fr. a low Lat. type ex- 
clusa 'a floodgate'. 

slumber vb. me. slomere fre- 
quentative of ME. sloume vb. 
'slumber', derived fr. the sb. 
OE. slu-ma 'slumber'; cp. du. 
sluime?t sluimeren , lg. sliimeren 
(g. schhmtmerfi) vb. 'slumber'. 
OE. slu-ma sb. 'slumber' rests on 
an ARYAN \f sla in goth. slawan 
to cease, be silent'. 

sly adj. ME. sli (sly) prop. slH 
slei (Orrm sleh under sleight) : 
borrowed fr. ON. sldgr adj. 'sly, 
cunning ; ident. w. the non-um- 
lauted DU. sluw lg. slu (g. schlaii), 
SWED. DAN. slug. As Seen by 
G. verschlagen sly', the adj. 
rests on the teut. V" slah in 

smack 1 sb. taste' me. smak 
OE. smcec sb. = du. sniaak; oho. 
(gi)smah\ cp. the vb. OE. smceccan 
'to taste' = odu. smaken ofries. 
smakia; cp. oho. smacken smecken 
G. schrnecken to taste'. WEST- 
TEUT. \^ smak smakk. 

smack''^ (Shakesp.) sb. 'a loud 
kiss' cp. G. schmatzen fr. mhg. 
smatzen prop, smacketzen , lg. 
smacken 'to smack the lips. 

smack'^ sb. (a tishing-boat) 
fr. odu. mlg. smacke (du. smack), 
whence also the equivalent g. 
schmacke, FR. semaque, ital. semac- 
ca, SPAN, zumaca. Source and 

history of the group unknown. 
It is doubtful whether late OE. 
snacc ON. snekkja (kind of ship) j 
is cognate. 

small adj. me. smal {\vA. smale), 
OE. smal (infi. smala): Teut. adj. 
smala- in goth. smals, OHG. osax. 
smal G. schmal. on. small = 

OHG. smala-nd-i^ 

stnalaz, 7'ihu 

'sheep' points to gr. jlitjXov 
'sheep' and oir. m/l beast ; cp. 
also OSLOV. mali7. 

smallage sb. prop. s?/iall 
ache\ ME. ache is FR. acJie 'pars- 
ley'. Source lat. apium 'pars- 

smalt sb. fr. du. S7naU = G. 
schmalte, fr. smalt: source ital. 
smalto, which is of Teut. origin 
(cp. MHG. smelzen G. schmelzen). 

smart vb. me. s?nerte oe. smeor- 
tan : a Teut. strong vb. = OHG. 
smerzan 'to smart'; cp. DU. smart 
sb. = OHG. stnerzo G. schmerz 
sb. 'pain': teut. \^ smcrt pre- 
TEUT. smerd cogn. w. lat. ?nordere 
'to bite', GR. ai-iegdaXeoC' 

smear vb. me. smcre vb. fr. 
the sb. OE. smeoro = ON. smjgr 
'butter', OHG. OSA.:^. Sfriero: ARYAN 
\^sm'er also in goth. smair-pr 
'fatness' and in lith. smarsas 
'fat' and OIR. smir 'marrow'. 

smell sb. ME. smel cogn. w. 
smoiclder vb. me. smoldere vb. 
'to burn with a stifling smoke' ; 
cp. the sb. me. smolder 'a stifling 
smoke and the vb. du. smeulen 
'to smoulder' = lg. smcelen. 

smelt vb. not found in oe. 
ME. (see melt); borrowed fr. 

smelt — sneeze 


SWED. smdlta = DAN. sffielte, DU. 
LG. smelten , ohg. sme/zan o. 
schnielzen melt ; cp. ital. smalto 
= FR. t^m<ti7 'enamel'. The teut. 
X^smeU is probably connected 
w. \^mclt under melt. 

smelt sb. (a kind of fish) .me. 
OK. smelt; ident. w. dan. du. 
smelt: cp. NORW. smelta (name 
of various kinds of small fish). 

smile vb, me. smile (oe. '^sviy- 
lan}); cogn. w. the non-umlauted 
MHO. smielen smieren 'to smile' 
and the frequentative e. smirk 
OE. smearcian smile'. 

smirch vb. "to besmear' deri- 
vative of smear. 

smirk see under smile. 

smite vb. me. stnite oe. smiian 
str. vb. = GOTH, smeitan, du. 
smijten, lg. sniiten, ohg. smt-^yin 
G. schmeissc7i 'to cast': teut. 
X^ smit 'strike, beat, smear'. 

smith vb. ME. smith oe. smip 
^ ON. smidr, du. smid, ohg. 
smid G. schmied; cp. Gora. aiza- 
smipa 'coppersmith'; cogn. w. 
OHG. smidagismidi'iiMG. geschmeide, 
DU. gesmijde. The dental is for- 
mative. There is an aryan 
\^smi in GR. G/.u-Xt] Of.uvvi]. — 
Smithy sb. seems to be the 
SCAND. smidja {= oe. smippe, 
ohg. smittha). 

smock sb. ME. smok oe. smocc 
'smock, frock, shirt' = on. smokkr; 
cp. OHG. smocko shirt': deriv. 
fr. the TEUT. \^ smfig in oe. 
smugofi, ON. smjiiga 'to creep 
through a hole', mhg. smiegen 
G. schmiegen. aryan x'^ smuk in 

OSLOV. smykati se 'to creep', lith, 
smiikti 'to glide'. 

smoke sb. me. smoke oe. sfndca 
sb. 'smoke'; cogn. w. oe. smid 
smoke' (base smauki-) and the 
str. vb. OE. sf/teocan 'to smoke'; 
cp. DU. smoken (base *smukdn) 
and smook sb. (base * smauki-^ : 
teut. v^ smuk, perh. cogn. w. 
lith. smaukii 'to choke'. 

smooth adj. me. smothe late 
oe. smpd with the umlauted by- 
form oe. smede ; mlg. smode re- 
presents an OSAX. *smothi fr. a 
Teut. base smanpi-. 

smother sb. me. smorther {pra- 
being an abstract suffix) ; OE. 
smorian 'to choke, suffocate = 
DU. lg. smoren G. schmoren 'to 
stew'. — smoulder vb. me. 
smoldere vb. rest on me. smolder, 
which is ident. w. me. smorther. 

snail sb. me. snail oe. sncej^l: 
Teut. base snagla- ; cp. mhg. 
snegel, on. snigill 'snail'; cogn. 
w. OHG. snecko G. schnecke (lg. 
snigge), me. snegge. 

snake sb. me. sndke oe. sndca\ 
cp. the equiv. on. sndkr snokr, 
LG. sndke. Teu-t. \^ snak in OHG. 
snahhan 'to creep'. 

snare sb. me. snare borrowed 
fr. ON. snara 'a snare, halter; 
ident. w. ohg. snar{a)ha oe. 
snearh 'noose, snare' fr. a Teut. 
base snarhon-; cp. the str. vb. 
OHG. sn'er{a}hatt mhg. snerhen 'to 
bind tightly'. Probably cogn. 
w. OHG. snuor G. schnur a lace, 
cord' (goth. snorjo). 

sneeze vb. me. snese (oe. sneo- 


snipe — sole^ 

san); ident. w. neese me. nese 
= ON. hnjosa and w. OE. fneosan. 

snipe sb. me. snipe; ident. w. 
ON. myri-snipa 'a moor-snipe' and 
cogn. \v. the equiv. ohg. sfiep/a 
G. schnepfe DU. .y//<^ ^«// (ital. 
sgneppa is of Taut, origin). 

snite see under snot. 

snore vb. me. snore vb. with 
the frequentative snort me. snorte; 
cogn. w. G. schnarchen, DU. snorken 
smirken 'to snore, snorf. 

snot vb. me. snot OE. lesnot 
'mucus of the nose' = du. snot; 
cogn. w. snout sb. me. snoute 
= ODU. smite DU. snuit and w. j 
snite vb. me. snite OE. snytan ::= [ 
ON. i'«>'Az 'to wipe the nose'. Cp. j 
G. schnautze, schndutzen. I 

snow sb. ME. snow OE. sndw j 
= GOTH. snaiwSy on. j//<^r snjor, \ 
DU. sneeuw, ohg. i'^ft? G. schnee: 
Teut. base snaitva-, derived fr. 
the ARYAN \fsnigh in ohg. sntwan 
G. schneien, OE. sniwan 'to snow' 
=^ LAT. ningere, lith. snigti, 
AVEST. j-w's 'to snow'; cp. or. 
viq-a 'snow' and lat. nix niu-em, 
IR. snechta — cymr. nyf 'snow'. 
lith. smgas and oslov. snegii 
'snow' correspond completely to 
TEUT. snaiwa- fr. snaigwa-. 

SO adv. ME. sg prop, sivg OE. 
swd = GOTH. Siva, ON. svd (ohg. 
j^ DU. zoo). Cp. the derivative 
such and mhg. .y«5 (g. sonst), 

DU. ZZ/i'. 

soap sb. ME. sppe oe. jv/^^ :^ 
OHG. sei^a G. j'^J/i? : Teut. base : 
saipon-. Whether lat. sapo(nent) I 
^ FR. savon, ITAL. sapofte are in 1 

any way related with the Teut. 
word-group, is uncertain. 

sob vb. me. sobbe (oe. ^sobbian) : 
frequentative of a teut. \'~ sub in 
OHG. siift^K sigh, a sob' — siiftfon 
(g. seufzen) 'to sigh'. 

sock sb. ME. j't?^^ oe. ^(?^^: loan- 
word fr. LAT. soccus (= FR. socqiie, 
ITAL. socco) , whence also ohg. 

MHG. i'i'r, ON. sokkr. 

sod sb. ME. sgde: probably 
borrowed fr. MLG. sodt, which 
corresponds to OFRIES. sdtha 
'sod, turf: Teut. base saupdn-\ 
perhaps related to seethe. 

soft adj. adv. me. softe short for 
OE. spfte adv. by the side of the 
umlauted adj. oe. scfte; ident. w. 
OSAx. safti adj. — sdfto adv. :=: 
OHG. senfti adj. — satnfto adv. 
(g. sanft sacht, du. zachi). 

soil ' sb. 'ground' me. soile fr. 
OFR. soel = FR. sueil: source 
LAT. solea. 

soil'- vb. 'to defile' me. soile fr. 
FR. souiller. 

solace sb. me. solas fr. ofr. 
solaz = LAT. solatium. 

soldier sb. me. soudiour properly 
souldicr fr. ofr. soldier (FR.soldat). 
Source ofr. soulde 'pay for soul- 
diers', whence DU. G. sold. Source 

LAT. SOliduS (= ITAL. Soldo , FR. 

sou) 'piece of money'. 

sole^ (of a shoe) sb. me. sole 
oe. sole = OHG. sola G. sohle, du. 
zool: Teut. base sola, borrowed 
fr. a LAT. type *sola, represented 
by FR. sole, ital. suolo, span. 
suela 'sole of a shoe'. The vul- 

sole* — sound^ 


gar-LAT. sola has supplanted 
LAT. soka, whence goth. sulja 
'sole' is borrowed. 

sole^ (a flat fish) me. sole fr. fr. 
sole; ident. w. sole^; cp. lat. 
solea 'sole-fish'. 

some pron. me. sum som oe. suvi 
= GOTH, sums, ON. sumr, OHG. 
sum : ARYAN base spmo- in or. 
auotfsv, SKR. sama. 

son sb. ME. sone sune oe. suvu 
= GOTH, sunus, ON. sunr, OSAX. 
sunu, OHG. sun o. ^^'>^« DU. 3(?<?«: 
Teut. base sunu-. An aryan base 
sumi- is evident in skr. siinu-, 
OSLOV. jyww, LiTH. siiniis son'. 
Cogn. w. gr. vioc, 'son' fr. an 
ARYAN base suyu- and w. oir. 
suth Toetus'. There occurs also 
a SKR. V^ sii 'to beget, bear, 
bring forth'. 

song vb. ME. OE. song: Teut. 
base sang{w)a- also in goth. 
saggws , ON. sgngr, du. zang, G. 
sang. Cp. .y/«^. 

soon adv. me. sone oe. ji?;;^?; as 
shown by goth. suns-aiw 'soon', 
0^.son-a'\% a compound of OE. son 
(= OHG. osAX. sati) and d (= 

GOTH. «■/?£/ OHG. /<?); cp. OHG. Jffr 

sar-io and goth. .y«/;j 'soon*. 

soot sb. ME. OE. sot = ODU. 

soei , ON. J<?/; derived fr. the 
TEUT. y/^set 'sit, set*; cogn. w. 
OIR. suide (base *sddia), lith. 
sodis, OSLOV. sazda 'soot'. 

sooth adj. true* me. soih OE. sop 
fr. a Teut. base sanp- = on. 
sannr , ohg. j«^/^/, osax. soth; 
cogn. w. GOTH.sunjis (for* sundja-). 
teut. san/- answers to skr. sal, 

English Etymology. 

which is participle of the arvax 
y/^es to be' (SKR. dsll, GR. iact, 
LAT. esl, G. isl) with the suffix 
-onl- in GR. (psgovT- (cp. toolH). 
GOTH sunjis 'true' corresponds to 
SKR. satyd 'true'. 

sore adj. me. sor oe. ^<ir fr. a 
TEUT. adj. sai-ra- in on. .yJrr, 
OHC. j(?r, DU. zeer^oxQ., wounded'; 
cp. GOTH, sair sb. 'pain', ohg. 
ser (g. versehren vb. 'to hurt). 
Cogn. w. LAT. sae-vus 'wild' and 
oiR. sai-th 'pain'. Cp. sorry. 

sorrel (plantname) fr. ofr. 
sor el (fr. surelle), which is de- 
rived fr. FR. sur 'sour = OHG. 
si7r (see under sour). 

sorrow sb. me. sorwe oe. sorg 
infl. sorge: Teut. base sorgo- in 
goth. saurga, ohg. sorga g. sorge, 
DU. zorg, ON. jT^^r^ : ARYAN \f sergh 
in LITH. sergiti 'to heed' — 
5zr^/z 'to suffer'. 

sorry adj. me. sgry OE. sdrij^ 
earlier sdre]^ : Teut. base sair-ag-, 
deriv. fr. teut. saira- ■= sore. 

sot sb. me. sot late oe. (c. iooo) 
soil; borrowed fr. FR. sot, whence 
also DU. zot and mhg. sot; cogn. 
w. IR. suthan 'a dunce*. 

soul sb. ME. soule prop, sgule 
OE. sdwol infl. sdwle '. teut. saiw- 
alo- in goth. saiwala, OHG. sHa 
(for *sewla) G. seele, osax. 5^«/(7, 
DU. ziel. Cp. GR. atoAoff 'movable*. 

sound ^ adj. 'healthy' me. sound 
prop, isoufid OE. ^esiind = OSAX. 
gisund , OHG. gisunt g. gesund, 
DU. gezond; probably cognate w. 
LAT. sanus 'healthy'. 



sound — speak 

sound (of the sea)- sb. me. 
sound OE. sund\ tlie orij^inal 
meaning of the oe. word is a 
swimming' which affirms connec- 
tion w. swim: Teut. base sunda- 
YoN. sund^ for '^S7vu7nda-. 

sound ^ sb. a noise' me. soiin 
fr. FR. son: source lat. somis. 

sound* vb. fr. fr. sonder. 

sour adj. me. sou7- oe. sur = 
ON. surr, DU. zjiur, OHG. siir G. 
saner: Aryan base siho- in lith. 
sums, OSLOV. syrii 'raw, rough'. 

source sb. me. sours fr. fr. 
source (deriv. fr, LA.T. surgcrc). 

south sb. ME. south OE. Slip := 

ON. siidr, DU. zuid: Teut. base 
sunp- in ohg. sundan 'from the 
south' (^ OE. Sudan, o^.sunnan). 
Probably allied to GR. i-o'rog 
(for *(Ti'oro^) south-wind'. — 
southern me. sothern oe. suderne 
corresponds to OHG. sundrbni 
- - ON. sudrdnn. 

sow' vb. ME. spive OE. sdwan 
str. vb. ^^ GOTH, saian, on. sd, 
DU. zaaijen, OSAX. sdjan, ohg. i'aijw 
G. sdm ■=- ARYAN verbal \f se 
in LAT. sero (ground-form *siso) 
-sevi-satum , osLOV. se-ti, lith. 
seti 'sow' and in lat. semen = 
OHG. sd-mo G. jd-w^. Cp. seed. 

SO^v2 sb. ME. sowe earlier siiwe 
suge OE. sugu. Cogn. w. teut. 
j« 'sow' (under swine) and w. ir. 
.f«?;^ 'a pig'. 

space sb. me. spdfe fr. ofr. 
espace; source lat. spatitwi. 

spade sb. me. spade oe. spddu 
infi. spddan', ident. w. on. spadi, 
DU. spade, osAX. spado, G. spaten\ 

cogn. w. OR, 6ii6.dri *a blade of 
wood or metal . 

span vb. ME. spanne oe. spannaii 
str vb. =r ohg. spannan g. du. 
spannen to extend'. 

span-new adj. me. span-vewe 
fr. ON. spdn-nyr] ON. spdnn (cp. 
spooii) means 'a chip, shaving'. 

spar sb. me. sparre (cp. the vb. 
oe. lespearrian 'to shut, bar) = 
ohg. sparro (whence G. sparren), 
DU. i^ar, ON. sparri: Teut. base 

spar^ sb. oe. spo'r-stan; cp. G. 

spar^ vb. me. sparre fr. ofr. 
eiparer = fr. iparer. 

spare adj. me. spar infl. spare 
OE. spar (infl. *spdra) in the 
compound spa-r-hende (original 
meaning having spare, thrifty 
hands') and in the vb. sparian 
'to spare". Teut. base spara- in 
ON. sparr, OHG. spar (g. spar- 
satti) ; cp. ON. spara, ohg. spnron 
G. sparen 'to spare'. Outside 
of TEUT., osLOV. 5/><7r/i 'thrifty' 
and OR. OnaQvoc, rare, lacking' 
are cognate. 

spark sb. me. sparke oe. spearca: 
Teut. base sparkon- in du, spark, 
LG, sparke; cogn. w. lat. spar- 
ger el 

sparrow^ sb. me. sparine oe. 
spearwa =^ goth. sparwa : Teut. 
base sparwan- ; cp. ohg. sparo 
(g. Sperling). 

speak vb. me. sp(ke oe. specati 
str. vb. = ohg. sp'ehhan with 
the byforms oe. sprecan = ohg. 
spri'hhafi G. sprechen, DU. spreken. 




OSAX. spr'ekan ; west-teut. strong 
verbal v'~ sj>rek: spek, perhaps 
connected w. on. spraka 'to 
crackle' and lith. spragiti 'to 
crackle'. See speech. 

spear sb. me. sp{re oe. spere\ 
ident. w. on. spjgr, OHG. sper 
G. DU. speer and cogn. w. lat. 
spams 'a dart. 

speck vb. ME. specke OE. specca 
'a spot, mark' ; cp. DU. spikkel. 

speech sb. me. specheoE.. (rare) 
spec {spcBC^ with the common 
hyioxvcio?.. sprckd: Westteut. base 
spaki- spraki-\ derived fr. \f spek 
spi'ik in speak. 

speed sb. me. oe. sped pro- 
perly OE. speed fr. a Teut. base 
spo-di- in OSAX. spod 'success', 
DU. sfoed 'speed' , ohg. spuot 
'suci:ess' (whence G. sputen to 
make haste') : verbal abstract to 
the str. vb. OE. spmvan 'to suc- 
ceed ::= OHG. spuon to succeed', 
which are cognate w. OSLO v. 
spcjati 'to succeed', skr. sphay 
'to increase': aryan \^ sphe spho. 

spell sb. ME. OE. spel (infl. 
spell-) 'stor)-, saying' (see also 
gospet) = GOTH, spill 'tale, 
myth', ON. spjall 'a saying , ohg. 
spel 'a narrative' (du. spellen vb.) : 
Teut. base spella-, assimilated 
for sqedlo-, pre-TEUT. sq-etlo- =-^ 
oiR. sc^l, CYMR. chwedl a story'. 
Derived from the aryan \P seq 
to say, tell (cp. say); aryan 
suffix -etlo- as in gr. &;(tt'Aov. 

spell vb. ME. spelle 'syllabi- 
care (Orrm spelldrenn 'syllabi- 
care'); not found in this mean- 

I ing in oe. Cognate w. ofr. 
I espeler ^= fr. ipeler 'to spell'. 

spelt sb. OE. spelt = du. spelt, 
j ohg. sp'elta spelza: loanword fr. 
I late LAT. spelta (= it. spelta, 
\ FR. ipeautre). 

' spend vb. me. spende oe. *spendan 
j (in the sb. spending and in the 
I co\iyi^o\xwA%d-,for-spendan)\\oaix\- 
\ word fr. lat. ^&^(?W<?r^vb. 'spend', 
whence also G. spenden ohg. 
' spentan. 

I spew vb. ,ME. spewe oe. spiwan 

I = ohg. OSAX. spmian G. speien, 

! GOTH, speiwan str. vb. (on. spyja, 

} DU. spuwen) : strong verbal \^ spiw 

as in LAT. spuere, lith. spiauti 'to 

spew'; cp. the cognate \^ pju 

in gr. nrvfiy, OSLOV. pj'utz? 

spice sb. me. spife fr. ofr. 
espice (fr.) =^ lat. species. 

spider sb. me. spither in Kent, 
for spinder oe. ^spinn^re; derived 
fr. spin. 

spike sb. me. spik 'an ear of 
corn' fr. lat. spica. 

spill vb. me. spille late oe. spillan 
fr. ON. spilla ; ident. w. oe. spildan, 
ohg. spildan 'to spill': Teut. base 

spin vb. ME. spinne oe. spinnan 
str. vb. ^^ GOTH. ORG. spinnan, 
G. DU. spinnen , on. spinna : all 
equivalent. The str. vb. teut. 
spinnan rests on a V~ spen in 
spindle me. oe. spinel = ohg. 

spirit see sprite. 

spit^ sb. me. spite oe. spttu 
'roasting spit' = ohg. jr//-, du. 
spit (iTAL. spito, FR. ipois repre- 




sent a teut. spitus) ; derived fr. 
the TEUT. adj. spitii- in ohg. 
spitzi G. spitz. 

spit- vb. ME. spitteO'E. lespyttan; 
ident. w. on. spytta with the by- 
form spyta, LG. spy ten, G. speutzen ; 
see spout. 

spite sb. ME. i^^// for despif, 
see despite. 

spleen sb. fr. lat. (gr.) splen. 

split vb. Scandin. loanword; 
cp. DAN. splitte\ cogn. w. du. 
splijten = MHG. s/>/i2,en G. spleissen 
(whence G. splitter). 

spoil vb. ME. spoile fr. fr. 5/^(?- 
lier (lat. spoliare). 

spoke sb. ME. spoke oe. j;^^/^:^' 
= osAX. speka du. ^^^>^, ohg. 
speihha G. speiche. All equivalent; 
Teut. base spaikon-. 

sponge sb. me. sponge fr. ofr. 
esponge (fr. iponge); source lat. 
spongia, whence also osax. spunsia 
DU. spans. 

spool sb. (not found in me. 
OEu) loanword fr. du. spoel; ident. 
w. OHG. spuolo G. spule (ital, 
spuola is of teut. origin) : Teut. 
base spolon-; doubtful whether 
cogn. w. spin. 

spoon sb. ME. oe. sppn fr. a 
teut. spdnu- {spenu-} in ohg. 
span 'a chip, splint', DU. dan. 
spaan 'a clxip', on. spdnn sponn 
'a chip' (cp. span-neia). Cogn. 
w. MHG. spd-t "a chip': y/^spe. 

sport sb. for disport as spend 
for dispend; me. disporte vb. fr. 
OFR. se desporter 'to amuse one- 

spot sb. me. spot pi. spottes; 

not found in oe. (where splot 
pi. splottas 'a spot); cp. odu. 
spotte DU. spot a blot'. 

spouse sb. ME. spouse fr. ofr. 
espouse (fr. ipousc) ; source lat. 

spout vb. me. spoute; cogn. w. 

sprat sb. me. sprot (pi. sprottes) 
OE. i/!';-^;/' (pi. sprottas)\ cp. mlg. 
i;^r^/' G. sprotte, du. j/r<?/. 

spra\vl vb. me. spraulc oe. 
spre'(ue'lian fr. a TEUT. sprauwnldn. 

spread vb. me. jr/rcV/^ oe. rj<?> 
spnhian 'to extend' =r:= ohg. G. 
spreiten, du. spreiden; deriv. fr. 
the str. vb. OHG. si>ritan 'to be- 
come extend( d'. 

spring str. vb. me. springe oe. 
springan = OSAX. OHG. springan, 
ON. springa (ital. springare is a 
TEUT. loanword): teut. \~ spreng 
sprang, perhaps related to GR. 
Gns()x(od^ai 'to make haste . 

sprite sb. me. sprite fr. fr. 
esprit; ident. w. spirit. Source 
LAT. spiritus. 

sprout vb. ATE. sproute (oe. 
^sprutati) =-r DU. spruiten, LG. 
spruten, OFRIES. spruta 'to sprout'; 
cp. G. spriessen: teut. \'^ sprut 

spur sb. ME. spure oe. spura 
(spora)', ident. w, OHG. sporo (g. 
sporn), DU. spoor, on. i;?><7W (ital. 
sprone FR. iperon are of teut. 
origin) : Teut. base spur on- sporon-. 
'sfspsr in OHG. OSAX. oe. spur- 
nan 'to kick against' under spurn 
j and in g. spur du. 5^wr OE. spor 
I 'a foot-track'. 



spurge sb. short for me. spourge : 
loanword fr. ofr. espurge (source 
LAT. exptirgare). 

spurn vb. me. spurne oe. spiir- 
nan str. vb. 'to kick against' ^= 
OHG. OSAX. spurnan 'to kick 
against': Aryan \^sp9r in lat. 
sper-nere 'to despise', lith. splrti 
'to kick against', -GR. OTiaioeiV, 
SKR. sphur. Cp. spur. 

spy vb. ME. spie fr. ofr. espier, 
which is of Teut. origin : OHG. 
spchbn G. spdhen , ODU. spien 
(aryan sf sp'ek in lat. conspicio, 
speculum, skr. -^spaf). 

square sb. me. square fr. ofr. 
esquarre 'a square'. 

squire sb. me. squire = es- 

squirrel sb. me. squlrilior scuril 
fr. OFR. escurel (= fr. inireulC) ; 
source a lat. type scurellus 
{scurlolus) for lat. sclurus 'a 

Stable^ sb. me. stable fr. ofr. 
estable (= fr. itable^\ source 
lat. stabulum 'abode, stable. 

stable^ adj. me. stable fr. ofr. 
estable -^^ lat. sta bills 'stable'. 

Staff sb. me. staf (pi. staves) 
OE. sti^pf (pi. std/as) = ON. j'/.T/r, 

DU. .?/<//, OHG. G. stab; cp. OHG. 

staben 'to be stiff' and the adj. 
eastfries. staf 'stiff', also lith. 
st<ibas'?X-A^ — stdbas stobras; skr. 
yfstabh 'be stiff. 

Stag sb. ME. stagge late oe. 
stagga 'a stag'. 

Stage sb. me. stage fr. ofr. 
^.y/'</^^ — fr. itage (lat. type 
staticuf/i) . 

Stain sb. me. j'/<fmif fr. ofr. 
desteindre = lat. dis-tingere. 

Stair sb. me. 5/t7> properly 
stiier OE. std^er = ODU. OLG. 
stager DU. steiger 'st'air': WEST- 
TEUT. ground-form staigir, deriv- 
ed fr. the Teut. verbal V~ ^^^i ^^ 
OE. stlgan, OHG. stigan G. steigen, 
DU. stljgen 'to climb'; cogn. w. 
GR. ovfi/i-ir 'to march' , skr. 
.f//^/! 'ascend' (cp. lat. ve-stigiutn 
'a foot-track'). 

Stake sb. me. stdke oe. .y/^fw 
= ODU. stdke DU. .y/fza,^, swed. 
stake; cp. ofries. i'A?/^ 'stiff, G. 
stachel 'a prick, goad'. 

Stalk 1 sb. me. stalke, a dirain. 
form with suffixed k of ME. stale; 
cp. OE. stela, ON. stil-kr 'a stalk', 
OHG. G. x/?7, also GR. insXityv 'a 

stalk 2 vb. ME. stalke; /^ is a 
frequentative suffix ; cp. OE. styl- 
lan to leap' (oe. *stealciati). 

stall sb. ME. stal oe. steall fr. 
a Teut. base stalla- in on. stallr, 
OHG. .j/^?/ G. .tA///, du. stal 'stall, 
stable (iTAL. j/<?//(? 'place' — stalla 
stable are of Teut. origin). 
ARYAN base stadhlo- in lat. 
stabulum 'stable'. 

stallion sb. me. stalloun fr. 
OFR. estalon (fr. italoii) = ital. 
Stallone: of Teut. origin (teut. 
stalla- 'stable' under stall). 

stammer vb. me. stamere deriv. 
fr. OE. stdmvr adj. 'stammering'; 
cp. DU. stameren-stamelen, ohg. 
stamalon; \^ sta?n in on. stamr 
'stammering' — stama vb. 'to 
stammer', ohg. stamen 'stammer'; 


cp. also GOTH, stamms 'stam- 
mering. Cogn. W. OSAX. OHG. 
stum G. stuvim 'dumb'. 

Stamp vb. me. stampe (e. '^stam- 
piari) = du. statnpen, OHG.siampfdn 
G. stampfen (ital. stampare fr. 
stamper are of teut. origin) : 
TEUT. \f stamp cogn. w. or. axiu- 
fjfiv 'to stamp'. 

Stanch, stauncAvh.ME.stauncAe 
vb. fr. OFR. estancher. 

Stand vb. me. stande oe. standan 

(prt. OE. ME. Stgd) = GOTH. OSAX. 

standan, on. standa, ohg. stantan 
to stand': a strong vb., common 
to the Teut. languages ; teut. 
\'" stap stad; the nasal of the 
verb is orig. characteristic of 
the present tense). 

standard sb. me. standard (= 
DU. standaard^ fr. ofr. cstandart 
= FR. itandard (ital. stendardo 
fr. LAT. extendere spread out'). 

stang sb. me. stange loanword 
fr. ON. stpng gen. stangar ; ident. 
w. OHG. stanga G. stange, du. stang 
and the umlauted oe. steng 'pole, 
stake' ; source the vb. OE. stingan 
'to stab, pierce'; see sting. 

stanyell sb. (Shakesp.) oe. stdn- 
j^clla properly rock-yeller'; cp. 

staple sb. me. stdpel oe. stdpol 
a prop = DU. LG. stapel, ofries. 
stapul block'. 

star sb. me. stcrre oe. steorra 
-- ohg. OSAX. sterro, odu. mlg. 
sterre: Teut. base sterro?!-; ident. 
w. GOTH, stair no , on. stjarna 
(hence me. sterne^ , OHG. stereo 
(g. stern ohg. stern). Cogn. w. 

SKR. star, GR. c(OT?jp, LAT. stel/a 
(for *sterulaT). All equivalent. 

starboard sb. me. sterhord short 
for oe. steorbord; cp. ON. stjorbordi 
'starboard' and oe. steor under 

Starch sb. me. *sterche oe. stereo 
(= G. Starke) : umlaut-derivative 
with palatalisation of stark. 

Stare vb. me. stare oe. stdrian 
= ON. star a, ohg. staren 'to stare'; 
derived fr. an adj. stara- in skr. 
sthira'idiSi, hard', GR. arfpfo'c hard': 
ARYAN \f sta 'to stand' in ohg. 
Stan sten g. stehen, du. staan, lat. 
stare, GR. larruna, SKR. st/id. 

Stark adj. me. stark oe. steare 
= OSAX. mhg. G. stark; cp. ON. 
(with umlaut) sterkr and GOTH. 
gastatlrknan to become dry': 
ARYAN \f strg in LITH. strigti 'to 
become stiff'. 

Starling sb. me. Stirling short 
for oe. stdrling : dimin. formation 
of oe. steer a starling' = OHG, 
stara G. staar 'a starling'; cogn. 
w. OE. si^'arn =^ lat. sturnus. 

start vb. me. sterte (oe. * steor tan 
str. vb.) ; cp. odu. du. storten, 
ohg. sturzen G. siilrzefi: teut. y'^ 
i'/er/ sturt. 

Starve vb. me. steri>e oe. steorfan 
str. vb. 'die(ofhunger') =:r du. 
sterven, osAX. st'erban, OHG. st'erban 
G. sterben str. vb. 'to die'; cp. 
ON. i-Ar;// 'stiffness', east-fries. 
bestarfen 'be stiff'. The original 
meaning of the teut. \'^sterb was 
probably 'be stiff. 

State sb. AtE. .fj-Z^/ fr. ofr. estat 
FR. ^/d-/ = lat. status. 




Stay * vb. ME. stale fr. ofr. estaye?- 
FR. ifayer. 

stay- sb. oe. sicBy. Teut. base 
staga-, whence fr. itay; cp. DU. 
LG. stag. 

stead sb. me. stcde oe. stede fr. 
a Teut. base stadi- = GOTH, sta/s 
"a stead, place', oho. stat (o. stadt 
'town), ON. stadr 'a place': ab- 
stract formation of the aryan V" 
sta 'to stand' (see stare); cp. 
LAT. statu?, SKR. st^iti a standing'. 

steak sb. me. steike (late oe. 
staecan vb. to roast*) : borrowed 
fr. on. steik a steak' — steikja 
'to roast'. 

steal vb. ME. stele oe. stelan str. 
vb. = GOTH, stilan, on. stela, 
OSAX. OHG. .?/'<!'/«« G. stehlen du. 
stelen: teut. \f stel, perhaps ident. 
w. GR. axfQtod^ai — oreQidy.&tv 

steam sb. me. .y/fV/ oe. iVfV/w fr. 
a Teut. base stau-7na- (uu. stoom, 
eastfries. stbni): \f stau, not 
found elsewhere. 

steed sb. me. -stede oe. steda 'a 
stallion': umlaut-derivative of oe. 
stdd = e. stud. 

steel sb. me. stele oe. j'/^/^ C.j/)V^j : 
umlaut- formation by the side of 
the equival. OHG. stalial G. stahl, 
DU. staal, ON. .f/f//: Teut. base 
sta/ila- and (for oe. style') stahlja-; 
ident. w. opruss. stakla- 'steel'. 

steep adj. me. st^p oe. stf'ap adj.; 
ident. w. oe. stcap =^ on. staup 
'beaker' under stoup. — Umlaut- 
deriv, steeple me. stepel oe. stepel 
sty pel (fr. a Teut. base staiipila-; 
cp. ON. stgpidl 'a steeple'). 

steer ' sb. me. ster oe. steor = 
GOTH, stiur, ON. stjorr, ohg. OSAx. 
.f/w G. DU. stier 'a bull' ; ident. 
w. ON. pjorr (dan. tyr) : Aryan 
base (s)teuro (osLOV. turii 'steer'). 
But GR. ratfjOQ corresponds to 
OIR, tarb (aryan base tarwo-, 
not cogn. w. steer). 

Steer 2 vb. me. stere oe. steor an 
w. the umlauted byform styran 
r-T OHG. stturan G. steuern, DU. 
sturen; cp. on. styri 'a rudder'; 
for a non-umlauted root- form see 
under starboard, teut. ^^ steur 

\ also in goth. stiur jan 'to confirm'. 

I Stem sb. me. stetn oe. st'emn stef?t 
a stem of a tree': ablaut- relation 

i to ON. stafn, OSAX. stavm == 

i OHG. stam G. stamtn DU. i/^/w: TEUT. 

I ground -forms stenina- stamna-, 
cogn. w. ir. tamon 'stem'. \/" sta 
'to stand' under stare. 
stench sb. me. stench oe. stpic 

■ fr. a TUET, base stank{w)i-; see 

step vb. OE. stceppan steppan str. 
vb. ; cp. DU. stappen, ohg. stapfon 
'to step' and oe. j-/*^^ stcepe 'a 
step, pace'; probably related to 
osLOV. stopa foot -track'? The 
root seems to be nasalized in 

step in stepfather stepfnother 
etc. ME. step-fader, -vtoder short 
for OE. steop-fceder , -modor ; i<ient. 
w. on. stpipfadir, -modir -- OHG. 
stiof-fater, -muoter G. stief rater, 
stiefmuttcr: Teut. base steupa-, 
whence ohg. bistaifen oe. dstypait 
vb. 'bereave, deprive (of pa- 



Stern ' adj. me. sterne oe. styrne: 
Teut. base stirni- prop, sternu-, 
cogn. w. LAT. strenuus. 

stern- sb. me. sterne fr. on. 
stjorn 'a steering'; see starboard 
and steer vb. 

stew vb. ME. stuwe vb. fr. the 
sb. OFR. estuve = G. stube\ see 

steward sb. me. stiward (since 
the 1 2'" cent.) ; cogn. w. oe. ^//(j)- 
wita 'house -holder. The first 
element is ident. w. sty. 

stick sb. AIE. sticke oe. sticca = 
OHG. st'ecko G. stecken : Teut. base 
stikkon-, derived fr. the verbal y^ 
stik in OHG. st'chhan G. stechen. 

stiff adj. short for me. oe. stlf 
'stiff' = ON. stlfr , DU. j////, G. 
.y/^; cogn. w. lith. stipti 'to be- 
come stiff and lat. stipes 'a pole'. 

stile sb. me. stile contracted 
from oe. stigolxvi^. sii'ele ^= OHG. 
stigila 'a stile'; derived fr. the 
TEUT. \f sttg under stair. 

Still adj. ME. OE. stille := ohg. 

OSAX. Stilli G. stilly DU. Stily OFRIES. 

stilk: deriv. fr. the t^vt. \'^ stell 
'to stand firmly' in the factitive 
vb. OHG. G. stellcn 'to place' and 
in OHG. stolb 'post'. 

Stilt sb. ME. stilte; ident. w. ohg. 
stelza G. stelze, DU. stelf, all equi- 

sting vb. ME. stinge oe. stingan 
str. vb. — GOTH. {us)stiggan, ON. 
stingn; cp. OHG. stungon stungen 
'to sting: TEUT. \^ste/ig under 

stink vb. me. stinke oe. stincan 
str. vb. -— GOTH, stigqan, OHG. 

OSAX. stinkan G. du. stinken : 
TEUT. yf stenq pre - teut. st'engw 
(Jengw in GR. rayyog 'rancid'). 

stir vb. ME. stire oe. styrian vb. ; 
ident. w. the ablauted ohg. storen 
G. storen, DU. storen, ofries. stir a'. 
WEST-TEUT. bases sturjanstaurjan; 
\f star also in stormf 

stirrup sb. me. stirop properly 
sti-rgp OE. stij^-rdp; ident. w. OHG. 
stega-reif G. stegrei/{p\]. steegreep), 
O^. stig-reip. Second element of 
the compound is teut. raipa- = 
roap; for the i*' element (Teut. 
stiga- \^stig^ see stair. 

stitch sb. ME. sticche oe. slice 
early stici: Teut. base stiki- 'a 
pricking' by the side of oe. stician 
'to prick'; cf. ovLG.stehhan G. stechen 
(oHG. siih G. stick sb. 'pricking'), 
OSAX. stekan , du. steken. aryax 
\~ stig in GR. oxiyfia ■ — ari'Cw; cf. 
SKR. \^tij 'be sharp'. 

Stith sb. ME. stith borrowed fr. 
ON. stedi 'an anvil'. 

Stock sb. ME. stock OE. stocc 
'trunk, log, pillory' = du. stok, 
OHG. G. stock, ON. stokkr: Teut. 
base siokka- for stukka-; teut. \^ 
sluk in du. lg. stoken, me. stoke 
'to stab'; cogn. w. skr. //(/'push'. 

stone sb. me. sign oe. .f/rf« =^ 
GOTH, stains, ON. steinn, ohg. g. 
j/««, OSAX. j/^^ du. steen : Cogn. 
\v. OSLOV. stena 'a wall' — steninu 
rocky', gr. (Trri?!' 0r/« 'pebble- 
stone'. Cp. Stan y el. 

Stool sb. ME. OE. Stgl = GOTH. 

stols, ON. .y/t;//, du. stoel, osax. stol, 
OHG. i'/^^?/ G. stuhl: Teut. base 
sto-la- deriv. fr. the ARYAN \fstha 

stoop — straw-berry 


'to stand' under stead. Cp. also 
osLov. stolti 'table', GR. ar/jXT] 

stoop vb. ident. \v. me. stoupe 
OE. sttipian 'to curve downwards' 
r= ODU. shdpen 'to bow', on. stiipa 
SWED. stupa 'to fair. 

stop vb. ME. stoppe (oE. for- 
stoppian 'to stop up, close') , ident. 
w. DU. stoppen, OHG. stop/on G. 
stop/en and w. ital. stoppare 'to 
stop up with tow'. Source low 
LAT. stuppare (lat. stuppa 'oakum') . 

Stork vb. ME. stork OE. store = 
DU. stork, OHG. stork o. storcA, ON. 
storkr ; cogn. w. GR. rooyoc 'a 
large bird'. 

Storm sb, ME. OE. storm = on. 
stormr, DU. storm (ohg. g. sturffi) ; 
derived fr. \fstur in stir or 
cogn. w. LAT. sternere 'to strew'. 

Story sb. me. stprie fr. ofr. estoire 
^= LAT. historia. 

stoup stoop ME. stop: borrowed 
fr. ON. stpiip 'beaker,^ cup' = stoop 
'a gallon': the sb. (teut. staupa- 
' beaker) rests on thfe adj. staupa- 
= steep. 

stout adj. ME. stoiit fr. ofr. estout; 
ident. w. du. stout, ohg. g. 
stolz 'proud': source lat. stultus 

Stove sb. OE. stofa 'a bath' := 
OHG. sticba 'a bathing-room' (g. 
stuhe 'a room'), du. stoof\ ident. 
w. fr. itiive and oSLOV. istuba 
'a room'. Source and history 
uncertain. Cp. stew. 

Stow vb. ME. stowe OE. stgwian 
'to restrain'; derived fr. OE. stow 
'a place' = lith. stova 'place'. 

Straight adj. me. str eight oe. 
(d)streht', part, of OE. stredc'ean = 

Strain vb. me. streine fr. ofr. 
estraindre = lat. stringer e and 
strait M^. streit fr. ofr. estreit (fr. 
itroit^ = LAT. strictus. 

strand sb. me. oe. strand 
'shore' r= on. strgnd (gen. 
strandar^ 'margin, edge', du. lg. 
G. strand 'shore' (fr. itrain of 
Teut. origin). 

strange adj. me. straunge fr. 
OFR. estrange (fr. itrange) : source 
LAT. extraneus. 

strangle vb. me. strangle vb. fr. 
OFR. estr angler = lat. strangulare. 

Strap sb. me. oe. strop (pp): 
loanword fr. lat. struppus 'thong, 
fillet', whence also du. lg. strop 
and FR. itrope. 

Straw sb. me. straw oe. streaw 
(with the byforms me. str{ OE. 
streci) : Teut. base strawa- r= on. 
strd, du. stroo, ohg. straG. stroh; 
cp. the vb. streiv oe. strewan, 
streyin ^= goth. straujan, ohg. 
strouwen G. streuen, du. strooien 
'to strew', teut. \fstrau derived 
fr. the ARYAN yf ster in GR. arnnsv- 
I'vui OTQiovvvni and lat. sterno 
(stravi — stratum), osLOV. streti 
'to spread out'; cp. esp. lat. 
stramen 'straw'. 

straw-berry sb. me. straw-berie 
OE. strea7v-berie; not cogn. w. 
straw. Probably connected w. 
LAT. fragum 'straw-berry : Aryan 
base sraghwo- = Teut. base 
strawa-; the 2"*^ elementin straw- 
berry might be explanatory. 


stray — study 

Stray vb. me. straie fr. ofr. 
(Straier ; derived fr. lat. strata 
{= street^. 

Streak sb. me. strike oe. strica 
'a line'; cp. goth. striks 'a stroke 
with the pen' and strike. 

stream sb. me. strcni oe. stream 
= OHG. strotim (g. stroni), DU. 
stroofn, ON. straiimr : Teut. base 
strati-ma-, derived fr. the ARYAN 
\fsru to flow' = SKR. y/^sru 'to 
flow'; cp. GR. gi'stv, OIR. srutA 
river' — sriuiivi 'stream' (lat. 
fliimen instead o'i*f rumen : ARYAN 
srou-men-^. j 

street me. strete oe. stret strdt 
infl. strckte (whence on. strceti is ' 
borrowed) = OSAX. strata, du. ; 
straat, OHG. strazza G. strasse: i 
WEST-TEUT. strata fr. lat. strata I 
(sc. via) prop, 'a paved way', ' 
whence ital. sirada = fr. itrie ! 
(oik. srdthj a street'. '• 

strength sb. me. strengthc oe. | 
strciigduiyGOT'O.. *straggi^a) dbrived '■ 
fr. strong. j 

Stress sb. force' short for me. | 
distresse fr. ofr. destresse. j 

stretch vb. me. strecchco^. strec- j 
cean {■p'd.rX. streAt under straight)-^ 
ident. w. ohg. strccchen G. strecken, 
DU. strekken: teut. type strakkjan\ 
cp. ohg. stracken 'be straight and 
the adj. du. lg. strak 'straight' 
(g. stracks immediately'). 

Strew see under straw. 

stride vb. me. stride oe. striiian 
vb. r:^ mlg. strtdert 'to stride' : 

Strife sb. me. strif fr. ofr. 

estrif, which rests on a Teut. sb. 
=^ OSAX. strid, ohg. strit G. streit. 

Strike vb. me. strike OE. strican 
str. vb. 'to rub, wipe' == ofries. 
strika, DU. strijken, OHG. strihhan 
G. streichen ; teut. \f strik, aryan 
■\/^strtg in LAT. strtgilis, OSLOV. 
strigq — stristi 'to shear'. Cp. 

string sb. me. oe. streng fr. a 
TEUT. base sirangi- in ON. strengr, 
DU. streng, OHG. G. Strang; cogn. 
w. the adj. strong. 

strive vb. me. strix^e fr. ofr. 
estriver vb. (ofr. estrif under 

stroke sb. me. strpk and stroke 
vb. OE. strdciati fr. \^ strik under 

strong adj. me. oe. strgng fr. 
TEUT. base strangu- in OHG. strung 
strengi G. DU. streng (g. sicli 
anstrengen vb.) ; cogn. w. LAT. 
stringere 'to draw tight, compress . 

Stub sb. ME. stuhbe with the 
umlauted byform OE. stybb 'a 
stub'; cp. LG. stubbe, du. stobbe, 
ON. stubbi ■a.xs.d GR. oTtivog 'a stub, 
stump". ARYAN \fstup, nasalized 
in stump. 

stubble sb. me. stoble stubk fr. 
OFR. estouble ; ident. w. ohg. 
stupfala DU. G. stoppel'. source 
vulgar LAT. stup{i)la instead of 
LAT. stipula 'stubble'. 

stud sb. short for me. OE. stod 
'a stud' (cp. the umlaut-deriva- 
tion steed) = ON. stod., ohg. 

StUOt. Cp. OSLOV. RUSS. Stado, 

LITH. stodas a. herd of horses . 
study vb. ME. studie prop, stiidie 

stuff — summon 


vb. fr. OFR. estudier (fr. itudier^ 
---- LAT. studere. 

stuff sb. fr. OFR. estoffe = fr. 
^foj^e (whence also G. sfo^', DU. 

stump sb. ME. stump stomp', 
ident. w. DU. stomp, OHG. G. stiimpf; 
probably connected w. stub: 
AKY M^ \^ stumb: stu(m)p, also in 
ON. stuff stufi 'a stump'. 

stun vb. ME. stitne stone OE. 
stunian 'to resound' ; cp. the 
umlauted ON. stynja 'to groan', 
G. stonen, DU. sienen'. xvciK^sf stin 
sten in gr. oxivhv. OSLOV. stenjq, 
SKR. start 'to groan, resound'. 

sturgeon me. stourgeoun fr. fr. 
esturgeon; source a teut. base 
sturjon- in OHG. sturio (g. st'dhr, 
DU. steut") = OE. styria a stur- 
geon'. Doubtful whether cogn. 
w. sti)-. 

stutter vb. fr. ME. state stute vb. ; 
cp. G. stottein 'to stammer'. All 
derivations of \'^ staut in goth. 
sttiutan, ON. stauta 'to beat, strike' 
= OHG. sto-^yin G. stossen. aryan 
\'^(s)tud in LAT. tundere 'to beat', 
SKR. \f tud 'to strike'. 

Sty^ sb. ('sty for swine') me. 
stie OE. st/^ infl. stt^e 'a pig-sty'; 
ident. w. ohg. stia 'a pig-sty', 
ON. sti (svin-sti) , SWED. (svw)stia 
'a sty'. 

sty2 sb. ('sty in the eye') cp. 
OE. stij^end; equivalent w. lg. 
stlge, NORW. stig. 

subdue vb. me. subdue properly 
sudi'ie fr. OFR. souduir t—. lat. 

subtle adj. aie. sotet sutel sutil 

fr. OFR. sotil (fr. subtil) = lat. 

succeed vb. ws.. sucfede fr. fr» 
succeder ^= lat. succedere. 

succour vb. me. sucoure socourc 
fr. OFR. soccorre = lat. succurrere. 

such pron. me. ' such earlier 
swuch swich OE. swylc swilc: Teut. 
base siimllk in OSAX. sulik, OHG. 
stdjh (g. sotcH) ; as shown by 
GOTH, swaleiks , tVie l^' element 
of the compound rests on so =- 
OE. szvd. 

suck vb. short for me. souke 
OE. sucan str. vb. with the byform 
OE. OHG. siigan G. saugen; cogn. 

W. LAT. SligCre: ARYAN \f Sllg stlk. 

sudden adj. me. sodein prop. 
sodain fr. FR. soudam (lat. type 
*suhitanus for subitaneus 'sudden'), 

suffer vb. me. suffre soffre fr. 
FR. souffrir (lat. sufferre). 

sugar sb. me. sugre silcre fr. 
FR. Sucre, whence also ODU. siiker 
DU. suiker\ cp. G. zucker fr. ITAL. 

sum sb. ME. summe sotnme fr. 
FR. somme. 

summer sb. me. sumer somer 
OE. sumor fr. a Teut. base suviaru- 
in OSAX. OHG. suviar G. somtner, 
DU. somer, ON. sumar. Cogn. w. 
avest. ham, OiR. sam, cymr. ham 
ha/, ARMEN. amarn : all equivalent. 
Cp. also SKR. samd 'year'. 

summit sb. fr. fr. sommet (rests 
on LAT. summus). 

summon vb. me. somone fr. 
OFR. somoner (lat. subfiwnere 'to 
remind privately'). 


sun sb. ME. sunne Sonne OE. sunne 
infl. stmnan = goth. sunno, OHG. 
OSAX. sunna G. Sonne, DU. 3^«: 
TEUT. base sunnon-. 

supper sb. MK. j'^?/!?;' ^-w/^r fr. 
FR. souper. Cp. dinner. 

sure adj. me. j///- properly J^//r 
fr. OFR. ^«r j(f«r fr. sur (= lat. 
securiis, whence also sicker). 

surgeon sb. me. surgen (surgein) 
fr. OFR. cirurgien (lat. type chi- 
rurgianus). — Hence surgery me. 
surgerie: lat. chirurgia. 

swaddle vb. me. swathele oe. 
swcedelian vb. : derived fr. oe. 
swcedel 'bandage'; ident. w. the 
umlauted ohg. swedil 'bandage'; 
see swathe. 

swain sb. me. s7vaittTpro\). sivein: 
borrowed in the 1 1'*^ cent. fr. on. 
sveinn; ident. w. OE. S7vdn 'man, 
warrior', OHG. swein 'servant'. 

swallow sb. (the bird) me. 
swalowe OE. swealwe = ohg. 
swalawa o. schwalhe; ident. w. 
OSAX. swala, o^-svala'a. swallow': 
Teut. base swalwon-; if for 
"^swcr/rwon-, cogn. w. GR. nXyiVMv'i 

sw^allow vb. ME. swel{o)we ear- 
lier swelgen OE. swelgan str. vb. 
= OSAX. OHG. swelgan {swelhan) 
G. schwelgen, DU. zwelgen (on. 
svelgjd) : Teut. verbal \f stvelh 
swelg, ARYAN \Pswelk. 

sw^amp sb. cogn. w. ohg. g. 
sumpf, DAN. SWED. sump 'a swamp'. 

swan sb. me. oe. swan fr. a 
TEUT. swana- =- on. svanr\ cp. 
ohg. swana g. schivan du. zwaan. 
Cogn. w. LAT. sonare (properly 
*svonare'), skr. sfsvan 'to sound'. 

sward sb. me. swarde oe. sweard 
infl. swearde the skin of bacon' 
= ODU. zwaerde, mhg. swarte G. 
scJnvarte 'skin of bacon' , ON. 
svgrdr 'skin'. The modern E. 
meaning 'green turf is due 
to Northern influence; cp. ON. 
jardar-sz'grdr 'earth-sward', gras- 
svgrdr 'grass-sward (and mlg. 
gra'nswarde, dan. gronsvier^. 

sw^arm sb. me. swarm oe. 
sweann -~. ON. svarmr , ohg. 
swarm G. schwarm (ou. zwerni) : 
all equivalent. Cp. the SKR. 
\fsvar 'to sound ? 

swart adj. me. swart oe. swear t 
—-' GOTH. S7varts, on. svartr, du. 
zwart, OHG. swarz G. schwarz; 
Cogn. w. lat. sordes (properly 
'^svordes) 'dirt': aryan \f sword. 

swath sb. ME. swath oe. sweep 
'footprint, track' (with the by- 
form OE. swadu track'); cp. 
MLG. swat — swade, G. schwaden, 
du. zwaad 'a row of mown grass': 
Teut. base swapa. 

swathe vb. me. swathe oe. swd- 
dian; cp. swaddle. 

sw^ats (Scotch) 'beer' OE. swata\ 
derived fr. \'^ swot under sweet. 

sw^ear vb. me. swere oe. swerian 
(prt. ME. oe. swpr^ str. vb. =^ 
OHG. OSAX. swerian G. schworen, 
du. zweren, ON. sverja str. vb..; 
cp. GOTH, swaran. The original 
meaning of the teut. \f swar 
was probably to declare , as 
shown by the derivative ans7ver. 

sweat vb. short for me. S7vete 
oe. swcetan; derived fr. oe. S7vdt 
ME. swpte (e. S7vcat sb. influenced 

.sweep — swoop 


by the vb. sweat) = DU. zunet, 
ON. sveiti, OHG. swei-z, G, schweiss: 
TEUT. \'" swaii (swit in G. schwiizen 
OHG. sic'izzan) = ARYAN \f SlVOJd 
swid in skr. \'^ svid to sweat", 
GR. iSqmq 'sweat' — Idinv to 
sweat', LAT. sudor (orig. *svoidos) 
sweat', LETT, swidrs sweat'. 

s^veep vb. me. swepe oe. swdpan 
3'' p. sg. pres. t. sweep d to sweep': 
TEUT. sf swaip under swoop. 

sw^eet adj. me. oe. swete adj. 
with the non-umlauted adverb 
oe. swgte (me. scte adj. adv.) ; 
ident. w. on. satr (orig. *svxtr), 
OS AX. swoti, DV.zoe/, onG. s(w)uoi,7^i 
G. siiss; Teut. base swoti-, orig. 
swbtu- (cp. GOTH, suts sweet), 
ARYAN base swadii in skr. svddu, 
GR. acJi'C if]iic, LAT. suavis (orig. 
*suadii-is). Cp. swats. 

swell vb. me. swe/le oe. sw'ellan 
str. vb. = OSAX. OHG. sw'ellan 
G. schwellen, DU. zwellen, on. sv'ella 
str. vb. : TEUT. verbal yf swell 
(also in goth. ufswalleins sb.). 

SAverve vb. me. swerve oe. 
sweorfan str. vb. to scrub, file'; 
ident. w. oSAX. sw'erfan, DU. 
zwet^'en, goth. swairban , on. 
sver/a : teut. V~ swe'i b , aryan 
\r swerbh in russ. sverheti^ OSLOV. 
svriibeti to itch'. 

swift adj. ME. OE. .raw/? (oE. 
siviftl') ; p. participle of oe. swlfan 
"to move quickly' ^ ON. iZ/Z/tf, 
formed by suffix /<? (see old, 
cold, loud). Cogn. w. DU. 
ztveven, ohg. sw'eben G. sckweben. 

s^vill vb. me. S7vile oe. swillan 
(3*^ p. sg. pres. t. swiled). 

s^vim vb. ME. swimme 0£. swim- 
man str. vb. = OSAX. OHG. 
swhnman str. vb. G. schwiiinnen; 
ident. w. on. symja (for orig. 
*siaumjan') 'to swim': teut. 
\f su<em (sum under sumf). 

sw^ine sb. me. oe. S7vin ^r— 
OSAX. OHG. s7C'in G. schwein du. 
zivijn, ON. .yf^/«, goth. swein: 
Teut. base swtna-, properly su- 
-ina-, derived fr. aryan su 'a 
pig' in OE. OSAX. ohg. su 'a sow' 
=^ LAT. su-s, GR. i-g av-g. The 
suffix -ina- in teut. swtna- is 
diminutive, as shown under 
chicken, maiden. See also sow. 

swing vb. ME. swinge oe. swin- 
gan str. vb. = OSAX. OHG. sivin- 
gan G. schwingen. — sw^inge me. 
swenge oe. swencgean 'to beat, 
shake' causal of swing: teut. 
y^ sui'eng swang {swangw in goth. 
afswaggwjan ?) 

sw^ink vb. me. swinke oe. sunn- 
can str. vb. Ident. w. s^oingl 

sw^oon vb. liEE. swpune earlier 
swggnien; derived fr. the p. parti- 
ciple OE. "^eswggen in a swoon' 
— dswogen 'choked'; allied to 
GOTH, gaswogjan swogatjan 'to 
sigh', OE. siiwgan 'to sough, sigh : 
ARYAN \f swogh sivdgh in lith. 
svagcti 'to sound'. 

sw^oop vb. ME. swgpe oe. swdpan 
(identical w. sweep). 

sword sb. ate. swerd oy.. sweord 
(swurd) ^-- OSAX. OFRIES. swerd, 
DU. zwaard, ON. sverd, ohg. swat 
G. schwert: aryan base swerdho- 
(in LAT. sorbus 'service-tree'?). 




table sb. ME. idfi/e fr. FR. tad/e 
r-^ LAT. tabula (whence OE. tcefel 
'chess-board' — ohg. zabal 
board') ; cp. also G. DU. tafel. 

tackle sb. me. takel\ ident. w. 
MLG. takel 'equipment' (g. swed. 
takcl, DAN. takkel). 

tadpole short for toad-poll. 

tail sb. ME. tail oe. tceiel = 
OHG. zdgal 'a tail, ON. tagl 
'a tail', GOTH, tagl 'hair'. 

tailor sb. me. taillour fr. OFR. 
iiiilleor -■ — fr. tailleur. 

take vb. me. take late oe. 
(il'*' cent.) tdcan borrowed fr. 
ON. taka str. vb. taking the place 
of OE. tiiman (under nimble)', cp. 
cast ^^ ON. kasta supplanting- oe. 
weorpan (under warp). Ident. w. 
GOTH. /"i^X'rt// str. vb. 'to touch': TEUT. 
\f tek tak; pre-TEUT. \'^ilcg ilagl 

tale sb. ME. ttile oe. tdlu r-=- 
DU. taal language' , OHG. zdla 
G. zahl\ cp. ON. tal 'a tale'. Cp. 
the TEUT. verb taljan in OE. 
tellan ME. telle e. tell — OHG, 
zellan {c^.GOi^.talzjaii). Hence 
derived talk vb. ME. talke vb. 
(oe. *talcian *talecian)\ k is 
suffixed as in hark. 

tall adj. ME. tal\ probably oe. 
jjctccl 'swift, prompt' with the by- 
form geatol{lic) 'swift'. Ident. w. 
OHG. gizal: Teut. base ga-tala-. 

tallow ME. talugh earlier *talh 
=:= MLG. talch (g. talg, DU. talk), 
ON. tolgr. Cogn. w. goth. tul- \ 
gus 'fast'? I 

tame adj. me. tame oe. tain 
(infl. tdvid) ^=: ON. tamr, du. 
tarn, OHG. zam G. zahm: Teut. 
base tatna- (hence derived GOTH. 
tamjan 'to tame' =-= on. tefnja, 
OHG. zemmefi). aryan \f do7n in 
LAT. domare 'to tame', gr. dx/.iav, 
SKR. damdy 'to tame'. 

tan vb. ME. tanne oe. tannian 
vb.; cogn. w. fr. tan 'oak-bark' 
(lat. tannare in the 8 ^ cent. 
=-r FR. tanner; cp. du. /dra;?'bark'). 
Hence e. tawny = fr. tanni. 

tang sb. (sea-weed) fr. dan. 
tang r— on. pang (ppngull). 

tap sb. ME. tappe OE. tceppa 
'a tap' =^ ORG. zapfo G. zapfm, 
DU. tap, ON. tappi (fr. tape tapon 
are Teut. loanwords). 

taper sb. me. taper oe. tdpor: 
properly */rj/>//r, loanword fr. LAT. 
papyrus, which appears in Rom. 
dialects as 'taper'. 

tar sb. ME. terre; cp. oe. teoru 
(tyrwe) 'tar' and DU. (g.) teer, 
ON. tjara; ident. w. lett. darwa 
tar'. The group rests on Aryan 
deru =rr tree; tar orig. 'tar- 

tare sb. me. tare; Teut. base 
tar{w)dn also in ODU. tariiwe 
DU. MLG. tarwe. Cogn. w. skr. 
durva (a kind of grass) and 
lith. dirva 'field'. 

tarn sb. me. teme fr. on. tjgrn 
(g. tjarnar) 'a tarn, pool'. 

tarry vb. me. terie oe. terian 
teryin 'to vex' = DU. lg. tergen. 

tart — teen 


tart sb, ME. tarte fr. ofr. tarte 
-^ FR. tourte (whence du. taart, 
G. torte). 

task sb. ME. tdsk{e) fr. ofr. 
tasque = fr. tdche\ source lat. 
taxare, whence also tax. 

tatter sb. a Scand. ktanword 
fr, ON. tgtrar pi. tatters'; already 
.ME. tatered 'rai^ged'. 

tattle vb. fr. ME. latere vb. 

taw, tew vb. me. t{we\ oe. 
tdwian teawian means prop, pre- 
pare and corresponds with uu. 
touwen to curry leather, OHG. 
zoutven 'make, prepare', goth. 
taiijan 'do': teut. \^ tan; see 

tawny see tan. 

tax vb. fr. fr. taxer = lat. 
taxare; ident. w. task. 

tea sb. :rzr FR. td, G. t/iee: source 
CHINESE tt, the word became 
European in the 2'^^ half of the 
ly"" cent. 

teach sb. me. te'che (prt. taiighte) 
OE. tcecean (prt. tcehte) \ cogn. w. 
token OE. tdcen; cp. ohg. zeigon 
G. zeigen. aryan \f dik. 

team^ sb. 'family' me. t{m oe. 
tiam 'family, offspring' =rr mlg. 
totn 'progeny' (with the um- 
^lauted vb. teem me. t(me oe. 
t(vian tyman 'to teem') : Teut. 
base tau{h)ma- fr. \f ttih in goth. 
tiuhan, ohg. ziohan G. ziehen. 
ARYAN \^ duk in LAT. duco. See 
the following word, 

team''^ sb. (team of oxen) me. 
tenie itetfie oe. letyme team of 
oxen'; derived fr. teut. tau{li)via- 
'rein, bridle' (in ON. taumr ohg. 

zoutn G. zauni). Root the same 
as in team '. 

tear vb. me. t(re oe. teran str. 
vb. =: GOTH, gatairan to break'. 
ARYAN \'^ der in skr. ^/d:r 'to burst, 
break asunder', GR. iiiouv 'to 
flay', LITH. dirti 'to flay'. 
tear sb. me. tcr oe. /(w: teut. 

i tahr- in ON. tdr, ohg. zahar (g. 

I zdhre) \ cp. onorthumbr. tcehher 
and according to Verner's law 
goth. /^■^'"r. ARYAN base dakru 
in GR. ()«V.(>t>, WELSH </<?4'^r (per- 
haps SKR. a(ru and lat. lacrinia 
are cognate). All equivalent. 
tease vb. (me. tcse) oe. tdsan 

, 'to pull to pieces , to tease 

! (wool) with the non-umlauted 

I byform me. tpse (oe. *tdsan or 
*tdszan). tlut. strong verbal 

; yftais in OHG. zeisan 'to tease' 
=— DU. teezen. — Cogn. w. teasel 
(plantname) me. tcsel oe. tasel 
rr— OHG. zeisila 'thistle'. 

teat sb. ME. tete fr. fr. tette\ 
ident. w. oe. titt —- mhg. g. 

ted vb. fr. on. tedja\ ident. w. 
OHG, G,(dial,) zetten to spread'. As 
shown by the p, participle goth. 
un-gatass 'undisposed', there exi- 
sted also a str. vb. *tadjan. aryan 
\'^dat in GR. daxbo/nat 1 divide, 

: teem^ vb, 'to bring forth' see 

I team. 
teem^ vb. to empty' see toom. 
teen sb. me. tene oe. teona 

i 'suffering, insult' rrrr osax. tiono 

I 'injury'; cp. ofries. tiuna 'to hurt.' 


tell — that 

tell vb. ME. idle (prt. tplde) oe. 
tellan (prt. tdlde) under tale. 

tempest sb. me. te?npest fr. 
OFR. ic7npestc = fr. tempele. 
Source vulgar lat. tenipcsta for 

temple sb. me. tctuple oe. tempel 
fr. LAT. lemplufti. 

temples me. temples fr. ofr. 
temples (fr. tempe) plur. = lat. 
tempora the temples'. 

tempt vb. me. tempte vb. fr. 
OFR. tempter (fr. tenter) =^ lat. 

ten num. me. i"^;? rests on an 
unrecorded OE. *teofi, instead of 
which an umlauted tyn is found. 
Teut. base t'ehun tehati in goth. 
taihuTiy OSAX. i'ehan, DU. tien, 
OHG. gi'^rt'zz G. zthn. Ident. w. 
SKR. daga^ OR. Jg'xor, lat. decern, 
oiR. ^/<?/V/!. — The suffix -teen 
(in thirteeti etc.) me. -/!?«^ oe. 
-tene -tyne is the inflected form 
of the numeral ten. — The suffix 
-ty (in twenty etc.) represents 
the sb. GOTH, tigus decade' (in 
saihs tig jus = on. sextigir) ; cp. oe. 
^ritii sixtii = OHG. dri-^ug s'ehzug 
G. dreissig sechzig. For the ^ 
in GOTH, tigus cp. OR., 

tender adj. me. tendre fr. fr. 
tendre\ source lat. tener. 

tense sb. fr. ofr. tens (= fr. 
temps) = LAT. tempus. 

tent sb. ME. te7ite {= du. /^«/) 
fr. OFR. tente = vulgar lat. tenta; 
cp. lat. tefitoriufn. 

term sb. me. terf/ie fr. fr. terme; 
source lat. terminus. 

terror sb. fr. fr. terreur = 
LAT. terror{evi). 

test sb. meant properly in al- 
chemy 'a vessel for testing gold' 
and rests on me. test{e) = lat. 
testa, whence also fr. tete ofk. 
teste 'head' with the borrowed 
e. testy. 

tether sb. short for me. teder ; 
doubtful, whether genuine Eng- 
lish or of Scand. origin. Cp. 
ON. tj'ddr = OHG. ziotar a tether : 
Teut. base teudra-. 

tetter sb. me. oe. teter fr. a 
Teut. base t'etru- =t- aryan 
dedru-. Cp. OHG. zitaroh 'tetter' 
and SKR. dadru 'a kind of lep- 
rosy', LITH. dedervine 'tetter'. 

than conj. me. thanne oe. panne 
^=rr- OHG. mhg. danne] derived fr. 
the article the. 

thane sb. me. thein (the modern 
spelling a instead of ai — as 
in rain — is of Scotch origin) 
oe. pe^en: Teut. base p'egna- in 
on. pegn, OSAX. thegan, ohg. 
th'egan a thane, warrior' (in the 
Bavarian dialect 'a male child'). 
Ident. w. GR. xiy.vov 'child' ; 
ARYAN sftek in GR. t/xtw (aorist 


thank vb. me. thanke oe. pan- 
cian poncian wk. vb. = ohg. 
dankbn G. du. danken, Qis,. pakka 
'to thank'. Root as in think. 

that pron. me. that oe. p(2t ^= 
OSAX. that, ohg. daz g. das (dass) : 
ARYAN form to-d (fr. the stem 
to under the) = skr. tad, or. 
TO (for *TO-d)', cp. LAT. istud illud 




aliud show the d as neutral 

thatch sb. properly and dia- 
lectical thak ME. thak OE. pcec 
r= OHG. dah G. dach, on. pak\ 
Teut. base paka-. Cp. the wk. 
vb. TEUT. pakjan in OE. peccean 
= OHG. deckan G. decken, du. 
dekken. Aryan V~ /^;^ in lat. 
iegere, cogn. w. \f steg in gr. 
atsyfir, skr. sthag, lith. j/^^// 
to cover'; cp. gr. reyog on'yoc 
'a roof, oir. /f^-- 'a house'. 

tha'w vb. ME. thdwe oe. pdwian; 
cp. OHG. douwen G. taiien, du. 
dooien, ON. peyja: \'~ pau paw 
properly *pagw, ARYAN y/^taq in 
GR. Tijy.fif to melt? 

the article me. Z/^^"' late oe. /^f 
(oE. jf' influenced by the inflected 
stem pa- in thai), aryan base 
to- in SKR. ta-m ^= GR. rc-r, 
SKR. /a-^/ GR. TO etc. Cp. than, 
that, their, there, they. 

theft sb. ME. thefte short for 
/g/"/^ Y>ro^. pef the: abstract deri- 
vation fr. thief. Cp. the um- 
lauted OE. PyfP infl. py/pe 'theft' 
= OFRIES. thiufthe. 

their pron. me. their{e) borrowed 
fr. ON. peira. — then me. thenne 
OE. pan fie ident. w. than. — 
thence adv. me. thennes extended 
for thenne thanne = OE. panone 
prop, panon =3 oHG. dannan 
(g. von dannen). — there adv. 
ME. there ther oe. per pdr =- 
OHG. ddr (g. da). — they pron. 
xME. thei ttuy; borrowed in the 
11''' cent. fr. on. peir. 

thick adj. me. thicke probably 

English Etymologv. 

borrowed fr. ON. pykkr (pjokkr) ; 
the corresponding oe. //V^f^ would 
have changed into me. *thicche 
E. *thitch. Perhaps me. thicke 
is blended w. oe. pic'ce — - ohg. 
dicki G. dick DU. dik. Teut. base 
piqu- =T ARYAN base tigti- in 
OIR. tiug 'thick'. 

thief sb. me. thef (pi. tha>es) 

OE. peof (pi. peo/as) — goth. 

piul's, ON. pjofr, OHG. diob G. 

dieb, DU. dief: Teut. base peuba-, 

by Verner's law changed fr. 

j original *petcfa , as shown by 

i OHG. diiiva 'theft'. 

I thigh sb. ME. theigh earlier 

I theh OE. p(oh = ohg. dioh, du. 

i dij, ON. pjo : Teut. base peuha-, 

j ARYAN base teuko- , cogn. w. 

lith. taukas 'fat of animals, 

marrow', osLov. tukii fat'. 

thimble sb. me. thimbel short 
for thimel OE. pymel 'thumb-stall': 
diminutive of oe. pmna =• 
/// u 7n b. 
thin adj. me. thinne oe. pynne 
—- OHG. dunni G. diinn, du. dun, 
ON. punnr'. Teut. base punnu- 
properly punu- pumv- , ARYAN 
base iinu in skr. tanu, la'j". 
tenuis, cymr. teneu; cp. gr. 
Tavaog (all equivalent). ARYAN 
"V^ tpn in .SKR. tan 'to stretch', 
oe. pennan, ohg. dennan G. dehnen, 
GOTH, panjan 'to stretch out'. 
thine thy pron. me. thin oe. 
pin =rT GOTH, peins, on. pinn, 
ohg. din G. dein, du. dijn; teut. 
pina- formed by suffix -ina- (cp. 
SKR. tdvakina 'thine') fr. teut. 
pu =r thou. 



thing — thousand 

thing sb. ME. thing OE. ping 
r-= ON. ping, OHG. G. DU. ding'. 
Teut. base pinga- p'enga-; pro- 
bably ident, w. goth. pei/is 'time' 
= LAT. teinpus (for *tenquusT). 

think vb. me. thenke {thenchen) 
OE. pencean (3'^ sg. prs. t. pencp') 
= GOTH, pagkjan, on. pekkja, 
OSAX. thenkian, ohg. deikan G. 
denken. Cp. goth. pugkjixn ^=~ 
OSAX. thunkian, OHG. dunkan G. 
diinken, OE. pyncean 'to seem'. 
ARYAN Y^ iong{tmg) in lat. (Prae- 
nestine) tonghe 'to think'. 

third see three. 

thirst vb. ME. thirste oe. pyrstan 
and thirst sb. from the vb. ; 
the sb. is me. thurst oe. purst 

= TEUT. purS-tU- = OHG. G. 

durst, DU. (torst; cp. on. porsti, 
GOTH, paurstei sb. 'thirst', teut. 
verbal \f^ p'ers in goth. gapalrsan 
'to be dry' — paursus dry' 
(oe. pyrre = OHG. ^/«rr/ g. 
diirr). ARYAN \fters trs in skr. 
/rj 'to be thursty' — /r/« gree- 
dy', gr. TSoQidvw, lat. torreo. 

thirteen, thirty see three. 

this pron. me. /!^V earlier //4<'J 
OE. /^j masc. — //j" neutr. — peos 
fem. ; ident. w. ohg. ^-/ifj^ G. 
dieser, du. rt'^^s^. The article 
the (teut. pa- under thai) is 
extended by goth. sai lo', as 
shown by ON. (runic) sd-si 'this 
here* {sii-si fem.). 

thistle sb. me. thistel oe. pisiel 
=^ ON. pistill, DU. distel, lg. 
distel, ohg. ^/w/// g. distel. 

thither adv. me. thider oe. 
pider (orig. pcedei^ \ derived fr. 

the stem pa- in that. Cp. 
goth. papro 'thence', on. padra 

thole sb. ME. thol OE. pol (II): 
Teut. base polla- in on. pollr, 
DU. dol, g. rudderdolle. ARYAN 
base tslno- (= skr. tuiia 'quiver' 
for *tulnd) fr. \l^til ^^ SKR. \^tu/ 
'to lift up', lat. tollere. 

thong sb. ME. thong orig. thwong 
OE. pwong 'thong'; cp. on. pvengi. 
TEUT. \f pwang. 

thorn sb. me. thorn oe. porn 
sb. = on. porn, ohg. G. dorn, 
DU. doom; cp. GOTH, pailrnus. 
Ident. w. OSLOV. trinii thorn ; 
cp. SKR. trtia 'grass'. 

thorough me. th-orow oe. porh; 
orig. preposition -^ OE. purh, 
OHG. duruh G. durch, goth. 

thou pron. me. /^?« oe. /« rr= 

GOTH. /«, OHG. //« (G. dli) l 

ARYAN ground-form tii in lat. 
tu, GR. TV, SKR. tu-am. Cp. 

though conj. me. though earlier 
thoh\ Scand. loanword of the 
II*'' cent. (on. po orig. *poh). 
Corresponding to oe. peah = 
GOTH, pduh; cp. OHG. doh g. 

DU. doch. 

thought sb. me. thouglu oe. 
lepoht: Teut. base ga-panhtu-, 
derived fr. y^pank in pink. 

thousand num. me. thousand 
thousend oe. piisend =r ohg. 
dUsunt g. tausend, du. duizend, 
ON. piisund pushund, GOTH. p£i- 
sundi; in the Lex Salica, we 
find th{is-chunde\\\on?,a.D.d! . Teut. 

thrall — throng 


base pus-hund-, compound of 
hund = hundred \wiih. an ARYAN 
tus great, much' (cp. skr. tuvi 
'much', iavas 'might'). lith. 
tukstantis ^= OSLO v. tysqsta 'thou- 
sand' correspond to the Teut. 

thrall sb. ME. thral (pi. thialles) 
late OE. prcBll {prM) prop, prdll 
fr. ON. prdll 'a thrall (Teut. base 
prahila-^ \ cogn. w. ohg. drigil 
'a slave' and w. goth. pragjan 
*to run' = GR. rgiyuv 'to run'. 

thrash, thresh vb. me. thresshe 
OE. perscan str. vb. = GOTH. 
priskatiy OHG. dreskan G. dreschen 
(du. dorschen)^ ON. preskja. teut. 
^ presk (iTAL. trescare is of 
Teut. origin); cp. lith. traszkiti 
'to rattle, clap'? 

thrave sb. me. thrdve thrcve: a 
Scand. loanword ; cp. ON. prefi, 
DAN. tfiwe 'a number of sheaves . 

thread sb. me. thrcd oe. prckd 
= ON. prddr, ohg. drat G. draht, 
DU. draad. The dental is suffix. 
Derivative of \f pra (Pre) in oe. 
prd7i.<an = throw. 

threat sb. short for me. pret 
OE. prcat; cogn. w. oe. priitian 
prcatian wk. vb. to threaten'; 
cogn. w. OE. prcayin wk. vb. 
'to threaten' ^ ohg. drewen 
dromven (g. drohen). 

three num. me. thre oe. pr(o 
(f. n. — pri m.) ; ident. w. goth. 
Preis, ON. prir, du. drie, OHG. 
dri G. drei: Aryan base tri- in 
SKR. /// (nom. trayai), gr. XQtiq, 

LAT. treSf OIR. tri, OSLOV. RUSS. 

/r/, lith. trys. — The ordinal 

third me. thridde oe. pridda 
corresponds to goth. pridja, 
ON. pridi, DU. derde, ohg. ^/r///"^ 
G. dritte\ cp. SKR. triiya, lat. 
tertius, osLOv. tretiji. — thir- 
teen me. threttene short for OE. 
preotene (pryttyne). thirty me. 
thritty OE. prittij^ prltii =^ ohg. 
drizuc G. dreissig (see under /^« 
about the oe. -//j =^ G. -s?^ in 
zwanzig vierzig etc.). — thrice me. 
thries extended for an older form 
Prie OE. prlyi (priwa) r-^ OSAX. 
thrtjo {thrtwo), ofries. thria ; see 

threshold sb. me. threshwold o^, 
persrtvald mostly p'erscold\ ident. 
w. OHG. driscufili, on. preskjgldr. 
Probably not cognate w. thrash. 

thrice see three. 

thrift sb. ME. thrift fr. on. p7-ift. 
The str. vb. thrive me. thrive 
is borrowed fr. on. prifa-sk 'to 
thrive . 

throat sb. me. thrgte oe. protu 
= OHG. droT^yz MHG. dro2,7,e 'throte* 
(g. erdrosseln 'to throttle') ident. 
w. OLG. strota, DU. strot: akyan 
ground - form (s)trudd-. ital. 
strozza 'gullet' is of teut. (Lango- 
bard.) origin. 

throe sb. 'pain' me. throwe fr. 
the wk. vb. OE. prgwian = OHG. 
druoin 'to suffer' (Teut. \f prmv). 

throne sb. for me. trgne fr. 
OFR. trone. 

throng sb. me. throng OE. ~^eprgng 
fr. the str. vb. oe. pringan = 
OHG. dringan G. du. dringen; ident. 
w. GOTH, preihan, on. pryngva 
'to throng': TEUT. \f priiig prenh, 


throstle — tight 

ARYAN V^ trenk tr'enq in lith. 
trenktt 'to shake'. 

throstle sb. me. throshl oe. 
Prostle ; cogn. \v. lg. drdssl (oSAX. 
*thrastala fr. *pramstahi) and w. 
ON. prgstr (goth. *prastus) 
'throstle'; cp. also lith. strdzdas 

through adv. ident. w. thorough: 
ME. thuruh OE. purh = ohg. durtih 
G. durch, DU. dorch, goth. palrh. 

th^o^v vb. me. thrmve oe. 
prdivan str. vb. 'to twist, turn 
r=r ORG. drden G. drehen (du. 
draaieri) : teui'. \f pre (also in 
thread) = Aryan \ftrt{tere) in 
GR. xgrj-fxa 'a hole' — xfQsTv 
to pierce' — Tfofrpoj' 'auger'. 

thrush sb. (a bird's name) me. 
thrush short for OE. frysie (teut. 
base pruskjdn)\ cogn. w. OHG. 
drosca (base praiiskon-^. 

thud sb. (Scotch) short for 
OE. poden 'whirlwind'. 

thumb sb. me. thombe thimibe 
older pume OE. piima ■= OHG. 
diimo G. daumen, du. </«/>», SWED. 
tumtne (oN. pumall 'the thumb 
of a glove') : teut. hdise pu-tnan-. 
It rests on an aryan adj. tu-nw- 
'thick, strong in avest. tuma 
(SKR. tutumd) 'strong'; cp. lat. 
tuniere 'to swell'. ARYAN -y^ tu. 

thunder sb. me. tJmnder older 
form thoner thuner OE. punor = 
OHG. donar G. donner, DU. donder 
(cp. ON. /^r;- for *pdnr the god 
of thunder). ARYAN ^'"/p// /<?« in 
lat. tonare — tonitru, skr. tan 
'to sound', GS.. Punian' to resound, 
creak' (byform yf^sten in SKR. j/d-w 

'to sound', see under stun). — 
thursday me. thorsday thursday 
late OE. piinsdce'^ oe. punresdcei^ 
= OHG. donar es-iag G. donner stag, 
DU. donder dag , on. porsdagr. 
Early translation of lat. /<?5v;.y 
<//Vi'. TEUT. pimara- was the god 
of thunder, corresponding to 
ON. forr 'Thor'. 
thus adv. ME. thus oe. pus = 

OSAX. OFRIES. thus, DU. dus \ 

corresponding to OHG. sus. Forms 
of the article the. 

tick (of a bed) sb. not found 
in ME. nor oe., probably borrowed 
fr. DU. tijk = OHG. ziehha G. zieche; 
source lat. theca, whence also 
FR. taie 'a tick'. 

ticket sb. fr. fr. etiquette. 

tickle vb. me. iikele. 

tide sb. ME. tide 'season' OE. 
tid (gen. tide) 'time, hour' = ON. 

tid, OSAX. tld, DU. tijd, OHG. zlt 

G. zeit: Teut. base ti-di-, cogn. 
w. OE. ti-nia = time. — Hence 
tidings ME. tldinges older form 
tithende fr. ON. tidindi 'tidings' (=r 
DU. tijding, G. zeitung). 

tie vb. ME. tie OE. tl-^an tiyin 
wk. vb. to tie, connect'; derived 
fr. OE. tcag 'bond, chain, rope' 
= Teut. base taugo: \f taug tauh 
teuh 'to pull, draw', cogn. w. 
lat. ducere 'to lead'; cp. OHG. 
ziohan G. Ziehen, oe. teon (prt. 

tight adj. ME. tipit borrowed 
fr. on. p^ttr (therefore also me. 
thiiht) =^ MHG. dthte (g. dichi): 
Teut. base pihti- pinhti-. Cogn. 
w. thick? 

tike — today 


tike sb. ME. tike fr. on. tik 'a 


tile sb. AIE. tile contraction fr. 
OE. tlj^ele — tljj.e\ source lat. 
tegula, whence also ohg. ziagal 
G ziegel, DU. tegcl tichel (cp. fr. 
tuile, ITAL. teg old). 

till vb. ME. tile older tilien OE. 
tilian to till land, to work'; cogn. 
w. OHG. zilon G. zielen 'to aim 
at', OSAX. tilon tiloian, du. telen 
'to till, cultivate' (cp. goth. ga- 
tils adj. 'fitting). 

till prepos. ME. OE. til (in 
Northumbr. dialect) — :- on. /// 
'till, to'. Cogn. w. GOTH, gatils 
and OHG. zilon under till vb. 

tilt sb. late me. telt 'a covering' 
for an earlier form teld (under 
the influence of tent) -=r OE. 
letfld 'a covering, tent' ; ident. w. 
OHG. zelt gizelt G. zelt 'tent', odu. 
telt ghetelt 'tenx! , o^. tjald: Teut. 
base teUa- ga-telda-. 

timber sb. me. oe. timber 'ma- 
terial for building'; cp. goth. 
titnrjan 'to build', ohg. zimbar 
'material for building, edifice 
G zimmer 'room' , OSAX. timbar 
'edifice', du. tifnmer, on. timbr. 
Cognate w. gr. dtf.isiv 'to build' 
— douog edifice', lat. domus 
'house', OSLOV. domii 'house', skr. 

time sb. me. time oe. titna = 
ON. timi time': Teut. base ti-mon- 
fr. the \^// in tide. 

tin sb. me. oe. tin = on. dan. 
DU. tin, OHG. zin G. zinn: common 
Teut. base tina-. 

tinder »b. me. tinder oe. tyndre: 

= base tundrjon- in ohg. zuntira 
G. zunder-, cp. du. tinder, ox. 
tundr. Teut. verbal \^ land tund 
in goth. tandjan, ohg. zuntan G. 
ziinden, oe. ontendan 'to kindle'. 

tine (of a fork) sb. me. oe. tlnd 
'prong, spike' ^ on. tindr 'a 
spike', mhg. zint: Teut. base tinda- 
tenda-. Probably connected w. 
tooth (Teut. base tanp-^. 

tire vb. me. tire oe. tyran with 
the non-umlauted byform me. tere 
OE. teorian. 

tit see titmouse. 

tithe sb. ME. tithe\ prop, ordinal 
OE. tij^eda {teogoda teopa) 'tenth'; 
see ten. 

titlark see titmouse. 

title sb. ME. title fr. ofr. title 
r=r FR. litre: source lat. titulus. 

titmouse sb. (a bird's name) 
not connected w, mouse; the 
second element of the compound 
is M£. mpse OE. mdse =^ du. mees, 
ohg. meisa G. meise 'a titmouse' 
(fr. misange is of Teut. origin). 
The first element of titmouse 
(as of titlark) is on. AV 'a small 

to prep. ME. OE. to prep. adv. 
=^ OSAX. to adv. { — ti prep.J, ohg. 
zuo adv. ( — zi prep.); cp. du. 
toe, g zu. 

toad sb. ME. tgde oe. tdd-iie 
(see tadpole'); there are no 
further connections. 

toast vb. ME. tpste fr. ofr. toste 
=^ LAT. tosta (fr. the vb. torrere). 

today ME. to day oe. to dce'ye = 
OSAX. te dage. — For tonight — 
tomorrow = ME. to night — to 




morwe oe. to trior gne cp. osax. I 
te naht 'tonight'. j 

toe sb. ME. to (pi. tgti) oe. td 
(pi. tdfi) oldest form tdh(Z = | 
OHG. ze/ia G. ze/ie: Teut. base ' 
taihon; cp. DU. teen, ON. td. ■ 

together adv. me. togedere oe. 
tpgcedre; cogn. w. gather. 

token sb. me. token or. tdcen: 
Teut. base taikna- in ohg. zeihhan 
G. zeichen, osAX. tekan, du. teeken ; 
cp. GOTH, taiktis (base taikrn-~). 
Pre -Teut. base doigno- doigni- 
cogn. w. OR. dhTyf-ia. by the side 
of dsi/.i'Vf.u. ARYAN \^ dfk (dig) in 
LAT. dico ( — dignus ^ prodigiiitn). 
e. teach oe. tcecean belongs to 
the same root. 

toll sb. ME. oe. tol (II) = OHG. 
zol {II) G. zolt, OSAX. DU. tol; cp. 
OSAX. tolna = oe. tolne 'toll'. 
Source lat. telonium in a vulgar 
form toloneuffi for teloneuvi. Cp. 
OE. tolnire OHG. zolandri = lat. 
tolonarius (telonarms). 

tomb sb. ME. tombe toumbe fr. 
FR. /c/w^^ = lat, tumba. 

tomor^o^v see today. 

tongs sb. ME OE. tgnge (tatige) 
T-^ OHG. zanga G. zange, du. /^w^, 
ON. /^//^: Teut. base tango-n- fr. 
the ARYAN yf dak in skk. ^/^/^- — 
GR. cVa'xi'ftv to bite'. 

tongue ME. tonge tutige oe. /"ww^^ 
=- GOTH, tuggo, OHG. zunga G. 
zunge , DU. Z'^'//^. Teut. base 
timgon- fr. pre -teut. dsnghd- in 
olat. dingtia {^ lat. lingua). 

tonight see today. 

too ident. w. /<?. 

tool sb. ME. oe. /<?'/ = ON. tdl\ 

probably derived fr. the teut. 
\f tati\o make' (see under taw). 

toom adj. me. oe. tmn loanword 
fr. ON. tomr 'empty'; cp. osax. 
tdt?ii tomig, OHG. zuomig 'empty'. 

tooth sb. ME. tgth (pi. teth) ok. 
top (pi. tef) fr. a Teut. base tarip- 
in OSAX. DU. tatid, ohg. Zand {zan 
G. zahn), on. tgnn\ ablaut-varia- 
tion GOTH, t imp us. ARYAN base 
dont- d?nt- in skr. dat — danta, 
GR. !)bovx- (oi)oi'c,)> LAT. dent- {liens) , 
lith. dantis. ARYAN \^ed 'to eat' 
see under eat; the form of the 
Aryan word (cp. sootJi) is present 

top^ sb. JME. oe. top (pp) = on. 
toppr, DU. top (ohg. g. zopf a 
tuft of hair') : Teut. base toppa- 

top 2 sb. (a child's toy) me. oe. 
top (pp); phonetically differing 
fr. the equiv. lg. dop, ohg. topfo 
G. top/. 

torch sb. ME. torche fr. fr. 
torche, whence also du. toorts. 

touch vb. ME. toiuhe fr. fr. 
toucher, whence also DU. toetsen. 

tough adj. :me. tough oe. tgh fr. 
TEUT. *tanhu-, whence also DU. 
taai, OHG. zdhi G. zdhe. Perhaps 
cogn. w. OE. letpng adj. 'in con- 
tact with' — letenge 'close to'. 

to^vel sb. me. touail fr. ofr. 
toaillc = FR. touail le. Source an 
old Teut. word ; cp. ohg. divahilla 
G. zwehle towel', teut. \'~ pxvah 
in GOTH, pwahati = oe. p7i'(an 
str. vb. 'to wash'. 

tower sb. me. tour late oe. 




(li'*' cent.) ///;■ fr. FR. tour. 
Source lat. tiiiris. 

town sb. ME, toun oe. tun; the 
original meaning fence' is seen 
in OE. tynan \vk. vb. to fence, 
enclose . Cp. on. tun, du. tuin, 
OHG. zun G. zaun 'fence, hedge'. 
Cogn. w. oiR. dun 'fortress' (in 
CELT, place-names as in Augusto- 

trace sb. me. trd^e fr. fr. trace 
(source lat. tradiare). 

trade sb. original meaning 'path' 
fr. the vb. tread. 

trail vb. me. traile late oe. 
trcEilian fr. OFR. trailler, whence 
also DU. LG. treilen. 

traitor sb. me. tr at tour fr. ofr. 
traitor (fr. traitre) = lat. tra- 

tramp, trample vb. me. trampe 
= LG. tramp en trajfipeln ; cp. 
GOTH, trimpan to tread. 

trap sb. ME. trappe bte OE. 
trceppe loanword fr. fr. trappe; 
source OHG. trappa. 

travel vb. me. travaille fr. fr. 

treachery sb. me, tr(cherie 
triccherie fr. fr. tricherie (kr. 
tricher vb.). 

tread vb. me. tr^de oe. tredan 
str. vb. = OSAX. tredan, du. treden, 
OHG. tr'etan g. treten; cp. goth. 
irudan, on. troda 'to tread'. 
TEUT. yftre'd trod. 

treason sb. me. traisoun fr. ofr. 
trdison =r fr. trahison: source 
LAT. t/ aditw(nem). 

treasure sb. me. trespr fr. fr. 
tn'sor =r- LAT. thesaurus. 

treat vb. fr. fr. traiter — lat. 

tree sb. me. tre oe. treo = goth. 
triu, OSAX. trio, on. tr^: Teut. 
base trewa-, derived fr. an aryan 
dru doru in skr. diti ddru 'wood', 
GR. ^QvQ 'oak' — SoQV 'spear', 
OSLOV. druva — drevo 'wood' ; 
cogn w. tar and trough. 

tripe sb. me. tripe = du. trip 
fr. FR. tripe. 

trouble vb. short for me. trouble: 
loanword fr. fr. troubler. 

trough sb. me. trogh oe. troh 

trog =r^ ON. OHG. G. DU. trog'. 

Teut. base troga- tiuga-, pro- 
bably derived fr. ARYAN dru- 
'wood' under tree. 

trout sb. me. troute (for troughtef) 
OE. trilht: early loanword fr. 
LAT. triicta — - FR. truite. 

truant sb. me. truant prop. 
trilaund fr. fr. truand a vaga- 

truce sb, me, trewes plural form 
of ME. trewe 'truce' ^- oe. treowa 

i 'confidence, faith'. Derivative 
of the adj. true me. trewe oe. 
j^etreoive "^etrywe —-- ohg. /- iutcn 
gitriuwi G. (ge)trcu. OSAX. triuw. \ 
cp. GOTH, tri^gws — ON. tryggr 

\ 'true'. Cogn. w. OPRUSS. druwis 

I 'belief — druwit 'to believe . 

j ARYAN \f dru. See truth and 

I trust. 

\ trump sb. aie. trump e trompe 

j fr. FR. trotnpe, whence also odu. 

\ truncheon sb. me. trounchoun 

\ tronchoun fr. OFR. tronchon =-= 

I FR. Iron ( on. 


trust — twine 

trust sb. ME. trust fr. on. trgust 
'confidence' (= ohg. trost G. 
trost 'consolation'): Taut, base 
trausta- fr. an ARYAN base drouz' 
da-; cog^n. w. ir. druit (base 
druzdi-) 'firm, trustworthy'. 

truth ME. treuthe OE. treowp 
'faith, fidelity': abstract forma- 
tion to true. 

try vb. ME. trie fr. fr. trier. 

tub sb. ME. tubbe = du. tobbe, 
LG. tubbe a tub'; cogn. w. ohg. 
zubar G. zuber. Source lat. tubus 
'a pipe, tube? 

tuck vb. ME. tukke = OHG. zockon 
zucken : intensive formation of \'^ 
tuh in GOTH, tiuhan = ohg. ziohan 
(see under tie^. 

Tuesday sb. me. Thvesday oe 
Tiwesdcei rr^ on. Tfsdagr, G. (Ale- 
mann.j Zistag: translation of lat. 
Martis dies. The Teut. god Tiw 
corresponds to Mars. oe. Tiw 
ON. Tyr rests on Aryan deiwos 
'god' (in SKR. deva, lat. deus; 
cp. ON. ttiHir 'the gods'). 

tumble vb. me. tumble tomble 
fr. OE. tunibian to dance, tumble'; 
cp. DU. tuimelen fr. ODU. tumen. 

tun sb. ME. tunne tonne OE. tunne 
—=r DU. ton\ ident. w. ohg. tunna 
G. tonne and FR. tonne. Source 
and history of the group not 
cleared up yet. 

turbot sb. ME. tiirbut fr. fr. 

turf sb. ME. turf tor/ oe. turf 

= ON. tor/, ohg. zurba, DU. turf 
'peat : Teut. base turb- torb- fr. 
an ARYAN base drbh- d?rbh-; cp. 
.SKR. darbha 'bunch of grass'. 

turn vb. short for me. tourne 
late oe. turnian fr. fr. tourner. 

turtle sb. ME. oe. turtle (= 
ohg. turtulatiiba G. turteltaube) 
fr. lat. turtur. 

tusk sb. ME. tusk tusch short 
for OE. tusc {tusc); probably Teut. 
base tunska-, derived fr. teut. 
tunp- {tanp-) = tooth. 

twelve num. me. oe. twelf (infl. 
ME. twelve OE. twelfe) =^ GOTH. 
twalif, OHG. zwelifG. zw'dlf, OSAX. 
tivelif, DU. tivaalf. The word 
rests on the num. two; the 2"*^ 
element (cp. lith. dvylikd twelve') 
occurs again in goth. ainlif -=■ 
OHG. einlif (see eleven'). — 
t^venty me. twenty oe. tiventii 
probably contracted for *twe- 
lentii =: OHG. zweinzug (g. zwanzig, 
DU. twintig). - - twice adv. me. 
twies prop, twie OE. twiia (twiwa 
tuwd) . — - 

t^vig sb. ME. tivig pi. twigges; 
cogn. w. OE. twi (pi. twiyi), ohg. 
zwi and also w. ohg. zwig g. 
zweig, DU. timjg. Probably con- 
nected w. the numeral ttoo 
(ARYAN stem dwi-). 

twins pi. me. twinnes oe. 
"^etwinnas; ident. w. ON. tvinnr 
'two and two'; cp. ohg. zwini- 
ling G. zwilling, DU. tweeting 'a 
twin' and lith. dvynii 'twins'. All 
derived fr. the Aryan stem(/7£v-; 
see two. 

twine vb. .ME. txvine vb. fr. the 
sb. OE. twin 'linen, a twisted 
thread' = DU. tivijn, which is 
ident. w. mho. g. zwirn , DU. 
tiveern: Teut. base twizna- fr. 




\i^itms (see under ticist), cogn. 
w. the num. two. 

twinckle vb. me. twincle oe. 

twist vb. ME. twiste vb. fr. oe. 
twist sb. 'rope' = ODU. twist 
'thread'; teut. yf twis as in G. 
zwirn 'thread'; see twine. 

twit vb. short for me. at-wite 
OE. (zt-witan str. vb. 'to reproach'; 
cp. OE. ed-wit sb. 'reproach' and 
GOTH, idweitjan vb. 'to reproach', 
OHG. JimnT/T^an g. verweisen, du. 
Z'erunjten 'to reproach' and oe. 
wite, OSAX. witi, ohg. wi'^p 'pu- 
nishment', GOin. frmveitan str. vb. 

twitch vb. me. twicche (without 
palatalisation tivicke) oe. twiccian 

r= g. zwicken (cp. ohg. zwecchon) : 
Teut. ground-form *twikkjdn} 

twitter vb. me. t^vitere = ohg. 
zwizziron G. zuitschern ; perh. a 
reduplicated west -teut. *t7m- 
twironf (teut. \ftwisf). 

two num. : orig. twain masc. — 
iivo f. n. = me. iwein — two oe. 
twe^en — iwd {tii n. for '^twu orig. 
*twp) ; cp. OHG. zwene — zwd ■ — 
zwei, OSAX. twene — two {two) 
■ — twi, GOTH, twai — twos — twa. 
ARYAN Stem duo- dwo- in lat. 
duo, GK.. 8vo (but Jff/'Jfxa for 
*J/cu()f}<a), SKR. dua dva. 

tyrant sb. me. tlraunt (with 
excrescent / as in pageant) fr. 
OFR. tlran —•■ lat. tyrannus. 


udder sb. me. udder short for 
oe. uder -r: OHG. iltar (g. enter), 


base udhr- in skr. iidhur, lat. 
uber; cp. gr. ov^ap. All equi- 

ugly adj. me. 7i^/y fr. ON. ugg/igr 
'dreadful' ; cp. ON. t%'ga 'to fear'. 

umpire prop, mwipire (as auger 
for orig. ?iauger) ME. nou7npere fr. 
OFR. nonper. 

un-' prefix (of adjectives) me. 
oe. un- = G. OHG. GOTH, un- ; 
ident. w. lat. in-, gr. av- a-, 
skr. an- a- : aryan ground-form 
pn-, cogn. w. SKR. na , LA.T. ne, 
GOTH. ohg. ni, oe. ne 'not'. 

un 2 prefix (of verbs) me. un- 

late oe. un- oe. on- = goth. 
and-, ohg. /;//- g. ent-. 

uncle sb. me. unc/e oncle fr. fr. 
oncle {^ LAT. avunculus). Cp. 
also aunt, nevew, niece. 

under prep. me. oe. under ;= 
GOTH. OSAX. undar, on. undir, 
DU. onder, ohg. untar G. unter. 
Two different prepositions are 
blended in this form: lat. inter, 
skr. antar and lat. /^/ria; skr. 

up prep. adv. me. up oe. z^/; 
ident. w. ohg. iif G. a«/, osax. 
up; cp. the ablaut-relation goth. 
iup. Cogn. w. OE. ufan 'from 
above' = ohg. obana osax. odana 
'from above'. See above and 


urchin — very 

and over, upon me. upon OE. 
upp-on; cp. ON. upp a. 

urchin sb, me. irchoun fr. ofr. 
irefo/i (fr. herissoti) ; source a 
vulgar LAX. ericio{n€7n) =. lax. 
ericius 'hedge-hog' (the genuine 
E. word was OE. iiel = OHG. 
igil G. igel, cogn. w. or. h/Jvoc). 

us pron. ME. us (ous) OE. us for 
xeux. 2<tAW- in G. OHG. GOXH. uns, 
OS AX. us., DU. ons. Cp. otir 
and 7£'^. 

use sb. ME. use fr. fr. //i' =^ 

LAX. ?/J'//i'. 

usquebaugh sb. fr. ir. ///j-^'^d' 
beatha 'water of life'; ident. w. 

utmost short for ME. ouief/iesfe 
OE. (w. umlaut) yteniest; ident. 
w. outmost. 

utter vb. me. uttre outre derived 
fr. ME. oute vb. 'to put out' oe. 
iitiafi 'to put out'. Source out. 


vain adj. me. vain fr. fr. vain 
:=: LAX. vdnus. 

vale sb. me. vdl fr. fr. vale 
and valley me. valeie fr. fr. valUe. 
Source lax. vallis. 

valiant adj. me. valiaunt fr. 
FR. vaillant. 

valley see vale. 

van ident. w. fan. 

vane sb. (a wether-cock) me. 
(Kent.) vcine — (else) fdtie oe. 
fdna =r^ OHG. fano {gund-fano) 
G. fahue, DU. vaan., goxh. fana: 
Teut. base fanan-, cogn. w. 
LAX. pannus 'cloth'. 

vanish vb. me. vanisshe fr. 
OFR. 7ianir (vaniss-); source lax. 

vanquish vb. me. venquisshe 
fr. OFR. veinquir (veinquiss-) 
= FR. vaincre; source lax. vin- 

vat sb. me. (Kent.) vat — (else) 

fat OE. fcBt = OSAX. ON. fat, 

OHG. fai G. fass, DU. vat: Teut. 
base fata-. Cogn. w. li'ih. pudas 
'a pot' and ohg. fayion g. fassen 
'to contain'. 

vaunt vb. short for me. avaunte 
vb. fr. OFR. avanter (fr. vanter') 
= late LAX. vanitare. 

veal sb. me. v(l fr. ofr. v'cel 
(fr. veati)'y source lax. vitellus 
'a little calf. 

veil sb. ME. veile fr. onfr. veik 
= LAX. velum. 

vein sb. me. veine fr. fr. 7'cine 
-^^ LAX. vena. 

venison sb. me. veneisoufi fr. 
OFR. veneison = LAX. venatio{nem). 

venom sb. me. venim fr. ofr. 
vcnim = LAX. venenum. 

verse sb. me. vers fr. fr. vers; 
oe. me. fers is loanword fr. lax. 
versus with the medieval pro- 
nunciation of LAX. V as f. 

very adj. aiE. verrei verrai fr. 
OFR. fVfrrt/ (fr. vrai^ ; source 

vessel — wade 


a LAT. type veracus for lat. { 

vessel sb. me. vessel fr. ofr. j 
veissel (fr. vaisseau) = lat. | 
vasceUiim {vasculus — vas). \ 

vetch sb. ME. vecche fr. ofr. veche i 
(fr. 7'esce) = lat. zvWa, whence 
also OHG. wicka G. zcvV^^ DU. Tvik. 

vex vb. ME. Z'^'ATi? fr. FR. vexer j 
= LAT. vexare. \ 

vial {phial) sb. me. ?w/f fr. fr. 
fiole (ofr. znole). 

vice sb. ME. ?^/^^ fr. fr. 7w^ 
= LAT. z'itiiim. 

victory sb. me. I'ictgrie fr. ofr. 
victorie = fr. victoire. 

victuals sb. (me. vitaille) fr. 
ofr. vitaille in the spelling vic- 
tuaille. Source lat. victualia. 

view sb. fr. FR. vue. 

vigil sb. ME. vigile fr. fr. vigile 
=^ lat. vigilia. 

vigor sb. ME. vigour fr. ofr. 
vigour (fr. vigenr) =^ lat. 

vile adj. me. vil fr. fr. vil = 
LAT. fv/zV. 

villain sb. me. vilein fr. ofr. 
vile in = LAT. villanus. 

vine sb. me. z^/w*? fr. fr. vigne 
= LAT. vinea. Cp. wine. 

vinegar sb. me. vin(gre fr. fr. 
vinaigre =^ LAT. vinum acre. For 
the 2"^^ element cp. eager. 

vine>ved adj. (the initial v 
instead of f is due to Kentish 
influence) fr. oe. fynegian 'to 
become mouldy' (/>'«/j 'mouldy'). 

vintage sb. transformed fr. me. 
vivt/dge, which rests on fr. veti- 
dange = lat. vindefnja (whence 
OHG. wintimma vintage'). 

viol sb. fr. FR. viole = ital. 
SPAN. viola\ source a late lat. 
vitula, whence also fiddle. 

virgin sb. me. virgine fr. ofr. 

virtue sb. me. vertil fr. fr. vertu. 

visage sb. me. visage fr. fr. 
visage. — vision sb. me. visioun 
fr. FR. vision. 

vixen sb. (?' instead of/ due to 
Kentish influence) oe. *fyxen : 
Teut. base fiihsiiijO- (g. fiichsin), 
derived fr. TEUT. jfiihs- fohs- 
under fox {-injo- being fem. 
suffix as in G. g'dtlin, grdfin etc.). 

voice sb. ME. vois fr. ofr. vois 
(fr. voioc) = LAT. vox. 

voutch vb. ME, vouche fr. ofr. 
voucher (= lat. vocare). 

vow sb. ME. vou fr. ofr. vou 
(fr. voeii) = LAT. votum. 

voyage sb. fr. fr. z'oyage; cp. 
ME. 7>idge vedge fr. ofr. veiage. 
Source lat. viaticum. 


w^ade vb. me. wade oE. wddan 1 uu. wadeti, ohg. watan str. vb. 
(prt. xvod) str. vb. = ON. vada, I (g. waten wk. vb.) : teut. \fwad. 




ARYAN Y^ wddh in lat. vMere 
'to go'. 

wafer sb. me, wdfi'e fr. ofr. 
waufre =; FR. gaufre; ident. 
w. DU. wafely G. waffel (osAX. 
*wafld). The group prop, meant 
'honey comb' as in fr. and is 
derived fr. a Teut. word (oHG. 
wabo G. wabe'^ sf^web in weave). 

wag vb. ME. wagge (oe. *wag- 
gian) derived fr. \fw'eg (in oe. 
wagian 'to move , wag') ; see 

wage sb. me. wage fr. ofr. 
wage (fr. gage) : source a vul- 
gar LAT. wadium for lat. vadium 
(influenced by a teut. -goth. 
wadi 'a pledge' under wed). 

waggon sb. fr. du. wagen; 
ident. w. wain. 

wail vb. ME. ivaile weile\ derived 
fr. ME. wei 'woe' (loanword fr. 
ON. vei\ see woe). 

wain sb. me. wain oe. way^i: 
Teut. base wagnu- in ohg. wagan 
g. du. wagen (on. vagn) ; aryan 
\/"wegh as in lat. vehiculum, 
GR. o/f>s, OIR. fin wain'. See 

waist sb. ME. wdst\ doubtful 
whether allied to waxl 

wait vb. me. waite fr. ofr. 
waiter] source a vulgar lat. 
vb. wactare, der. fr. ohg. wahta 
= GOTH, wahtwo 'a watching'. 
For the root see wake and 

wake vb. me. wake oe. wdcian 
-- oSAX. wakojan, du* waken, 
on. vaka, OHG. wahMn g. wachen 
wk. vb. (only goth. wakan str. 

vb.). Cp. also OE. weicean, OHG. 
7veckan, osAx. 7vekkian, du. wekken, 
GOTH, wakjan 'to awake'. Aryan 
\fweg in LAT. vegere 'to excite, 
arouse' {vigil 'awake') and skr. 
vajay 'to incite'. See watch 
(and wait). 

walk vb. ME. walke: intensive 
formation (cp. lurk, stalk) of 
OE. weaUian 'to wander' =^ ohg. 
wallon G. w alien. 

w^all sb. ME. ze/a/ (pi. ivalles) 
oe. zf/^Trt-// (pi. weallas) — - du. 
7£/<^//, OSAX. wd-/ (pi. wallos) ; not 
found in ohg. (but G. TtW/ 
borrowed fr. lg.). Source lat. 
vallum 'a rampart'. 

w^all-eyed adj. fr. oe. wealden- 
iie ~r- ON. vald-eygdr 'wall-eyed'? 

wallow vb. ME. walwe OE. weal- 
wian 'to wallow'; cp. goth. wal- 
wison 'to wallow' and walwjan 
'to roll". Cogn. w. lat. volvere 
(gr. silvetv) 'to roll", aryan 
\^7vehv wolw. 

w^alnut sb. me. walnote walnute 
OE. wealh-hnutu = on. valhnot, 
du. walnoot G. walnuss (not found 
in ohg.). The former element 
(TEU*r. walha-) see under Welsh 
{ivalnut prop, meant 'French 
nut'; cp. LAT. nux Gallica = 
fr. gauge). 

walrus sb. rr^ du. walrus wal- 
ros, G. walross, dan. hvalros; cp. 
on. hrosshvalr (whence oe. hors- 
hwo'iy. lit. 'a horse-whale'. See 

wan adj. me. wan{nn) oe. wann 

w^and sb. me. 7vand fr. on. 

wander — was 


vgnd (gen. vandar) = GOTH. 
wandus 'a rod'. Cogn. w. lith. 
waf>i(7l or w. tvind vb. ? 

wander vb. me. wandre oe. 
7iHindrjan\ cp. MHG. G. wandern 
tvandcln (ohg. wantalori) 'to 
wander'. Cogn. w. wend vb. 

wane vb. me. 7^'^'//^ oe. wdnian 
■= OHG. wanon, ON.' Z'dr«a 'to 
wane, diminish': derived fr. teut. 
wana- 'lacking' in oe. wan, on. 
vanr, ohg. a'«^ , GOTH, watts 
'lacking' (cp. DU. wanlwop 'de- 
spair' and G. wahnwitz 'want of 
wits'). Cogn. w. SKR. iina 'wan- 
ting'. — want sb. me. want fr. 
ON. z'ant neutr. of vanr lacking, 
deficient'. — wanton me. wan- 
toun prop, wantgwen for *wan- 
togen : OE. togen is participle of 
teon (see team) to educate'. 

war sb. me. (since 12**' cent.) 
werre = du. werre fr. ofr. werre 
(fr. guerre) ; source ohg. we. ra 
'vexation' (ohg. osax. werran 
str. vb. 'to bring into confusion 
or disorder'). 

ward sb. me. ward oe. weard 
watcliman, guardian' ^=-z osax. 
ward, ohg. g. wart (on. vgrdr 
for *wardus) : aryan -sfwor see 
under wary. — warden sb. 
ME. wardcin fr. ofr. wardein 
(gardein) ident. w. guardian',' 
see guard. — wardrobe me. '■' 
wardergbe fr. ofr. warderobe (fr. | 
garderohe) . 

■ware sb. me. ware oe. wdru 
'merchandise' = du. ivaar G. 

ware, on. vara. 

' I 

warlock sb. for me. warlgwe- 

oe. W(krloga 'traitor' {=r oSAX. 
wdrlogc) : compound of oe. wckr 
'faith, agreement and -loga 'a 
liar' (oe. leogan under lie '). 
warm adj. me. warm oe. wearm 

= OSAX. OHG. G. DU. Warm, ON. 
varmr (cp. GOTH, warmjan 'to 
make warm') : Teut. base warma- 
for ARYAN base ghwermo- in gr. 
dKjunc- ((fe^/.i6qj = lat. formus 

warn vb. me. wame oh. wear- 
nian war(e)nian = ohg. warnon 
G. warnen 'to warn'. 

warp sb. me. w^/^ oe. wearp 
derived fr. oe. weorpan me. werpe 
str. vb. 'to throw' =r goth. 
wairpan , OSAX. wirpan , du. 
werpcn, ohg. w'erfatt G. werfen 
str. vb. 'to throw*. aryan 
Y~a'^r^7£' in SKR. vrj\o remove', 
OSLOV. er*?/// {vriigq) 'to throw", 
vi^arrant sb. me. waraunt fr. 
OFR. zvarant (fr. gar ant). 

M^art sb. me. werte: umlauted 
byform of OE. wearte = on. 
varta, odu. warte, ohg. warza 
G. warze. Perhaps cogn. w. OE. 
wearr 'callosity, wart' and lat. 
verruca 'wart'. 

w^ary adj. extension of me. 
ze/rtT OE. Tf/tfT 'cautious, aware' 
= GOTH, wars, OSAX. war 'cau- 
tious' (ohg. giwar G. gewahr) : 
ARYAN \^ wor also in gr. oo/<i' 
to observe'. 

■was (I, he) — were (we) me. 
was-were oe. wces-weron {wckr on): 
forms of the preterite of OE. 
wcsan rr-- du. wezen, OHG. wesan, 
GOTH, wisan (g. wesen sb. 'a 



being'). Aryan \^wes in skr. 
vas 'to stay in a place'. 

wash vb. ME. wasshe oe. wasian 
= ON. vaska, OHG. wascan G. 
waschen. Aryan \fwask in ir. 
faiscim, w. gtvasgu 'I press'. 

wasp sb. ME. waspe oe. 7f'(^/^^ 
fr. a Taut, base wafsa- in OHG. 
wafsa; cogn. w. lat. vespa, lith. 
^'a^^a 'breeze', OSLOV. f'cj<7 'wasp'. 
ARYAN sfwehh in weave', wasp 
orig. weaver'. 

waste adj. me. rf/c/j-/ fr. ofr. 
•wast (cp. FR. gdter 'to make 
waste'). Source LAT. vastus, 
influenced by teut. 7ii6sti 'waste' 
(oe. weste, OHG. wiiosti G. wilst 
fr. an Aryan wastu- in oiR. /"(ij, 
LAT. vastus 'waste'). 

watch vb. ME. ivacche oe. '^wcec- 
can (in the pres. partic. wcediende^ 
= OE. 7tiddan under wake. 

water sb. me. wdter oe. wceter 
rT= OSAX. watar, DU. 7vatei', ohg. 
^vaT^yir G. joasser: west-teut. 
base 7vatera-\ ident. w. goth. 
7vatd, ON. ?'<7///. Cogn. w. 7vet 
and outside of teut., w. gr. 

/'cJcdO, SKR. udan, OSLOV. russ. 

e^.^^/cz 'water', aryan ^^wod: ud. 

•wattle sb. me. 7vatcl oe. watol 
'hurdle, tile'. 

w^ave sb. derived fr. the wk. 
vb. wave me. wave OE. 7vdfian 
'wave, fluctuate'; cp. on. vdfa 
'to vibrate to and fro'. 

wax sb. ME. waxe OE. 7veaxan 
str. vb. = OHG. OSAX. 7uahsan 
G. 7vachsen.^ du. wassen; cp. goth. 
wahsjan. ARYAN \fweks uks in 

SKR. ?//&.? 'grow up, get strong', 
GR. d.i^Hi' 'wax'. Cp. ox. 

wax sb. ME. wax oe. 7£>eax = 
ON. vax, ohg. f^/i^Zy^i" G. wachs, 
DU. ze'flii'j-. Cogn. w. lith. 7vasz- 
kas, OSLOV. RUSS. voskii. 

way sb. me. way wey 7vei OE. 
w'e^ = OSAX. OHG. weg G. du. 
7^'(?^, ON. 7)egr, GOTH. 7mgs 'way': 
Teut. base 7vega- (allied to lat. 
via 'way'), derived fr. the teut. 
s/^weg in OE. wegan 'to carry' 
= OHG. 7v'egan 'to move', goth. 
ga7vigan\ ident. w. lat. vehere 
'to carry', GR. B/sir, skr. 7'a/i 
'to carry': ARYAN \P7&egh also 
in 7vain. 

w^e pron. me. oe. we r-= goth. 

M/m, OHG. G. Wir , OSAX. 7vl\ 

ident. w. skr. vay-a^n 'we' : aryan 
ground-form wei fr. a stem 7(.>e- in 
ON. vdr7' 'our'. 

w^eak adj. me. 7vetk fr. on. 
7)eikr veykr; ident. w. oe. wdc 
me. wok = DU. week, OSA.X. 7vek, 

OHG. 7^^//^ G. 7Veich. TEUT. \f Wlk 

in OE. 7vican 'to give way' =rr 
OSAX. wikan, ON. vlkja , OHG. 
7uihhan G. weichen. Ct)gn. w. 
GR. ftxsjv 'to give way' , lat. 
vices 'change'. ARYAN \f7vfg 7tnk. 

^veal sb. me. 7vele oe. 7v'ela 
(7veoIa) 'prosperity , riches' = 
OSAX. 7velo 'happiness , riches' 
(ohg. 7iiela — 7ejola g. 7mhl 'wel- 
fare). Cogn. w. we// and wi//. 
— wealth me. 7ve/the extension 
of we a/ := DU. 7vee/de. 

\vean sb. me. 7vcne oe. 7vcnian 
'to wean a child prop, 'to ac- 
custom'; ident. w. osAX. 7vennian, 

weapon — week 


(g. gewdhnen)y on. venja "to ac- ! 
custom'. Derived fr. the adj. i 
wana- in on. vanr 'accustomed' j 
(cp. OYLG. gnvon oe. g^rtw// 'usual'). 

^veapon sb. me. wc'pcn oe. wcepcn 
= on. z/^^«, osax. 7C>apan, DU. I 
ii>apen , Ohg. waff an o. y^/o^/? | 
(goth. 7vepna plur.). j 

wear vb. me. a'/r^ oe. iterian ■ 
\vk. vb. to clothe' = goth. | 
liiasjan to clothe', ohg. werian, \ 
ON. verja 'to cloth': teut. \/~waz 
li'as (also in goth. was-ti 'gar- ' 
ment'), ARYAN \f7aes in lat. rr^y- ' 
tis 'garment', GK.ed-d^qJ clothing', 

H'VtUI 'I clothe', SKR. Z'(7S to i 

1 ^ ' 
clothe . 

weary adj. me. loe-rj' oe. rve'rii [ 
(7ci(irii) = OSAX. worig tired', | 
OHG. wiwrag 'intoxicated' : teut. \ 
\^wdr'} or nvozl 

weasand sb. me. wesend oe. , 
Wihcnd umlauted byform of OE. } 
tadsend 'throat, gullet' ^^ ofries. 
wasende 'windpipe', ohg. weisunt 
'veins . 

w^easel sb. me. wisel oe. wesule 
-- OHG. wisula G. wiesely DU. wezel 
'weasel'. Perhaps cogn. w. lat. 
visio 'bad smell', whence ofr. 
voison foumart'. 

weather sb. me. weder oe. 7veder 
-= osax. icedar, du. weder, OHG. 
wetar G. wetter y on. zuutr : Teut. j 
base w'edra-, Aryan base wedhro- ! 
in OSLOV. vedril clear' (weather) ! 
— vedro 'clear weather. I 

w^eave sb. me. zucve oe. wefan 
str. vb. -^^ ON. vcfa, du. 7ve7<en, 
ohg. 7v'eban g. 7veben. aryan y^ 
7i>ehh ubh (see 7ciasp, 7vafer and 

7uee7>il) also in gr. vijrj-vffoc a 

web' — v(faivHv 'weave'. — w^eb i 
ME. OE. 7veb (bb) fr. teut. zuabja- 

in OHG. 7veppi, du. 7£/^/^, on. 7>e/r I 

"a web'. j 

w^ed vb. prop, 'to engage' me. 
7vedde OE. 7veddian =- GOTH, ga- \ 
7vadjdn 'to pledge' , on. vedja. \ 
Derived fr. the sb. oe. zvedd ■= j 
goth. 7i'adi, OHG. 7vetti 'a pledge' 
and cogn. w. lat. z'as — zmdis 'a ' 
pledge'. Further relations see j 
under gage and 7vage. — wed- 
lock ME. 7vedlpk OE. 7vedldc (oe. ; 
lac gift, offering). ' 

w^edge sb. me. 7vegge oe. we^g J 

=r OHG. wecki (g. 7veck), DU. wig, \ 
on. veggr : Teut. base 7vagja-; 

cogn. w. LITH. wagis, lett. 7aadsis j 

'a wedge. j 

w^edlock see 7e.'ed. 

Wednesday me. 7vednes-day um- 
lauted byform of oe. Wodnes-dcej^ \ 
= lg. 7vddnesdach, DU. 7voensdag'. ' 
prop. 'day of Woden': translation j 
of LAT. Mercurii dies. The Teut. ' 
god Woden (ohg. Wuotan, ON. ' 
Odinn) is identified w. Mercurius. \ 

^veed ^ sb. (plantname) me. zoed \ 

OE. 7veod -— OSAX. 7viod 'weed'. ; 

w^eed 2 sb. garment' me. wede \ 

OE. 7ved 7iKed (infl. -e) = ON. vdd, \ 

OSAX. wad, OHG. 7vat 'clothing, ^ 

garment': Teut. base 7vi-di- fr. ! 

an ARYAN Y~ wi to weave' in ^ 
SKR. vd 'to weave'. 

^veek sb. me. 7cieke 7vike oe. fcvV^ 

= OSAX. 7vika, ON. z^/>^«, OHG. .: 

7ciehha 7vohha G. 7V0che 'week'; cp. j 

GOTH. 7oikd 'order, succession'. 1 


ween — were 

Derived fr. -y^ U'lk in OE. wican 
'to give way' see under weak. 

ween vb. me. wene oe. wenan 
(prop, wdnati) 'to hope, expect' 
= GOTH. winJaTtj ON. vcena, ohg. 
wdn(n)aTi G. wahnen: derived fr. 
OE. wen (ween) sb. hope' ^ OHG. 
wan G. wahn, on. van, goth. 
wens: Teut. base went-. 

weep vb. prop, a str. vb. me. 
wepe (prt. wep) oe. wepan wcepan 
(prt. weop~) = GOTH, wbpjan wk. 
vb., OSAX. wopian, ohg. wuoffan 
MHG. wiiefen 'lament', on. dpa 
(orig. *vcepd) 'to cry', teut. -yT 

\veevil sb. me. wevel wivel oe. 
7vifel — - oSAX. tuibil, OHG. wihil, 
on. yfill: derived fr. the teut. 
\fweb in weave; cp. lixh. wa- 
balas 'weevil'. — From the same 
root also weft ME oe. weft =r= 
on. veptr. 

weight sb. me. weipit fr. on. 
vcBtt orig. *vcBht; cp. oe. wiht 
'weight' fr. OE. w'egan (see way). 

weird sb. 'fate' cp. me. wirde 
oE. wyrd 'fate' = on. urd, osAX. 
wurd 'fate'. Derived fr. teut. 
w'erpan = OE. we or dan, OS ax. 
werdan, OHG. werdan g. werden, 
ON. verda, goth. wairpan 'to be- 
come'. ARYAN yf^wert in L,AT. ver- 
tere to turn', SKR. ?7/ 'to turn'. 

•welkin sb. me. welkne welken; 
umlauted by form of me. wolkne 
oe. woken 'cloud' = osAX. ohg. 
wolkan, OSAX. wulka, ohg. wolka 
G. wolke 'cloud'. Perhaps cogn. 
w. OSI.OV. vlilgiiku 'humid' — 

vlaga 'humidity', lith. vilgyti 
'to moisten', arvan \~w9lg. 

w^ell adv. ME. OE. wel = du. 
we/, OSAX. we/, on. z>e/; cp. ohg. 
we/a wo/a G. woh/ (goth. loai/a). 
Origin doubtful, but connection 
w. wea/ and wi// certain. 

\vell sb. ME. we//e oe. we//e 
we//a (wy//e wy//a)\ Teut. base 
wa//jdn-'. umlaut-relation of oe. 
wea//an str. vb. boil, flow' = 
OSAX. ohg. wal/an str. vb. 'boil, 
flow'. ARYAN \fwe/ wa/ in oe. 
wy/m 'boiling, flowing' = skr. 
urrni 'flood', OHG. ui'e//a G. we//e 
'wave' = OSLOV. v/una, lith. 
vi/nis 'wave'. 

Welsh adj. me. we/sh oe. 
wylisc umlauted fr. a teut. 
wa/Jiis/ia-; derived fr. OE. Wea//i 
'foreigner', prop, 'a Celt' (cp. 
w a/nut). The corresponding 
adj. OHG. wa/fiisc — sb. IVa/ali 
means an inhabitant of a Ro- 
mance country, teut. Wa/ha- 
rests on the Celtic tribe name 

•wen sb. me. wen oe. wenti 'tu- 
mor' =^ DU. wen, LG. wene: Teut. 
base wanja- (perhaps cogn. w. 

w^ench sb. me. jcenc/ie older 
wenc/ie/ prop, 'infant'; ablaut-re- 
lation of oe. wince/ 'child . 

•wend vb. (only in the prt. went) 
fr. JiiE. 7iiende prt. wente oe. wendan 
prt. wende; orig. meaning 'to 
turn' = GOTH, wandjan, osAX. 
wendian, ohg. wenian G. wenden. 
Causal of wind. 

•were see was. 

west — wliey 


west sb. ME. OE. 7vest = on. 
7>estr, DU. G. west (fr. ouest of 
Teut. origin). 

wet adj. short for ME. 7Ci(/ OE. 
7C'c't W(£t = ON. Vdtr, OFRIES. 7vet\ 

Teut. base weta- fr. the same 
root as water. 

wether sb. me. wether oe. weder 
^=- GOTH, wiprus, ON. v'edr, OSAX. 
7vithar w'ethar, DU. weder wcer, 
OHG. widar G. widder. Cogn. w. 
i.AT. vituliis 'calf and skr. vatsa 

whale sb. :me. whal (pi. whales) 
OE. hw(el{\>\. hwdlas) = ON. hvalr, 
OHG. wal (g. walfisch, du. 7^/^:/- 
m^>^ = ON. hvalfiskr). Cogn. w. 
gr. nt'Affj^'monster'. Cp. walrus. 

what pron. me. ivhat OE. hwcet 
= OHG. hwa-t^ G. was, uu. w«/, 
OSAX. hwat; cp. the Teut. stem 
/i7£w- under who. 

wheat sb. me. wh(te oe. hwczte 
= GOTH, hwaiteis, on. hveiti, du. 
7£'^zV<', OHG. wcizzi G. weizen. Cogn. 
w. white = TEUT. hwita- (in me. 
we find 7^//^ 'wheat' by the side 
of whcte). 

•wheel sb. me. whel oe. hweol 
(w. the by form huieowol hweogol) 
= ON. ^V/ (for *hvjdl) — hv^l, du. 
7f'/>/ (OFRIES. fial): TEUT. base 
hweula- (for hivegwla-) and 
hw'ehwla-, aryan base qeqlo- in 
SRK. <r</-^rrt 'wheel', gr. xt'xAoc 
'wheel'. By the side of the re- 
duplicated word qe-ql-o- cp. 
OSLOV. kolo 'wheel'. 

wheeze vb. me. whese oe. hwesan 
(for *lrai(isan) 'to wheeze'; cogn. 
w. OE. hwpsta, ON. hosti, ohg. 

English Etymology. 

h{w)uosto g. husten, du. ^<?^j/ 
'coughing'. TEUT. V~ i^7<y^j = 
ARYAN yfkds in skr. kds , ir. 
casad, lith. koseti 'to cough . 

whelk sb. cp. ME. 7£///^ OE. 7fwAr 

7f'^^/t (older wiluc) 'whelk' = du. 
wulk welk wdlok. I dent. w. ofr. 

whelp sb. ME. whelp oe. hw'el/> 
'whelp, cub' = ON. hv'elpr, du. 
welp, ohg. hwelf welf. 

when conj. me. 7vhen OY..hw(enne 
fr. stem hwa- in who. 

^vhence adv. me. whenne-s prop. 
whanene oe. hwanone older 
kivanon = OHG. hwandn. 

where pron. -adv. me. whir{e) oe. 
hwdr (me. whore late oe. hwdr) 
= OSAX. OHG. hivdr mhg. 7£'ar g. 
7^'(?, du. waar: teut. base hwer 
(cp. GOTH, bar); derived fr. 
stem hwa- under who. 

^vhet vb. ]me. whette oe. hwettan 
'to sharpen' = on. hvetja, du. 
wetten, ohg. hwezzan g. wetzen 
to shaipen': Teut. ground-form 
hwatjan. Cogn. w. on. hvatr, 
OSAX. ^7£/(2'/, ohg. ^7£'a:; 'sharp' : 
TEUT. sfhwat. 

whether pron. me. whether oe. 
hwceder 'which of two' ^ GOTH. 
hapar ; corresponding by ab- 
laut to OHG. hwedar 'which of 
two'. GK. noTf(jog (SKR. katara) 
'which of two' is more closely 
allied to GOTH. oe. The word 
is orig. comparative to stem 
hwa- (hwe-) in who. 

whey sb. me. whey oe. h7e<cei 
= DU. LG. wei (byform mlg. 
huy hole du. hut). 



which — wide 

which pron. me. which oe. Mvylc 
(prehistoric form *hwilid) = 
GOTH, hileiks, OSAX. hwilik; 
cp. OHG. h^elih G. welch: Teut. 
base hwilika- ihwelika-) and for 
OHG. hwelih a base hivaltka-. 
Derived fr. stem hwa- hwe- under 

while sb. me. while oe. hwil 
infl. hwile = goth. heila, OHG. 
osAX. hwi/a, G. wcile, DU. wijl. 
ON. hvila 'bed (cp. OHG. hwil^n 
'to rest") points to connection w. 
LAT. quietus 'quiet' and OSLOV. 
pociti 'to rest'. Aryan yf qt. 

■whine vb. me. whine oe. hwinan 
str. vb. 'to make a shrill sound' 
= ON hvina 'to whiz'. 

whisky ident. vf. usque baugh. 

w^hisper vb. me. whispere oe. 
hwisprian 'to murmur' ; cp. ohg. 
hwispalbn G. wispeln. Sound-imi- 
tation ? or cogn. w. whistlel 

w^histle vb. me. whistle oe. 
hwistlian; perh. akin to whisper. 

whit ident. w. wight. 

white adj. (short in Whit- 
sunday lit. 'white Sunday') me. 
whit OE. hwit = GOTH, heits, 
ON. hvitr , OHG. hw'i'i^ G. weiss: 
Teut. base hwita-, cogn. w. skr. 
(I'eta 'white' — \f (vit 'to shine'. 
ARYAN sf kwid kwit. See also 
wheat and whittle. 

whither pron. me. whider oe. 
hwider; cp. GOTH, hadre whither'; 
derived fr. the stem hwa- hw'e- 
in who. 

W^hittle sb. short for ME. whltel 
OE. hwitel 'blanket ; derived fr. 

who pron. ME. who prop, who 
OE. hwa = GOTH. h.'a-s; cp. 
OHG. hw'e-r G. wen stem hwa- 
hwe-, also in what and how and 
in which, ivhither, whether. 
AkYAN base qo- in LAT. quo-d, 
SKR. ka-s 'who', Lrrn. ka-s 'who'. 

whole adj. me. hoi oe. hdl 
(hence the abstract fonijation 
health) = goth. hails, on. heill 
(see hail), ohg. g. heil, OSAX. 
hel, DU. heel: Teut. base haila- 
(whence derived hailaga- -^- 
holy). Ident. w. osr.ov. delii 

complete, whole' (ground-form 
kailo-) ; cp. OPRUSS. kaibistikafi 

whore sb. me. oe. hgre 'pro- 
stitute' = ON. hora, OHG. huora 
'adulteress'; cp. goth. hors 
'adulterer', aryan sf kar 'to 
love' in oir. cara 'friend' — - 
caraim I love (Gallo-LAT. carisa 
'prostitute') and LAT. carus 'dear . 

why pron. me. whi oe. hwi = 
ON. hvi: instrum. of the stem hwa- 
in what. 

w^ick sb. short for me. weke 
OE. weoce = ohg. wiohha, LG. weke, 
DU. wiek: Teut. base weukon, 
perhaps reduplicated for we- 
wk-on, as made probable by the 
equiv. OE. 7vecca = G. (dial.) 
wicke\ cogn. w. mhg. G. wickel? 

wicked adj. extended for me. 

wicket sb. ME. wik^t fr. onfr. 
7aiket (fr. guichet), whence also 
ODU. Jiiiket (du. winket). 

w^ide adj. me. oe. wid = on. 
vidr, OSAX. wid, DU. wijd, ohg. 



7vii G. 7iieit: TEUT. ivida-, perhaps 
participle of a lost verbal v^ wi. 

widow sb. ME. widwe OE. wideu<e 
{wuduwe) = GOTH, widuwp, ohg. 
witmoa G. witwc, OSAX. widowa, 
DU. weduwe. Ident. w. the equiv. 
SKR. vidhavd, lat. vidua, OSLOV. 
vidova, oiR. fedb: aryan base 

wield vb. ME. welde oe. leweldan 
ij/wyldan) wk. vb. fr. a TEUT. 
*gatvaldjan. Derived fr. the str. 
vb. OE. wdldan weal dan =^ GOTH. 
OSAX. waldan, ohg. waltan (g. 
walten) 'to govern'. Aryan \f 
wal in lat. valere 'to be strong'; 
op. also OSLOV. vlasti, lith. 
valdyti 'to govern'. 

wife sb. ME. OE. wif = on. 

Vif, OSAX. Wlf, DU. wijf, ohg. 

Wii!^ G. weib: Teut. base wiba-. 
No equiv. connections outside 
of TEUT. (an older word for 'wife' 
see under queen). — woman 
ME. wumnian prop, immman fpl. 
whinne?!) oe. wif-tnann (pi. wif- 
menn) lit. 'a wife-man'. 

wight sb. JVIE. 7miht oe. 7mht 
'thing, creature, being' = ohg. 
OSAX. 7mhi thing, being' (g. du. 
7uicht)\ cp. GOTH, waihts 'thing' 
and ON. vdtlr being, thing'. Teut. 
base 7mhti- for 7vehti- ident. w. 
OSLOV. vesti 'thing': aryan base 

■wild adj. ME. OE. 7iinlde fr. a 
TEUT. 7i>ilpja- (piop. 7velpja-) = 
GOTH. 7vilpeis, ON. villr , OS AX. 
OHG. 7vildi G. DU. 7vild. Probably 
connected w. 7vold oe. weald = 
= OHG. G. 7ciald 'wood', as FR. 

sauva^e = lat. silvaticus fr. lat. 
silva 'wood'. — wilderness (cp. 
DU. G. 7vildernis) extension of 
ME. 7vilderne 'a desert'. 

wile sb. ME. (fr. 12'^ cent.) 7vile 
fr. OFR. 7uile (guile) \ ident. w. 

w^ill vb. ME. 7mlle (prt. 7vdlde) 
OE. willan (prt. 7volde) = goth. 
wiljan, ON. vilja, oSAX. 7villian, 
DU. willen: Teut. base 7viljan 
(prop. 7veljan) ; ident. w. osax. 
7vellian, ohg. 7vellan (g. wollen) 
fr. a TEUT. waljan. aryan \f 
7veluolin lat. vel-le, oslov. voliti, 
LITH. velyti. All equivalent. 
Perhaps cogn. w. 7f'^//and weal\ 
also GOTH. 7valjan 'to choose' 
= OHG. 7vellan G. wdhlen, ohg. 
wala G. 7vahl 'choosing', skr. 
\fvar vr 'choose'. Cp. the 
following word. 

w^ill sb. ME. 7tnlle OE. 7i<illa = 

OSAX. OHG. willio, DU. Wil, G. 
7ville, GOTH. 7nlja, ON. vili: Teut. 
base 7viljan- for 7&eljan-, derived 
fr. \f7vel in will vb. ; cp. osLOV. 
volja sb. 'will'. 

willow sb. ME. 7vilwe oe. 7vylig 
(infl. *7vilgef); ident. w. du. wilg 
ODU. LG. 7mlge OSAX. wilgia, 
MHG. 7vilge. 

wimple sb. me. oe. winipel oe. 
7vinpel 'neck covering' =^ DU. G. 
7m7npel OHG. 7vimpal. Source and 
history unknown (ofr. guimple 
FR. guimpe are of TEUT. origin ; 
see gimp). 

win vb. ME. 7vinnc OE. 7vinnan 
str. vb. = GOTH. 7m f man 'to 
suffer', OHG. OSAX. winnan 'to 



struggle' (g. gewinnen, DU. winneri), 
ON. vinmi'. Teut. v&xhdX \f w'enn, 
cogn. w. SKR. zmn 'obtain, ac- 

wind sb. me. oe. wind ^= osax. 
DU. wind, OHG. wint o. wind, ON. 
vindr, goth. winds: Teut. base 
winda- prop, wendo- = aryan 
base wento- in lat. ventus, skr. 
vdta 'wind'. Derived fr. the 
ARYAN v^ wi in OE. wciwan ^ 
GOTH, waian, DU. waaien, ohg. 
wden g. welun to blow'; cp. lith. 
vijas 'wind', oslov. vHrU 'wind' 
— vejati 'to blow', skr. \^va 'to 
blow', gr. djJTfjc 'wind'. Cp. 

wind vb. me. windc oe. wtndan 
str. vb. = GOTH. osax. windan, 
ON. vinda, ORG. wintan G. DU. 
winden : teut. sfwend wand. — 
windlass sb. (machine forraising 
heavy weights) transformed fr. 
Me. windas : loanword fr. ON. 
vind-dss prop, 'a winding pole'. 

w^indow sb. me. windpwe bor- 
rowed fr. ON. vind-auga 'window', 
lit. 'wind-eye'. See wind sb. and 
eye (on. auga). 

wine sb. me. oe. win ^= goth. 
W€in, ON. vin, osax. ohg. win 
G. wein DU. wijn : Teut. base 
wina-, early loanword fr. lat. 
vinum (cp. i>ine and vintage), 
whence also ITAL. vino — fr. 
vin and OIR. fin, oSLOV. vino. 

wing sb. me. ivinge short for 
older wenge: loanword fr. ON. 

wink vb. ME. winke oe. ivincian 
wk. vb. 'blink, wink' ; ohg. winkan 

str. vb. (g. winken) 'to give a 
sign' =^ ME. winke str. vb. 'wink'. 

w^innow^ vb. me. windwe oe. 
windwian ; ident. w. OHG. winton 
(for '^winhvoii) 'to winnow'; cp. 
GOTH, winpi-skauro 'a winnowing 
fan*, LAT. ventilare 'to winnow'. 
All cogn. w. wind sb. 

■winsome adj. me. win-som oe. 
wynn-sum = ohg. wunni-sam (g. 
wonne-sam) : derived fr. oe. wymi 
= osax. ohg. wunnia (cp. g. 
wonne) jo)' • 

w^inter sb. me. oe. whiter = 
GOTH, wintnis, osax. ohg. wintar 
DU. 0. winter, ON. veitr: Teut. 
base winir-. Perhaps cogn. w. 
celt, vindo- 'white in oiR. find 
'white' ? 

wipe vb. ME. wipe oe. wipian; 
cp. LG. W2p sb. 'wisp of straw' 
and goth. vipja 'garland' — 
weipan 'wreathe', teut. y" wip. 

wire sb. me. oe. wir = on. 
z>irr, LG. fries. wir\ cogn. w. 
ohg. wiara 'wire and lat. viriae 
'armlets of metal', which ac- 
cording to Plinius' Hist. Nat. 1 5 
is a Celtic word. 

wise adj. ME. oe. wis = on. 
viss, goth. weis, osax. ohg. wis 
(ohg. tvisi G. weisc), DU. wijs. 
Teut. base wisa- (for wit-to-), 
derived fr. the ARYAN ^f wid in 
GR. o?t)«, skr veda = goth. ivait, 
oe. wdt, ohg. wei"^ G. weiss. See 

wise sb. me. oe. wise = osax. 
OHG. wisa G. weise, DU. wijs: 
Teut. base wiso-n- (fr. guise ital. 
guisa of Teut. origin). Probably 

wish — wolf 


connected w. the Aryan \fwid 
'to know' under wise — wit. 
w^ish vb. ME. 7visshe short for 
OE. ivysiean fr. a Teut. base 
li'unskjan =r OHG. wunsc{i)an G. 
wiifisc/iefi, nu. ivinschen, on. ccskja 
'to wish'; cp. SKR. vouch 'to wish': 

ARYAN \Pw3nsk1 

wisp sb. ME. wisp (not found 
in OE.); perh. ident. w. ON. risk, 
OHG. wise G. wisch 'wisp of straw' ? 

w^it vb. ME. wite OE. 7C'/A/« 'to 
know' = GOTH. o.SAX. witan, on 
vita, DU. witen, ohg. witpL^an G. 
wissen. The I*' and 3*^ p. sing. were 

ME. ?£'(//■ OE. 7fw/ =^ GOTH. ZC/fl//, 
ON. ?/<?//, OSAX. wet, OHG. fm^ G. 

weiss, corresponding to skr. v^da 
'I know, he knows', gr. o'Ja o'Jf. 
See also witness. 

wit sb, ME. 7C'// (/"/j OE. {\e)7uitt 
'intellect, understanding' =r OSAX. 
giivit, OHG. wizzi (g. w/V^) 'under- 
standing', ON. vit 'intellect': de- 
rived fr. wit vb. 

witch sb. ME. wicche oe. wicdea 
'wizard' — wicce witch' ; ident. 
w. FRIES. LG. wicke 'witch' lg. 
wicker 'wizard' (lg. ivicken vb. 'to 
predict' = oe. widcian 'use witch- 
craft) and probably cogn. w. oe. 
wt^lian 'practise divination' — 
wii^Ure 'diviner' = ODU. wijche- 
lare, DU. MLG. wichelen 'practise 
divination', teut. \f wikk ung. 

witch-elm sb. me. wicche short 
for oe. wice 'elm' fr. a Teut. 
base wikjon-. 

with prep. me. with oe. wid 
prep, 'against' short for wider 
(in compounds like oe. widersaca 

widerfiita 'adversary') =^ on. vid 
vidr, OSAX. with wider, ohg. widar 
G. wider, GOTH, wi/ra. 

wither vb. me. widre vb. fr. 
weather (me. wcder). 

withy sb. me. withi oe. widij^ 

willow ; cogn. w. OHG. wida G. 
weide, ON.- vidja and gr. 'iviu, 
LiTH. zil-vitis, POL. witwa, pruss. 
witwo 'a willow'. Aryan yfwi in 
LAT. vi-tis VI men and OSLOV. 
viti — LITH. vyti 'to twiije, plait'. 

witness sb. iiE. witnessc oe. 
witness (infl. -e) 'testimony'; as 
GOTH, tveitwods and on. ziitni'yiit- 
ness', derived fr. the teut. y^ it'it 
'to^ know'; see wit vb. 

wizard sb. me. wisard trans- 
formed (under the influence of 
me. wis = wise) fr. *wischard: 
loanword fr. ofr. wischard (guis- 
chard) 'prudent, cunning'. 

woad sb. me. wod oe. wad = 
DU. weede , ohg. weit g. waid: 
Teut. base waida- , pre-Teut. 
waita- ; cp. lat. vitrum 'woad'. 

woe interj. me. wo oe. ivd in- 
terj. = GOTH, wai, on. vci, ohg. 
OSAX. w^ G. weh DU. a'^r. Ident. 
w. lat. vae interj. woe': ground- 
form ARYAN wau 

•wold sb. ME. wold oe. wdld 
{weald in ^ Weald of Kent') fr. 
a Teut. base walf>u- ; cp. osAX. 
OHG. G. wald wood*, DU. jvoad 
'wood', ON. vpllr plain, field : 
pre-TEUT. waltu-s, cogn. w. skr. 
vafa (for *vdltaf} 'garden'? See 

wolf sb. me. wolf (pi. wolves) 
OE. wul/ (pi. wulfas) =i GOTH. 


7cmlfs, ox. lilfr (for *vulfr) , OSAX. 
wulf; cp. OHG. G. wolf: Teut. 
base wulf a- wolfa-, ARYAN base 
wjlqo- in SKR. tv/^a, OR. Avxoc, 

LAT. lupus, LITH. vilkas , OSLOV. 

vliikti. All equivalent. 

woman see wife. 

womh sb. ME. wgmhe. oE. wdmb 
(wmnh) 'stomach' = GOTH. OHG. 
wamba, on. ■<<pml>, DU. zcrtw 'belly, 
stomach' : Teut. base wambo-. 

wonder sb. me. wonder oe. 
wundor = osAX. wundar^ OHG. 
wuntar G. w under , on. undr: 
Teut. base wundra-. 

wont adj. for me. waned -p- par- 
ticiple of ME. 7vone OE. wunian 
'to be used to'; cp. OE. letvuna 
'custom, use' and on. vanr, ohg. 
giwo7i G. gewohnt 'accustomed. 
See wean. 

•woo vb. ME. wpwc OE. wpgian 
'to woo' ; no further relations 
known, teut. \fwdg. 

■wood sb. ME. wode oe. wudu 
oxV^.widu =roN. vidr 'tree, wood', 
OHG. 7f'?V// 'wood' (also in ohg. 
7vitu-hopfa G. wide-hopf): Teut. 
base widu-, pre-Teut. base rvidAu- 
in CELT. 7ddu- (gall. Vidti-Casses)', 
cp. OIR. fid 'tree'. 

wool sb. ME. ic'olle OE. wull infl. 
wulle = GOTH, wulla, on. //// 
(for ''vulf) ; cp. OHG. aW/rt G. 
wolle: Teut. base wullo wollo, 
ARYAN base 7U?lna in skr. urija, 
OSLOV. zdilna, lith. vilna 'wool'; 
cogn. w. LAT. villus vellus 'fleece' 
and SKR. \f vr (var) to cover'. 

word sb. ME. OE. word = GOTH. 

waiird, on. ord (for *vord), OSAX. 

word, DU. woord, ohg. g. wort: 
Teut. base worda-, pre-Teut. 
base w3rdho- in lat. verbum, 
OPRUSS. wirds 'word', lith. vardns 
'name'. Aryan \f 7ver {wre) in 
GR. £iQHv\o say' — Qijua 'word'? 

work sb. ME. werk oe. weorc 
^= OSAX. OHG. werk g. du. werk, 
ON. verk ; Teut. base werka-, 
ARYAN base w'ergo- in gr. soyov. 
ARYAN \f w'erg in gr. (tlCf-tv 'to 
do' — ooyavov 'instrument', skr. 
vrjana labor' ; cp. GOtYL.waiirkjan, 
OHG. wurkan = OE. wyrcean vb. 
'to work'. See 7vright. 

world sb. ME. world werld oe. 
worold weorold = osAX. iv'erold, 
DU. were Id, ohg. weralt {ivorolt) 
G. welt, ON. v'ergld. First element 
of the compound (wer-ald-) is 
teut. wera- man' in GOTH, wair, 
OSAX. OHG. OE. wer, ON. verr 
(ARYAN base 7viro- in lat. znr, 
SKR. inra, lith. vjras 'man'). 
2""^ part of the compound is 
TEUT. aldi- in goth. aids world', 
OE. yld (eld) 'period, age*. 

worm sb. ME. worm for wiirtn 
prop, wirni OE. wyrtn fr. a Teut. 
base 7vurmi- in osAX. ohg. g. 
7(iu fu, GOTH, tvaurms', ident. w. 
LAT. vermis 'worm'; cp. ON. ormr 
(for *7Vormaz) and GR. Qouog 
(for J^Qonog). 

w^ormw^ood sb. transformed fr. 
OE. wcrmpd {wor7nod) = ohg. 
wermuota {worinuota). Formation 
and origin unknown. 

worse compar. adj. me. worse 
7vurse older ivirse oe. wyrsa = 
O.SAX. wirso fr. a Teut. base 

worship — wrinkle 


wtrstzan- m goth. wairstza = 
OHG. wirsiro. — worst superl. 
ME. worstc wurste orig. wirste 
OE. wyrsta fr. a teut. superl. 
7mrststan- in goth. wairsisia, 
OSAX. OHG. 7i'irsisto. 

\vorship sb. me. worschip older 
7Viirpschipc oe. weordsdipc. derived 
fr. worth. 

\vort' sb. (a plant) me. wort 
wurt older wirt oe. wyrt fr. a 
Teut. base wurti- in goth. zvaiirts, 
ox. ?/r/, oSAX. wurt, ohg. g. z£/?/rs: 
'plant, herb': ARYAN yfwyrd in 
LAT. radix (for *Z'rddic-) see 
under r<?<7/. 

wort^ sb. (a kind of drink) 
ME. 7e'ort wurt for wirt oe. Wj^/'i 
for *wirt = on. y'/z/r, mhg. 7£'/r2 
wort': TEUT. ground-form wirtiz 
(pre-TEUT. base w'erdes- wentos). 

■worth adj. me. worth wurth 
OE. wyrde: umlauted byform of 
oe. weorp = GOTH. wairpSy 
OSAX. werth, on. verdr, ohg. 
w'erd (g. wer() : ident. w. lith. 
vertas, opruss. werts 'worthy'. 

w^ound sb. ME. wounde oe. 
unind'xvA. wtinde ^= OS AX. wunda, 
ohg. wunta g. wunde, on. //«^/ 
(for *vund) '. Teut. base wundo-. 
Cogn. w. the adj. Goth, wunds 
= OE. wiind, OSAX. wund, ohg. 
wunt G. wund. teut. \^ivun, 
ARYAN \fw9n in goth. winnan 
'to suffer, feel pain' (see win)} 

wrath sb. me. wraththe short 
for OE, wrcBppu (Teut. base 
wraipipo)'. umlaut-abstract ofoE. 
wrap adj. = tvroth. 

\vreak vb. me. wr(ke oe. wr'ecan 

str. vb. = goth. wrikan ('to 
persecute), osax. wrekan, du. 
%i>reken, ohg. rehhan (for *wreh- 
hati) G. riichen 'to revenge'. 
ARYAN yfwreg iirg in LAT. urgere 

to urge', SKR. ?'r/ 'to remove'. 

w^reath sb. me. wrethe oe. 
wrceP', cogn. w. writhe. 

v/ren sb. me. wrenne oe. wrenna', 
ident. w. oSAX. wrendio and pro- 
bably w. OHG. OSAX. (7v)renno 'a 
stallion' (medieval lat. warannio'). 

wrench sb. me. wrench 'deceit' 
oe. jcrenc 'deceit, trick' fr. a 
Teut. base ivranki- (also in 
MHG. rank 'trick' G. rdnke plur.). 
The modern e. meaning 'twist, 
sprain' seems to be older than 
the metaphorical sense in me. 
OE. and g. See also 7i<rong. 

wretch sb. me. wrecche oe. 
7vreidea 'outlaw, exile' = ohg. 
oSKyi.wrekkio (g. recke 'warrior); 
derivedfr. \fwrek in goth. wrikan 
"persecute' (see 7vreafi). 

w^right sb. ME. wrighte oe. 
wyrhta = oSAX. wurhtio, ohg. 
jourhto (mhg. -wiirhte) 'worker' ; 
derived fr. teut. 7vurht7vjan-\ cp. 
goth. waurstwja 'worker' by the 
side of waiirstw 'work'. For the 
root see 7vork. 

wring vb. ME. wringe oe. 7vrin- 
gan str. vb. 'to press out' =^ 
DU. lg. 7vringen, ohg. ringan, (for 
*7iiringan) to press out' (g. ringeti), 

Avrinkle sb. me. wrinkel oe. 
wrinkle = ODU. wrinckel; cogn. 
w. MHG. riinke and ohg. runza 
(for *7vrunka — *7vrunkza). 

w^rist sb. ME. 7vrist oe. 7vyrst 


write — ye 

= MHG. G. rist{ior* wrist), on. risi 
SWED. eWj'/'instep, wrist'; perhaps 
cogn. w. G. reihen mhg. rllie wrist' ? 

write vb. ME. write oe. writan 
str. vb. = OSAX. wrttan, ON. 
rita 'to write'. Orig. sense to 
engrave, scratch, tear, split in 
OSAX. writafi = OHG. rr^yxn 
(for ^ZDTii^yiti) G. reissen. Cp. 
GOTH, writs a stroke of a pen'. 
TEUT. \fwrit. 

^vrithe vb. me. writhe oe. wi idan 
str. vb. 'to twist' = OHG. ridan, 
ON. rida str. vb. 'to wind, twist'. 
Cogn. w. wroth. 

wrong adj. me. wrgng (wrang) 
late OE. (i I ' cent.) 7vrang bor- 
rowed fr. ON. rangr (older 
*vrangr) 'wrong, unjust' prop, 
'awry, perverse'. Probably fr. 
the same root as wrench (teut. 
yfwrank wraiig\ 
i ^vroth adj. short for me. wroth 
! OE. wrap (see also wrath) = 
j OSAX. wreth, on. vreidr reidr, 
\ ODU. wreed 'wroth ; orig. sense 
' in OHG. reid (for *wreid) 'curled'. 
\^wrtp to twist in wreath and 
I wry fr. me. wrie s\i.\o twist'. 

yacht sb. fr. DU. jacht prop. 
jachtschip; du. jacht corresponds 
to G. jiigd 'hunting (ohg. jagon 
G jagen to chase). 

yard^ sb. me. jZ/v/ prop. K'rd oe. 
leard fence, enclosure' = on. 
gardr: Teut. base^rtTf/a- = ARYAN 
h3.?.e:ghorto- in lat. hortus (oR./op- 
rOk,') 'garden'. Allied to garden. 

yard- sb. (a measure) me. 
yerde oe. "^erd [jjrd) 'rod, rood' 
= OHG. gerta c. gerte 'a rod, 
switch'; cp. GOTH, gazds a stick, 
goad' -= ON. gaddr 'goad' and 
lat. hasta 'a spear' (common 
base ghazdha-). 

yarn sb. me. lern prop. K'ni OE. 
■^earn = on. ohg. g. garn (du. 
gareti) ; perhaps cogn. w. on. go n 
'guts' and lith. zarna 'entrail'? 

yarrow^ sb. me. yirwe oe. 'yearwe 

= OHG. garwa G. gar be, DU. 
ger7a 'millefolium'. 

ya^vl vb. me. loule by the 
side of goule vb. (change of j 
and ^ unexplained) ; source on. 
gaula (gpula) 'to bellow'. 

ya'wn vb. me. gdne gone oe. 
gdnian (the phonology of the 
ME. word is dark) — OHG. geinon 
(g. gdhmn) ; derived fr. oe. tp- 
pfian str. vb. to yawn' --= ON. 
gina] cogn. w. ohg. gien giwen 
'to yawn': Aryan yTghi in lat. 
hiare, OSLOV. zijati, lith. zioii 
to yawn . 

ye pron. me. 5^' oe. ^e fr. a 
prehistoric jiz = DU. gij, osax. 
gi, OHG. ir (for *jir) G. ihr; 
oldest TEUT. form juz in goth. 
jtis ye . Ident. w. skr. yuy-atn 
'ye': aryan stem iw —yu. 

year — yolk 


yea adv. me. j^ oe. ^ed (for 
*^d) = OSAX. OHG. j'd G.ja yes*; 
oldest form GOTH, ja 'yes'. — 
yes ME. yes oe. -^ese for *'^ed- 
swd prop, 'yea so' (cp. ME. iiese 
fiir ne-swa). 

yean older can vb. me. ^ne 
OE. {anian (ie-§anian) 'to yean': 
derived fr. a teut. auna- (for 
agwna-) 'lamb' = lat. agnus, 
OIR. //<?«: ARYAN base aghno-. 

year vb. me. ler oe. j^'r (5^^^ 
for *j^i/') ^= OHG. y^/' G. jahr, 
DU. ya^r, ON, <^/r, Gom.jer: Teut. 
base/ie'ra-; cogn. w. theablauted 
GR. iofjoq 'year' — w(?a 'season' 
and w. AVEST. ydre 'year'. 

yearn vb. 'desire' me. yerne fr. 
ME. yern oe. leorn 'desirous' 
(whence also the umlauted OE. 
jj/rnan 'desire') = goth. gairns, 
OSAX. OHG. gi-rn 'desirous': teut. 
\fger in OHG. geron G. begehren 
— ORG. g'er 'desirous' — giri (g. 
gier) sb. 'desire', aryan \^gher 
in SKR. hary vb. 'desire'. 

yell vb. ME. lelle oe. lellan 
(lillan) = OHG. gellan G. gellen, 
DU. gillen, ON. gjalla 'to resound'. 
Cp. Stan ye 11. 

yellow adj. me. lelwe oe. leolo 
(infl. leolw-) fr. a Teut. base 
g'elwa- in osAX. ohg. gelo g. ^^/<^, 
DU. ^^^/: ARYAN base ghehvo- in 
LAT. hclvus 'light yellow". Aryan 
sfghel also in on. ^«/r 'yellow", 
GR. yhoQric, 'green', OSLOV. zelenil 
'yellow'; from the same root 
also gold (and glowY). — 
yellow-hammer (a bird's name) 

rests on the equiv. oe. amore = 
OHG. ainero G. ammer. 

yelp vb. ME. lelpe oe. %clpan 
(lilpan) str. vb. 'to boast' = on. 
gjalpa, OHG. g'elpfan. 

yes see yea. 

yesterday adv. me. lesterday 
OE. j^eostrandie^ {yystranda]^ prop, 
only geostra(n) = ohg. g'estaron 
G. gestern, du. gisteren (gister- 
avond)\ cp. goth. gistra-dagis 
with the sense of 'tomorrow'. 
Teut. base gestra-, cogn. w. on. 
i-g(kr and lat. heri\ gr. X'^^^ 
and SKR. hyas 'yesterday' point 
to an ARYAN base ghyes 'yester- 

yet adv. me. "^et short for OE. 
lit (lyt, pt); ident. w. ofries. 
ieta eta 'yet'. 

y&w vb. ME. ew OE. eou' Iw 
:= OHG. iwa G. eibe, on. j5r: Teut. 
base iwa-, ident. w. oe. eoh 'yew' 
— ORG. tha yew', fr. i/" (whence 
borrowed DU. ijf) is of Teut- 
origin. Cp. also cYiMR. yw 'yew'. 

yield vb. me. lelde oe. leldan 
{pldan) str. vb. 'to pay' = GOTH. 
gildan, on. gjalda , ohg. g'eltan 
str. vb. 'to pay': teut. \^geld. 

yoke sb. me. jt*-^ (pi. ipkes) oe. 
j^<?V (pi. leocu) = GOTH. y«;^, 
ON. ok (for *y<?^), DU. y«-^, OHG. 
Joh G. yi?^^: Teut. base joka-, 
ARYAN base jilgo- in lat. jugum 
GR. I,vy6v, SKR.^«^«'yoke'. aryan 
sTJug in GR. Qevyrvui, LAT. 
Ju/igere, SKR. j//:/ 'to yoke'. 

yolk sb. me. ^o/ke delke) oe. 
leoleca for TEUT. gel{w)ukan-\ 




derived fr. teut. gelwa- ■=! yel- 

yon pron. me. yin j^on OE. lean 
(see beyond); cogn. w, goth. 
jains, OHG. jenir G. jetier. 

yore adv. me. ipre oe. ledra 
(pron. jard) prop, of years' gen. 
plur. of OE. "^edr = year. 

yow pron. me. iou> ace. dat. 
of If (= ye), OE. fow ace. dat. 
of If {= ye)] ident. w. ohg. 
OSAX. eu OHG. iu: ARY.AN basc 
iw under ye. 

young adj. me. ^ong ymg OE. 
leong (prop, jung) = GOTH. Juggs, 
osAX. OHG. o.jung, T>U.Jong, ON. 
ungr (for *jungr): teut. Junga-, 
contracted fr. juwungo- = LAT. 
juvenais, skr. yuvafa 'young: 
ARYAN base ju7ii?nko- (ablauted 
byform in cymr. ieuanc 'young'). 
Cogn. \v. i^xT.juvenis, sviR. yirc'an, 
o?>hOv.junu, lATn.jdunas young'. 

— youth sb. me. ymthe older 
yuTivede for pigede oe. jugod (jj^o- 
god) = OSAX. jugud fr. a base 
j'ugunp- in onG. jugund G. jugemi: 
TEUT. jugunp' probably for ju- 
wunp- cp. LAT. jtwen-t-a (and 
GOTH, jundj contracted for */'«- 
wunda) ; derived fr. ARYAiijuu'en- 
in LAT. jtwenis, skr. ytci'an etc. 
yule sb. me. ipl fr. on. j6l\ 
ident. w. OE. ^eol (contracted 
fr. leohol) 'Christmas'. Cogn. w. 
GOTH, jitdeis 'november' = ON. 
ylir (oE. GiuU in Beda). Teut. 
base jeula- (in ON. jot) smA jiul- 
ja- (in GOTH, jiu/eis) : OE. yohhol 
'Christmas' points to teut. je/iw- 
la- (by the side of jeula- for 
j'egwla-)\ probably related to 
ON. il 'snow-storm' (teut. base 
jehTC'ld). Hence Yule 'the time 
of snow-storms' and goth. jiuleis 
'the month of snow-storms'. 


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